Tebeauville, Old No. Nine

Previously:

Tebeauville, Old No. Nine

Prior to the Civil War General Levi J. Knight, of present day Ray City, GA, invested in the development of railroads across Wiregrass Georgia.  Two of Knight’s investments were in the Brunswick & Florida Railroad, and the Atlantic & Gulf Railroad, the junction of which was at Tebeauville, GA.   When the Civil War commenced, Knight’s railroads were still being constructed, largely with the labor of enslaved African-Americans. During early part of the war, Knight’s company of Berrien Minute Men was transported on these railroads to their posts at the coastal defenses of Georgia.

Depot at Tebeauville

Depot at  station No. Nine, Tebeauville, GA (now Waycross, GA) was the junction point of the Brunswick & Florida Railroad with the Savannah, Albany & Gulf Railroad and the Atlantic & Gulf Railroad.

Although the Brunswick & Florida Railroad had been chartered in 1837, construction did not commence until 1856.  The track was started at Brunswick, GA but by 1857, only 36 miles of rail had been completed.  If completed, the B&F could move men and materials from ports on the Gulf of Mexico to the Brunswick port on the Atlantic in 24 hours “in case of war between this country and a foreign nation.”  And there were plan that the B&F would make connections to bring passenger and freight traffic to Brunswick from as far west as Vicksburg, MS.

The shortline Brunswick & Florida Railroad would run from Brunswick to the Savannah, Albany & Gulf Railroad station number nine, which was also to be a junction with the Atlantic & Gulf Railroad.  The Atlantic & Gulf was intended to serve the two coastal railroads as a “Main Trunk” stretching across south Georgia.  At Bainbridge, GA  it was planned to serve the steamboat docks on the Flint River creating a passenger and freight connection to the Gulf of Mexico.

The junction point of the B&F, A&G and the S,A&G, was ninth station to be constructed on the line from Savannah and was situated just south of the Satilla River. The eponymous community which sprang up there was No. Nine.  Blackshear, GA. was No. Eight and Glenmore, GA was No. 10.

Philip Coleman Pendleton, agent for the Lowndes County Immigration Society

Philip Coleman Pendleton, agent for the Lowndes County Immigration Society

In 1857, Philip Coleman Pendleton had settled his family at No. Nine before the tracks of the S, A & G  or the B & F even reached the station. At Tebeauville, Pendleton engaged in farming and timber. He also served as postmaster and stated the first Sunday school in Ware county.   (Pendleton had come from Sandersville, GA where he was co-owner of the Central Georgian newspaper, with O. C. Pope, Sr. )

At that time [1857] a Savannah company headed by James Screven, father of the late John Screven, was building a railroad from Savannah to Thomasville. The western terminus [of the Savannah, Albany and Gulf Railroad] was then at a point some twelve or fifteen miles east of Blackshear…The laying of the iron reached Mr. Pendleton’s place about a year later…  The old stage road between Thomasville and Brunswick passed here, with a fork running to Burnt Fort, on the Satilla River. There was a post-office at this place called “Yankee Town.” It was so designated because northern people operated the stage coaches and they owned at this place a relay stable; but it passed away with the coming of the railroad, and Screven named the station ‘Pendleton’. The man thus honored took the first train to Savannah and caused the name to be changed to Tebeauville, after his father-in-law, Captain F. E. Tebeau, a member of one of the old Savannah families. Perhaps a year or so later a civil engineer came along surveying the route for the [Brunswick & Florida Railroad]. When he arrived at Tebeauville he made a side proposition to Mr. Pendleton to run the prospective city off in lots and to give him each alternate lot. Mr. Pendleton did not think that the man was authorized thus to approach him, and suggested that he tell the president of the road to see him in regard to the matter. Miffed at this rebuke, the engineer went back three or four miles pulling up the stakes as he went, and made a curve to miss Mr. Pendleton’s land. If one will stand at the crossing near Tebeau Creek, in the heart of Waycross, and look towards Brunswick, he can see the curve in the road [railroad tracks], caused by this effort of the engineer to make something on the side. – Georgia’s Men of Mark

The tracks of the Savannah, Albany and Gulf reached station No. Nine on July 4, 1859.

By 1859,  60 miles of B & F track had been laid stretching from Brunswick north around the headwaters of East River then westward toward Tebeauville. The B&F junction at station No. Nine completed a rail connection between Brunswick and Savannah, and connected Brunswick with the the “Main Trunk” Atlantic and Gulf Railroad.

 

Civil War era map of the Brunswick & Florida Railroad, running from Yankee Town (now Waycross), GA to Brunswick, GA - Atlas to Accompany the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies.

Civil War era map of the Brunswick & Florida Railroad, running from Yankee Town, the post office at Tebeauville (now Waycross), GA, to Brunswick, GA – Atlas to Accompany the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies.

Construction of the A & G  was progressing westward from Tebeauville toward Lowndes County, GA.  The steel rails were imported from Le Havre, France.  There were 1200 slaves at work building the Atlantic & Gulf, making the railroad perhaps the largest single concentration of enslaved people in Georgia. In 1859,  75 percent of railroads in the south used slave labor and one-third of all southern lines worked 100 or more slaves.

African Americans maintaining a southern railroad. In 1859, 1200 African American slaves labored to build the Atlantic & Gulf Railroad across Wiregrass Georgia, laying a little over a mile of track every week. The first train reached Valdosta, GA on July 30, 1860. Image: https://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cwpb.02135/

African Americans maintaining a southern railroad.
In 1859, 1200 African American slaves labored to build the Atlantic & Gulf Railroad across Wiregrass Georgia, laying a little over a mile of track every week. The jubilee train reached Valdosta, GA on July 31,1860. Image: https://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cwpb.02135/

The southern railroads were dependent on enslaved black laborers for construction and maintenance, and sometimes operations. Slaves were either owned outright by the railroads or leased from their owners. “Sometimes owners were actually reluctant to hire out their enslaved laborers because of the extreme danger associated with rail construction and train operations; if they did so, they often would take out insurance on their [human] property from working on the riskiest tasks. Of course, those contractual provisions were not always obeyed, leading contractors and slave owners to the courtroom.” – From Here to Equality.

About 20 miles west of Tebeauville, railroad superintendent Gaspar J. Fulton made a side investment in real estate. Fulton purchased land along the tracks from John Smith, of Clinch county. However, no station was established there until the 1880s (now Argyle, GA).

By February 1860, the A & G track had crossed the Alapaha River near Carter’s Bridge about nine miles south of Milltown (now Lakeland, GA).  By March 12, hundreds of bales of cotton were being shipped to Savannah from Station No. 13 at Stockton, GA, which was described as “‘quite a brisk little place, with its hotel and livery stable’ to say nothing of its numerous refreshment saloons.” There were 50 bales of cotton shipped from “Alapaha” on March 10. By about the end of the month at Station No. 13, there were “about 120 bales of cotton for shipment, and the warehouses crowded with western freight.”  The May 1, 1860 annual report of the A & G [inclusive of the S, A&G] stated that in previous 12 months [during which track was extended from Tebeauville, GA to Naylor, GA] there were 4.8 million feet of lumber and timber shipped over the railroad.

The residents at Troupville, GA, then county seat of Lowndes, were hopeful that the town would be the site where the Atlantic and Gulf Railroad spanned the Withlacoochee River.  By July 1860, the Atlantic and Gulf track extended 62 miles to near the Withlacoochee but the route passed four miles southeast of Troupeville and crossed the river eight miles downstream, sorely disappointing the town’s residents.  The many of the town residents packed up and moved to the tracks, some even moving their houses, and founded the city of Valdosta, GA.

The Satilla was the first locomotive to arrive at Valdosta, July 4, 1860. The engines of the Atlantic & Gulf Railroad (Savannah, Albany & Gulf) were named for the rivers of South Georgia. The Satilla is on exhibit at the Henry Ford Museum, Dearborn, MI.

The Satilla was the first locomotive to arrive at Valdosta, July 30, 1860. The engines of the Atlantic & Gulf Railroad (Savannah, Albany & Gulf) were named for the rivers of South Georgia. The Satilla is on exhibit at the Henry Ford Museum, Dearborn, MI.

John Screven, president of the A & R reported that the tracks reached Valdosta on July 25, 1860.

The Augusta Daily Constitutionalist reported the completion of the Atlantic & Gulf railroad to Valdosta, GA

The Augusta Daily Constitutionalist reported the completion of the Atlantic & Gulf railroad to Valdosta, GA

When the Civil War broke out, the completion of the Brunswick & Florida, the Savannah, Albany and Gulf, and the Atlantic & Gulf railroads became strategically important, although the threatening “foreign nation” was the United States.  Troops from all over Wiregrass Georgia were mobilized on the railroads. P. C. Pendleton “was engaged in planting and looking after his splendid timbered lands when the war came on… “Tebeauville, though not a town of much size, at the outbreak of the war in 1861, nevertheless furnished several recruits to Colquitt’s Brigade” … [Pendleton] raised a company of volunteers in Ware county and upon its organization became a major of the 50th Georgia Regiment.  – J. L. Walker, State Historian, DAR

During the war, the Sunday School at Tebeauville was superintended by Mrs. B . F. Williams, wife a Confederate army surgeon. Mrs.Williams lived a few miles from Tebeauville at Sunnyside, near the Satilla River. She also helped to organize a non-denominational church “composed of ‘Hard-Shells,’ Methodists, Baptists, and Presbyterians, that existed and flourished for years in perfect harmony. – J. L. Walker, State Historian, DAR

In 1861 the Berrien Minute Men,  the Confederate infantry company raised by General Knight, traveled on the Brunswick & Florida from Station No. 9, (Tebeauville) to Brunswick.  Per orders,  Captain L. J. Knight took his company of Berrien Minute Men to the Georgia coast where they and other volunteer companies from south Georgia counties were garrisoned at Camp Semmes for the defense of the port at Brunswick, GA (Berrien Minute Men at Brunswick ~ July, 1861).  The Confederate States government compensated the railroads for providing transportation.

Robert E. Lee visited Tebeauville, GA in 1861

Robert E. Lee visited Tebeauville, GA in 1861

Robert E. Lee stopped for a few hours in Tebeauville in 1861 while making a general survey of the Confederate coastal defenses. In a letter to his wife, transcribed in Recollections and Letters of General Robert E. Lee, he referenced the Battle of Port Royal, in which the 29th GA regiment was engaged,  and mentioned plans to visit Brunswick:

“Savannah, November 18, 1861.

“My Dear Mary: This is the first moment I have had to write to you, and now am waiting the call to breakfast, on my way to Brunswick, Fernandina, etc. This is my second visit to Savannah. Night before last, I returned to Coosawhatchie, South Carolina, from Charleston, where I have placed my headquarters, and last night came here, arriving after midnight. I received in Charleston your letter from Shirley. It was a grievous disappointment to me not to have seen you, but better times will come, I hope…. You probably have seen the operations of the enemy’s fleet. Since their first attack they have been quiescent apparently, confining themselves to Hilton Head, where they are apparently fortifying.

“I have no time for more. Love to all.

“Yours very affectionately and truly,

“R. E. Lee.”

In his 1914 Georgia’s Men of Mark, historian Lucian Lamar Knight included:

It is one of the local traditions, to which the old residents point with great pride, that when in command of the coast defense, at the outbreak of the war, General Robert E. Lee stopped for a short while in Tebeauville. Many of the people who lived here then remember to have seen this Man of the Hour who still lives in the hearts of the people today. Among the the citizens who resided here then were the Tebeaus, the Reppards, the Remsharts, the Parkers, the Grovensteins, the Millers, the Behlottes, the Sweats, the Smiths and the Cottinghams.  To this day many old timers refer to the section of [Waycross] where the Tebeauville station was located as “Old Nine”. 

At the time of General Lee’s survey, the campfires of the Berrien Minute Men were made at garrisons defending Darien, GA, the next port north of Brunswick. “As a result of [General Lee’s] coastal survey, upon his return to Savannah 3 days later, he notified the War Department in Richmond of the confirmation of his previous opinion that the ‘entrance to Cumberland Sound and Brunswick and the water approaches to Savannah [including Fort Pulaski] and Charleston are the only points which it is proposed to defend.'”  National Park Service 

The defenses of Georgia’s sea islands were abandoned, their guns and men redeployed to defend the three southern ports. The Berrien Minute Men were moved to garrisons around the port of Savannah.

Ultimately, Levi J. Knight’s investment in the B&F railroad became another casualty of the Civil War.  “The Brunswick and Florida Railroad was in operation up to the fall of 1863, when the Confederate Government seized it under the Impressment Act, tore up the rails, and distributed the property of the Company among other railroads, which were considered as leading military lines. The line of the B&F had become a liability as U.S forces had occupied Brunswick in early 1862.

P. C. Pendleton moved his family to Valdosta, GA in 1862 where after the war he established the South Georgia Times newspaper. His former business partner, O. C. Pope moved to Milltown in 1866 where he taught in the Milltown Academy.

In late 1867 Major Philip Coleman Pendleton again passed through Tebeauville as a passenger on the Atlantic & Gulf Railroad from Valdosta to Savannah, where he was sailing for Scotland.  He was on a mission for the Lowndes Immigration Society to recruit Scottish immigrants to settle at Valdosta, GA, and work the cotton, as Wiregrass planters had an aversion to hiring and paying freed slaves to do the work.

The town of Tebeauville was incorporated in 1866. “In 1869, the State of Georgia provided about $6 million in bonds to rebuild [the tracks from Tebeauville to Brunswick]. The railroad was then reorganized as the Brunswick and Albany Railroad.”  Tebeauville was designated county seat of Ware County in 1873. It was incorporated as “Way Cross” on March 3, 1874. Waycross gets its name from the city’s location at key railroad junctions; lines from six directions meet at the city.

Tebeauville Historic Marker, Waycross, GA

Tebeauville Historic Marker in Bertha Street Park, Waycross, GA,  “On this site stood the old town of Tebeauville. Erected by the Lyman Hall Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, Waycross, GA.

The B&A went bankrupt in 1872 after a bond was nullified by the Georgia General Assembly. It was reorganized in 1882 and was then named the Brunswick and Western Railroad.

The name Tebeauville remained in use for the station at Waycross at least as late as 1889, as evidenced in railroad schedules and newspaper references.

(See source citations below)

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Sources:

Georgia.1836. Acts of the General Assembly of the state of Georgia passed in Milledgeville at an annual session in November and December, 1835. An act to incorporate the Brunswick and Florida Railroad.pg 187.

United States. (1851). The statutes at large and treaties of the United States of America from. Boston: C.C. Little and J. Brown. pg 146

Dozier, Howard Douglas. 1920. A history of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. Houghton Mifflin. pg 79.

Phillips, Ulrich Bonnell. 1908. A history of transportation in the eastern cotton belt to 1860. pg 358.

Georgia Telegraph. Dec 20, 1853. From Milledgeville. Macon, GA. Pg 2

Georgia Telegraph. June 13, 1854. Minutes of the stockholders of the Brunswick and Florida Railroad. Macon, GA. Pg 3

Southern Recorder, May 15, 1855. Brunswick and Florida Railroad. Pg 2

Georgia Telegraph. Apr 8, 1856. Minutes of the Board of Commissioners of the Atlantic & Gulf Railroad Company, First Meeting, Wednesday, Feb 27, 1856. Macon, GA. Pg 3

United States. 1857. Appendix to the Congressional Globe containing speeches, important state papers, laws, etc., of the third session, Thirty-fourth Congress. Naval Depot at Brunswick, Georgia: Speech of Hon. A. Iverson of Georgia in the Senate, January 20, 1957. pg 270-275.

Poor, H. V. (1869). Poor’s manual of railroads. New York: H.V. & H.W. Poor; [etc., etc.. Pg. 337.

Loyless, T. W. (1902). Georgia’s public men 1902-1904. Atlanta, Ga: Byrd Print. Pp 166.
Miller, S.F. 1858. The bench and bar of Georgia : memoirs and sketches, with an appendix, containing a court roll from 1790 to 1857, etc. (1858). J. B. Lippincott & Co. Philadelphia. Pg 170

Milledgeville Federal Union, Nov. 18, 1856. Commercial Convention at Savannah. page 3. Milledgeville, GA.

United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Eighth Census of the United States, 1860. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1860. M653, 1,438 rolls.Census Place: , Berrien, Georgia; Roll: M653_111; Page: 362; Image: 363.

Mitchell, S. Augustus. 1855. Mitchell’s new traveller’s guide through the United States and Canada. pg 87

Swayze, J. C., & H.P. Hill & Co. (1862). Hill & Swayze’s Confederate States rail-road & steam-boat guide: Containing the time-tables, fares, connections and distances on all the rail-roads of the Confederate States, also, the connecting lines of rail-roads, steamboats and stages, and will be accompanied by a complete guide to the principal hotels, with a large variety of valuable information. Griffin, Ga: Hill & Swayze.

Railga.com. Brunswick & Florida Railroad. https://railga.com/brunfl.html

Walker, J. L. (1911, Nov 11). Tabeauville. Waycross Evening Herald.

Bill Etheridge Attended Ray City School

Available school yearbooks show William Reginald “Bill” Etheridge attended the Ray City School at least from 1948 to 1954. He was a classmate of Gloria Grissett, Robert Cornelius, Preston Driskell, Carson Avera, Martha Green, Elizabeth Garner, Richard Vaugh, Betty Myers, Duggan Snipes, Henry Lewis, Charles Ray, and others.

About 1955, the Etheridge family moved to Gainesville, FL where Bill attended Gainesville High School.

1949 Bill Ethridge, second grade, Ray City School, GA

1949 Bill Etheridge, second grade, Ray City School, GA

1954 William "Bill" Etheridge, 7th Grade, Ray City School, Ray City, GA

1954 William “Bill” Etheridge, 7th Grade, Ray City School, Ray City, GA

1957 Bill Etheridge, Gainesville High School, Gainesville, FL

1957 Bill Etheridge, Gainesville High School, Gainesville, FL

1959 Bill Etheridge, Gainesville High School, Gainesville, FL

1959 Bill Etheridge, Gainesville High School, Gainesville, FL

Class of 1960, Bill Etheridge, Gainesville High School, Gainesville, FL

Class of 1960, Bill Etheridge, Gainesville High School, Gainesville, FL.  William Reginald Ethridge. FFA 10; Golf Team 9,10,11, 12; GG-Club 9,10,11, 12; Inter-Club Council 10; Sports Hall of Fame 10; Future Teacher 11, 12; Secretary-Treasurer 12.

Class of 1960, Bill Etheridge, Gainesville High School Golf Team, Gainesville, FL

Class of 1960, Bill Etheridge, Gainesville High School Golf Team, Gainesville, FL

Class of 1960, Bill Etheridge, Gainesville High School Golf Team, Gainesville, FL

Class of 1960, Bill Etheridge, Gainesville High School Golf Team, Gainesville, FL

 

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Ray City School, Class of 1949

Ray City School, Class of 1949

Special Thanks to Chris Clements for sharing Ray City School records.

Yearbook portrait of Winona Williams, Ray City School, Class of 1949, Class President

Winona Williams, Ray City School, Class of 1949, Class President; Ray City Girls Athletic  Club; 4-H Club; Girls Basketball Team; Yearbook staff; Senior Superlative: Best Athlete.

 

Yearbook portrait Talton Rouse, Ray City School, Class of 1949, Vice President

Talton Rouse, Ray City School, Class of 1949, Vice President; Basketball Team; Yearbook Staff.

 

Yearbook portrait, Jean Studstill, Ray City School, Class of 1949, Treasurer

Jean Studstill, Ray City School, Class of 1949, Class Treasurer; Ray City Girls Athletic Club; Senior Superlative: Prettiest Girl; Yearbook Staff; Girls Basketball Team

 

Yearbook portrait Murray Comer, Ray City School, Class of 1949

Murray Comer, Ray City School, Class of 1949. Basketball Team; Senior Superlative: Most Bashful; Yearbook Athletics Editor.  Later attended Valdosta State College and the University of Georgia.

Yearbook portrait Carey Register, Ray City School, Class of 1949

Carey Register, Ray City School, Class of 1949; Senior Superlative: Most Likely To Succeed; Yearbook Staff: Editor-in-Chief;

 

Helen Wood, Ray City School, Class of 1949

Helen Wood, Ray City School, Class of 1949. Ray City Girls Athletic Club; Yearbook: Assistant Editor.

 

Yearbook portrait Charles Scarbrough, Ray City School, Class of 1949

Charles Scarbrough, Ray City School, Class of 1949. Basketball Team; Yearbook Staff.

 

Yearbook portrait Thomas J. Studstill, Ray City School, Class of 1949

Thomas J. Studstill, Ray City School, Class of 1949. Senior Superlative: Best All-Round; Yearbook Staff;

 

Yearbook portrait Robert Whitehead, Ray City School, Class of 1949

Robert Whitehead, Ray City School, Class of 1949; Senior Superlative: Most Handsome Boy; Yearbook Staff.

 

Yearbook portrait Robert D. Conner, Ray City School, Class of 1949

Robert D. Conner, Ray City School, Class of 1949. Basketball Team; Senior Superlative: Most Intelligent; Yearbook Staff: Business Manager.

 

Yearbook photos Class of 1949, Ray City High School, Ray City, GA

Class of 1949, Ray City High School, Ray City, GA

 

 

1949 Ray City School

1949 Ray City School

 

Ray City High School yearbook dedication, Class of 1949

Ray City High School yearbook dedication, Class of 1949

 

Ray City School Class of 1949 Superlatives

 

Ray City School, Class of 1949 ~Class Prophecy

Ray City School, Class of 1949 ~Class Prophecy

Ray City School, Class of 1949 ~Class Prophecy, pg 2

Ray City School, Class of 1949 ~Class Prophecy, pg 2

Ray City School Class of 1949 ~ Class Will

Ray City School Class of 1949 ~ Class Will

Ray City School Class of 1949 ~ Class Will, pg 2

Ray City School Class of 1949 ~ Class Will, pg 2

 

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Spanish-American War Vet Rests at Ray City, GA

Spanish American War

Does anyone remember the final resting place of Ben Howard?  When the young Spanish-American War veteran died at Ray’s Mill Pond in 1900, the citizens of Ray’s Mill, GA paid their respects.

Other Spanish-American War veterans of Berrien County, GA included Aaron Cook, Luther L. Hallman, William A. Knight, Samuel Z. T. Lipham, Walter A. Griner, Carl R. O’Quinn, Pythias D. Yapp, Henry C. McLendon, Charles A. Courson, George C. Flowers, Zachary T. Hester, Jr., W. Dutchman Stephens, and James L. Jordan.

Tifton Gazette
April 27, 1900

Found Dead Is His Boat.
The body of Ben Howard, a young white man, was found in a boat in the bottom of Ray’s mill pond last Saturday. The body had been there for two days or more, but the tragedy was kept a secret by the fact that the boat was a leaky vessel and had sunk to the bottom of the pond, carrying the body down with it. It is not known whether the young man was dead when the boat sunk or not, though it is thought that he had wounded himself by the accidental discharge of his gun while coming out of a tree, from which be had been shooting at fish in the water. The weapon was found at the foot of the tree and one barrel of it had been discharged. The boat was tied to the tree and the body either fell in it, or the wounded man managed to get to it.
Then the boat drifted out in the pond probably fifty yards and sunk to the bottom, the supposition being that Howard’s death was instantaneous, or else he was too badly wounded to manage the boat. A search for him lasted two days.
The burial services were conducted at Beaver Dam on Sunday and a large crowd attended them. Young Howard was a soldier in the war with Spain and did service in Cuba. —Valdosta Times.

 

Tifton Gazette, April 27, 1900 clipping of the death of Ben Howard at Ray's Mill Pond.

Tifton Gazette, April 27, 1900 clipping of the death of Ben Howard at Ray’s Mill Pond.

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Ray City Blues

John Guthrie

During the 1920s and 30s in Ray City, GA the emergence of the Blues music genre in the local African-American community reflected its birth in the Mississippi Delta.  Folk musician, John Guthrie (1911-1985), was just a young white kid with a keen interest in music when he developed deep admiration for the talent of black musicians performing in the turpentine “Quarters” of Ray City, GA.

 

John Elwood Guthrie (1911-1985) , folk musician and merchant of Ray City, GA. Image courtesy Library of Congress.

John Elwood Guthrie (1911-1985) , folk musician and merchant of Ray City, GA. Image courtesy Library of Congress.

According to Allaboutjazz.com, “The Blues has deep roots in American history, particularly African-American history. The blues originated on Southern plantations in the 19th century. Its inventors were slaves, ex-slaves and the descendants of slaves – African-American sharecroppers who sang as they toiled in the cotton and vegetable fields. It’s generally accepted that he music evolved from African spirituals, African chants, work songs, field hollers, rural fife and drum music, revivalist hymns, and country dance music.

Then, “The African American music combined with the folk music of white European settlers to produce new styles of music.

In a 1977 recording, Guthrie talks of local African-American pioneers of glass slides and crying strings, and plays a brief medley of Rocking Chair Blues, “a traditional oral formular that has been used in any number of songs” according to Brian Hoskin,  and Jimmie Rodgers 1929 “Blue Yodel #6 (Blues Like Midnight).  As a young man during the Great Depression, John Guthrie sometimes impersonated Jimmie Rodgers in hopes of obtaining a free meal.

John Guthrie (recorded 1977

Folks, I’d like to go back a little bit through ages. When I was just a kid and bought my first guitar I used to go down to a place they called the “Quarters.”

Now, I want to explain that a little bit further – the Quarters. We used to have turpentine stills in this part of the country. The man that owned turpentine stills, he would build shacks or shanties down for the black people to live in. Down in those shanties or shacks they would have a little place down there where they sold soda pop…well, the colored people called it ‘soady waters.’

I’d go down there and they’d have a guitar player down there and he’d have a bottle neck on the end of his finger and he’d be playing these old black tunes. There is no white man that can play a tune just like that black man could play one.

At this time I’m going to do the best I can about the way them guys used to play guitar. They’d pull the strings and it would whine and they call it ‘cryin’ strings, now if you know what I mean.

I’m going down to the river
I’m going to take me a rocking chair
I’m going down to the river
I’m going to take me a rocking chair
And if the blues don’t leave me,
Lord I’ll rock on away from here

I got the blues like midnight
Moon shinin’ bright as day
I got the blues like midnight
Moon shinin’ bright as day
I wish a tornado would come
and blow my blues away.

Folk musician Jimmy Rodgers recorded a series of Blue Yodel songs from 1927 to his death in 1933. “Rogers’ background in blackface minstrel shows and as a railroad worker enabled him to develop a unique musical hybridization drawing from both black and white traditions, as exemplified in the Blue Yodel sounds. In his recordings Rodgers and his producer, Ralph Peer, achieved a “vernacular combination of blues, jazz, and traditional folk” to produce a style of music then called ‘hillbilly.” Rodgers’ Blue Yodel #6, also known as Blues Like Midnight, was recorded in 1929 and has been covered by Wanda Jackson, Merle Haggard, Jerry Lee Lewis, and the Allman Brothers, among others.

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Isbin Giddens (1788-1853), Pioneer Settler of Old Berrien

Isbin Giddens (1788-1853)

Grave of Isbin Giddens, Burnt Church Cemetery, Lanier County, GA

Grave of Isbin Giddens, Burnt Church Cemetery, Lanier County, GA

In the winter of 1824-25 Isbin (or Isben) Giddens brought his wife, Keziah Knight Giddens, and their two young children,  William and Moses Giddens from Wayne County, GA to settle in what was then Irwin County, near the present day Ray City, GA. They came along with Keziah’s brother William Cone Knight, her parents, and their minor children John, Sarah, Elizabeth, Aaron, and Jonathan Knight. Also making the move to Lowndes was Keziah’s uncle Samuel Knight, his wife Fannie, and their children Fatima, Moses, Aaron, Jesse, Thomas, and Joel.

Isbin Giddens was born in Blounts Creek, Beaufort County, North Carolina on November 4, 1788 just a few months after the ratification of the Constitution of the United States of America. He was the son of Moses Giddens and Catherine Jones.

Some time before 1816, “when he was about grown,” Isbin  Giddens moved from North Carolina to Wayne County, Georgia .  He served as lieutenant of the 334th District Militia, Wayne County, from 1816 to 1820. It was probably during that time period that he became acquainted with the family of William A. Knight and Sarah Cone Knight. William A. Knight was then serving as a Justice of Peace in the 334th District. William’s son, Jonathan Knight, was a captain in the Wayne County militia; another son, Levi J. Knight, served as a private.

Giddens became good friends with the Knights, and on Wednesday, April 7, 1819 just before Easter, Isbin married William A. Knight’s 17-year-old daughter, Keziah Knight (born November 25, 1801).

Isbin Giddens served as a grand juror the October, 1822  term of the Superior Court of Wayne County, and at other times also served on both petit and grand juries in the county.

About 1823 Isbin and Keziah Giddens were baptised into Kettle Creek Church.  Jonathan and Elizabeth Knight were organizing members of Kettle Creek Baptist Church in Ware County which it seems, was near where they lived; they were members of Hebron Church (present day Brantley County, GA) before being dismissed by letter on November 8, 1823, to constitute Kettle Creek. Fannie Knight, wife of Samuel Knight, was a member of Kettle Creek Baptist Church, as were Keziah’s parents, William and Sarah Knight.

Over the winter of 1824-25 Isbin and Keziah departed Wayne county along with her parents and brothers to settle in parts of present day Lanier County.  Isben Giddens made his farm along what is now the Ray City-Lakeland public road. The following year, his brother-in-law, Levi J. Knight, joined the family and became the first to settle on land along  Beaverdam creek at the present day location of Ray City, Berrien County, GA.

On February 10, 1827 Isbin and Keziah moved their letters from Kettle Creek Church to Union Primitive Baptist Church.  Keziah’s father had been instrumental in the organization of Union Church, it being the first Baptist Church in this section. The church organization took place October 1, 1825, at Carter’s Meeting house,  located on the west bank of the Alapaha River.  Mr. Knight was the first clerk of the new church and later became its pastor.

For the 1827 Georgia Land Lottery, Isbin Giddens registered in the 10th District of Lowndes County.  On the 33rd Day’s Drawing – April 13, 1827, he was the fortunate drawer of Lot 248 in the 13th District of of the newly formed Lee County.

In the Census of 1830, Isbin Giddens is enumerated along with early Berrien County settlers like Joshua Lee, William A. Knight and John Knight. He served on the Lowndes Grand Jury of 1833 which was convened at Franklinville, GA, then the county seat of Lowndes County.

In the Indian Wars of 1836-1838, Isbin Giddens and his sons, William and  Moses served under the command of  now  Captain Levi J. Knight,  in the Lowndes County Militia.  The Giddens were among those who took part in the Battle of Brushy Creek, one of the last real engagements with the Creek Indians in this region.

Spouse & Children

Keziah Knight 1801 – 1861

  1. William Moses Giddens 1820 – 1899
  2. Moses H Giddens 1821 – 1906
  3. Matilda Giddens 1826 – 1887
  4. Sarah Giddens 1828 – 1918
  5. Aaron L. Giddens 1831 – 1862, married Mary Smith
  6. Keziah Ann Giddens 1836 – 1904
  7. Mary M Giddens 1838 – 1901
  8. Isbin T. Giddens 1840 – July 17, 1862
  9. Matthew O Giddens 1844 – 1865
Isben Giddens died on his farm October 21, 1853. He was buried at  Union Church Cemetery, in present day Lanier County, GA. He died with a legally valid will, and his three sons WilliamMoses, and Aaron served as executors of his estate.

In 1855 Kizziah Knight Giddens married the widower Allen Jones.  She died in 1861 and was buried at Union Church, Lanier County GA.

Grave of Keziah Knight Giddens Jones, Union Primitive Baptist Church Cemetery, Lakeland, GAGrave of Keziah Knight Giddens Jones, Union Primitive Baptist Church Cemetery, Lakeland, GA

Grave of Keziah Knight Giddens Jones, Union Primitive Baptist Church Cemetery, Lakeland, GA

Isben Giddens’ sons, Isbin T. Giddens and Matthew O. Giddens, served in the Civil War.  On August 1, 1861 they joined the Berrien Minute Men, Company G, 29th Georgia Infantry at Milltown (now Lakeland), GA.  Neither would survive the war.  Mathew O. Giddens was taken prisoner on December 16, 1864 near Nashville, TN. He was imprisoned at Camp Chase, Ohio where three months later, on Feb 8, 1865, he died of pneumonia. His brother, Isbin T. Giddens, died of brain fever at Guyton Hospital in Georgia.

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Ray City Catholics served by St. Theresa’s Parish

The August 25, 1945 edition of the Augusta Bulletin newspaper relates that Ray City was a mission station of St. Theresa’s Church at Albany, GA.

The construction of St. Theresa’s Church began before the Civil War.  The bricks were handmade by slaves on the Barbour Plantation near Newnan, GA. During the war the building was used as a Confederate hospital.

St. Theresa's Church, Albany, GA.

St. Theresa’s Church, Albany, GA.

“In 1859 work was begun on the erection of the little brick church within whose hallowed, ivy-clad walls, the Catholics in Albany still gather to worship before the Alter of God. In 1861, war between the North and the South came to cause a delay in the completion of the edifice, but when the Conquered Banner of the Confederacy had been furled, the grey-clad warriors had trod the weary miles back home and with their unconquered courage they began to rebuild their lives, the task of completing the interior of the church was taken up again.”

The first resident pastor of St. Theresa’s Church was Father Stephen J. Beytaugh, appointed in 1875 by Reverend William H. Gross, Bishop of Savannah.

“Father Beytaugh had been in Albany just about a year when he died from yellow fever, contracted while administering the Last Sacraments to a member of his mission parish in Americus. Father John Murphy, who succeeded Father Beytaugh, died in less than a year after going to St. Theresa’s as pastor. In 1879, Father P. H. McMahon, of blessed memory, went to Albany as pastor, but the rigorous hardships on the many missions attached to the parish impaired his health, and he was succeeded by Father Charles Clement Prendergast, who was pastor in 1882 when St. Theresa’s Church was formally dedicated by Bishop Gross.”

In the following years, “the far-flung mission territory of Albany embraced an area of 15,000 square miles in extent, covering about one-third of the whole State of Georgia, and including forty-one counties. There were churches at Albany, Alapaha, Americus, Bainbridge, Fitzgerald, Moultrie, Thomasville, and Willacoochee, and in other places Mass was offered in private homes. In visiting their mission stations, the priests traveled by rail, on trains, good, bad and indifferent, by mule-drawn vehicles, and by T-Model Ford, which last method of transportation made possible the celebration of two masses at two different places on a Sunday. Mission stations were Adel, Andersonville, Arlington, Cordele, Cuthbert, Cecil, Dosia, Dupont, Dawson, Douglas, Golden, Hahira, Iron City, Milltown, Naylor, Nashville, Ocilla, Quitman, Rhine, Ray City, Sylvester, Sycamore, Stockton, Tifton, Valdosta, and West Green.”

Nashville home of Terrell Swindle.

Terrell Swindle (1919-1994)

Terrell Swindle was born and raised at Ray City, GA. He later moved to Nashville, GA. Image courtesy of www.berriencountyga.com

Terrell Swindle was born and raised at Ray City, GA. He later moved to Nashville, GA. Image courtesy of http://www.berriencountyga.com

Nashville, GA home of Terrell Swindle.

Nashville, GA home of Terrell Swindle.

Glenn Terrell Swindle was born at Ray City, GA June 13, 1919, a son of Rozzie P. Swindle and Ollie May Moore. The Swindles were farmers and sold local produce. Their farm goods included clabber, a yogurt-like milk product, and the lane to their farm became known as Clabberville Road.

As a man, Terrell Swindle moved to Nashville, GA where he engaged in farming and raising hogs.

Terrell was a great fan of folk music and a friend of Ray City musician John Guthrie, often hanging out at the Guthrie home in Ray City or attending musical events.

Terrell was also a good friend to David Miley, nephew of John Guthrie . Terrell was a pilot and owned his own plane. He periodically flew from Nashville to Dog Island, FL to pick up piglets for his stock.  Sometimes David Miley would fly with him.

https://raycityhistory.wordpress.com/?attachment_id=24907

Terrell Swindle and hogs. Image courtesy of http://www.berriencountyga.com

Terrell Swindle died on February 20, 1994. He is buried at Beaver Dam Cemetery, Ray City, GA.

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Dr. Pierce Hubert (1854 – 1933)

Dr. Pierce Hubert (1854 – 1933)

Special thanks to Bryan Shaw for sharing contributions to this post.

Dr. Pierce Hubert was among the medical men of Ray City, Georgia in the 1920’s. Dr. Hubert was a philanthropist, civic activist, Mason, checker champion, and public administrator.

It appears that  Dr. Hubert and his wife moved from Louisville, GA 190 miles south to Ray City, Georgia sometime after 1920. An account statement from his medical practice shows that he was treating patients here in 1923, one being Francis Marion Shaw.  A bill for the doctor’s treatment of Shaw’s “last illness” was found in the death papers of the deceased. Dr. Hubert was still using office stationary imprinted with his old place of business in Louisville, GA, carefully crossed out, and overwritten with his new location, in Ray City.

Dr. Pierce Hubert billed the estate of Francis Marion Shaw $5 for two visits to the deceased during his last illness leading up to his death. Image courtesy of Bryan Shaw.

Dr. Pierce Hubert billed the estate of Francis Marion Shaw $5 for two visits to the deceased during his last illness leading up to his death. Image courtesy of Bryan Shaw.

Ray City, GA., March 1st, 1923

Mr. F. M. Shaw

In account with
Dr. Pierce Hubert

1922
Sept 20 Visit &c self 2.00
” ” Night Visit self    3.00
                                   $5.00
Georgia, Berrien County
Personally came before me Dr. Pierce Hubert, who being sworn says the above account of Five dollars is for professional services rendered the said F. M. Shaw, during his last illness and that the same is due, just and true and unpaid.

Sworn to & subscribed
before me Mch 2nd 1923 Pierce Hubert M.D.

 

Dr. Hubert was also among the men present at the start-up of the Ray City Power Plant in 1923.  The operation of the first electric lights was a big event in the small town.

Dr. Pierce Hubert grew up with his family in Warrenton, Warren County, Georgia. He was born in 1854 in Georgia, a son of Dr. Robert Wallace Hubert and Ann B. “Nancy” Turner.  He attended medical school and graduated  in 1876  from the Medical Department of Georgia University (now known as University of Georgia), as a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.).  After achieving his degree, he returned to his parent’s house in Warrenton, GA and began practicing medicine.

In 1877 Dr. Hubert married Stella Hill Cody in Warren County, GA.  Her father, James Cody, was a retired drygoods clerk.  The 1880 census shows the young couple living in his parents household at Warrenton, GA.

In 1880 Dr. Hubert  was a member of a small, private charity group of four prominent Warrenton citizens, which contributed to the Hood Orphan Memorial fund.  The fund was to provide for the 10 orphan children of Confederate General John Bell Hood. 

Orphan children of Confederate General John Bell Hood.

Orphan children of Confederate General John Bell Hood.

After the Civil War, General John Bell Hood moved to Louisiana and became a cotton broker and worked as a President of the Life Association of America, an insurance business. In 1868, he married New Orleans native Anna Marie Hennen, with whom he fathered 11 children over 10 years, including three pairs of twins. He also served the community in numerous philanthropic endeavors, assisting in fund raising for orphans, widows, and wounded soldiers. For awhile he flourished. But his insurance business was ruined by a yellow fever epidemic in New Orleans during 1878–79 and he succumbed to the disease himself [on August 30, 1879], dying just days after his wife and oldest child, leaving 10 destitute orphans. 

Personal mentions in the Atlanta newspapers noted in November, 1880 Dr. Hubert visiting in Sparta, GA, about 24 miles southwest of Warrenton.  His wife, Stella Hill Cody Hubert, died about September 15, 1882 and was buried at Warrenton Cemetery.

It appears that by 1884, Dr. Pierce had established his household at Sparta.  He joined the American Legion of Honor, a Fraternal Beneficiary Society,  which was active in the late 19th century and early 20th century.   On July 17, 1884 at the Savannah meeting of the Georgia Grand Council of the American Legion of Honor, Dr. Hubert was elected Grand Secretary of the state organization. In 1888, he was again elected Grand Secretary; at that time he had returned to reside in Warrenton, GA. He attended the annual meeting of July 16, 1891 in Griffin, GA  and was returned to the post of grand secretary; he had moved to Louisville, GA by that time.

In its heyday, the American Legion of Honor was one of the best known benefit societies. Membership was open to white men and women eighteen to fifty years of age. Originally the upper age limit was sixty four, but this was reduced in 1885. There were initiation ceremonies but, if the candidate objected, these could be dispensed with and a formal obligation could be taken at any time and place. Like Woodmen of the World and other fraternal benefits organizations, the American Legion of Honor provided life insurance to its members.  The Legion reached its membership high point at the end of 1889 with 62,457. Like many fraternal organizations, the Legion ran into financial difficulties in 1895 and 1896. These were caused by a number of factors, including the Panic of 1896, an increased death rate, increased expenses and debts, “unusually high” assessments in 1896 and a lack of new members.  The order went into receivership in August 1904.

About 1886 Dr. Hubert married Carrie De Beaugrine. She died in 1889 and is said to be buried in Sallie Hill Cemetery, Warrenton, GA.

By 1891, Pierce Hubert had moved to Louisville, Jefferson County, Georgia, where he was elected to serve on the county Board of Education in 1896.

In 1896, Dr. Pierce Hubert married a third time, to Hunter V. Fay. By the census of 1900 he appears with his wife and family in Louisville, Jefferson County, Georgia.10 He remained a resident and practiced medicine in Louisville for the next twenty years. In addition to his practice, he continued to serve on the Jefferson County School Board, his name appears in the Georgia Department of Education Records for 1897, and in 1904 serving a term through 1908.

When the American Anti-Tuberculosis League met in Atlanta, April 17-19, 1905, Dr. Pierce Hubert was a delegate from the 10th congressional district of Georgia.  There were representatives appointed by the governors of every state in the union and from many foreign countries – No representatives were named from south Georgia. Governor J. M. Terrell tendered the Hall of the House of Representatives to the Georgia State Capitol for the use of the League during the meeting, and he delivered an address to the League at the opening session. [ It should be noted that at the time, nearly 80 percent of all tuberculosis deaths were African-Americans, but the medical response to the disease was as segregated as every other aspect of American life in the early 20th century.  It was not until 1909 that a Colored Anti-Tuberculosis League was formed in Georgia, and among its stated purposes were shifting the burden of cost for care to African-Americans and reducing transmission of the disease from blacks to whites.]

In 1908 a Pierce Hubert appears in the Official proceedings Grand Lodge, Free Accepted Masons, State of Georgia, as a member of Stonewall Lodge No. 470.

Dr. Hubert, a serious devotee to the game of checkers, was regarded as one of the best players in the state of Georgia. He played in the first championship match of the Southern Checker Association in Atlanta in 1908.

Checker Match. The first championship of the Southern Checker Association was played in Atlanta in 1908. Dr. Hubert Pierce, who later practiced medicine at Ray City, GA was among the finalists.

A Classic Checker Match. The first championship of the Southern Checker Association was played in Atlanta in 1908. Dr. Hubert Pierce, who later practiced medicine at Ray City, GA was among the finalists.

The tournament was played in the firehouse at the corner of Washington and East Hunter streets, directly opposite the state capitol.

The Canadian Checker Player, a monthly magazine devoted to the game of draughts, reported the results of the 1908 Southern Checker Association tournament. Dr. Pierce Hubert ranked 13th in the region.

The Canadian Checker Player, a monthly magazine devoted to the game of draughts, reported the results of the 1908 Southern Checker Association tournament. Dr. Pierce Hubert ranked 13th in the region.

 

In 1910, the Huberts were in Augusta, GA.  The Atlanta Constitution, November 27, 1910 reported,
Dr. and Mrs. Pierce Hubert and General John W. Clark, accompanied by his wife and a few friends, went down to Savannah for the unveiling of the Oglethorpe monument.  John W. Clark, a Confederate veteran, successful businessman, and one of the most prominent citizens of Augusta, was among the foremost promoters of reunions and monuments to honor Confederate soldiers.

Dedication of the monument to General James Edward Oglethorpe, unveiled Savannah, GA, November 23, 1910

Dedication of the monument to General James Edward Oglethorpe, unveiled Savannah, GA, November 23, 1910

Dr. Hubert was a founding member of the Jefferson County Medical Association, organized February 7, 1911, and was the group’s delegate to the state association.

In 1917, Dr. Pierce Hubert was one of four men appointed by Governor Nat E. Harris to the WWI Draft Registration Board for Jefferson County, GA.  In Berrien County, the men appointed were Sheriff Joe Varn Nix, Clerk of the Superior Court James Henry Gaskins,  Ordinary Joel Ira Norwood, and Dr. Lafayette A. Carter.

Sometime before 1930 Dr. Hubert retired from his medical practice. He and Mrs. Hubert moved on to Valdosta, GA. He died at the age of 78 on March 15, 1933 in Bibb County, Georgia. He was buried at Warrenton Cemetery, Warren County, GA.

WWI Berrien County Draft Board

1917 Berrien County Draft Board

Men who are eligible to draft shall not “hide behind petticoats or children.”

On May 17, 1917, the Governor of Georgia announced the appointment of county boards of registration for the selective draft for WWI. The local boards, composed of leading civilians in each community, were entrusted with the administration of the selective draft. These Registration Boards, also known as Exemption Boards, issued draft calls in order of numbers drawn in a national lottery and determined exemptions for dependency, essential occupations, or conscientious objection. Board Members appointed for Berrien County, GA were:

  • Joe Varn Nix, Sheriff of Berrien County, GA
  • James Henry Gaskins, Clerk of the Superior Court of Berrien County, GA
  • Joel Ira Norwood , Ordinary of Berrien County, GA
  • Dr Lafayette Alonzo Carter, Physician

 

Joseph Varn Nix (1882-1963) <br /> Sheriff Joe Varn Nix, appointed by Governor Harris as Executive Officer of the Berrien County Registration Board for the 1917 WWI selective draft. Image detail courtesy of www.berriencountyga.com

Joseph Varn Nix (1882-1963)
Sheriff Joe Varn Nix, appointed by Governor Harris as Executive Officer of the Berrien County Registration Board for the 1917 WWI selective draft. Image detail courtesy of http://www.berriencountyga.com

 

Jim Gaskins <br> With the onset of World War I in 1917,  James Henry "Jim" Gaskins was appointed as clerk of the Berrien County Exemption Board.  Gaskins was dismissed from the Exemption Board in December, 1917 after he became embroiled in a scandal over reward money for capture of a draft dodger. Gaskins was a former resident of Ray City, GA

Jim Gaskins (1872-1928)
With the onset of World War I in 1917,  James Henry “Jim” Gaskins was appointed as clerk of the Berrien County Registration Board.  Gaskins was dismissed from the Registration Board in December, 1917 after he became embroiled in a scandal over reward money for capture of a draft dodger. Gaskins was a former resident of Ray City, GA

 

Dr Lafayette Alonzo Carter (1858-1932), of Nashville, GA was appointed as Physician for the Berrien County Draft Registration Board, 1917

Dr Lafayette Alonzo Carter (1858-1932)
Dr. L. A. Carter, of Nashville, GA was appointed as Physician for the Berrien County Draft Registration Board, 1917

 

The fourth member of the board, Joel Ira Norward (1869-1956) (not pictured), was a native of Berrien County, GA born on July 9, 1869, in that section of Berrien later cut into Lanier, Georgia. Joel came from a large family, with eight brothers and sisters; at the time of his birth his father, Theodore Gourdine Norwood, was 65 and his mother, Elizabeth Green Norwood, was 32. Joel Ira Norwood married Laura Virginia Shaw on October 23, 1890 and they made their home in Nashville, GA. Joel farmed for a time and was elected county treasurer of Berrien County in 1896 and re-elected in 1900 and 1904, but declined to run for the position in the election of 1908.  In the early 1900s, J.I. Norwood was a business partner of fellow Draft Board member, Dr. L. A. Carter, the two being joint owners of a 250 acre land lot situated on Grand Bay, east of Ray’s Mill (now Ray City). By 1910, J. I. Norwood had his primary occupation from farming to selling insurance for a living. In 1910, he campaigned unsuccessfully for election as county sheriff of Berrien County. In 1912 he was elected Ordinary of Berrien County and was re-elected in 1916.  J. I. Norwood and Laura Virginia Shaw had seven children. He died on November 2, 1956, in Lowndes, Georgia, at the age of 87, and was buried in Adel, Georgia.

The Governor’s appointments and charges to the Registration Boards was published in the Atlanta Constitution, May 20, 1917 edition.

⊕⊕⊕

On May 17, 1917, the Governor of Georgia announced the appointment of county boards of registration for the selective draft for WWI. Registrars for Berrien County were J.V. Nix, J.H. Gaskins, J.I. Norwood, and L.A. Carter.

On May 17, 1917, the Governor of Georgia announced the appointment of county boards of registration for the selective draft for WWI. Registrars for Berrien County were J.V. Nix, J.H. Gaskins, J.I. Norwood, and L.A. Carter.

 

Atlanta Constitution
May 20, 1917

Governor Harris Appoints Boards of Registration

Officials in Charge Must Perfect Organizations and Swear in Registrars Within Five Days.

SHERIFFS AND MAYORS GIVEN INSTRUCTIONS

Registrations Will Be Taken at Regular Precinct Voting Places Between Hours of 7 a.m. and 9 p.m.

     Following President Wilson’s proclamation of Friday, setting June 5 as selective draft registration day, Governor Nat E. Harris received a telegram from Provost Marshal General E. H. Crowder Saturday morning directing him to order the several county registration boards of Georgia to organize and prepare to take this registration.
     Through Adjutant General J. Van Holt Nash, who will supervise the Georgia registration, orders were sent out Saturday to every sheriff and the mayors of all cities of more than 30,000 population in Georgia to organize their boards, swear in their registrars and to report the perfection of such organizations to the adjutant general within five days. General Nash sent out these orders by wire and is forwarding by mail necessary blanks for making the report of organization back to him.
Each county board is to be composed of the sheriff, the clerk, the ordinary and a county physician in such counties as have county physicians.
     It is estimated that one registrar will be required for every 80 men to be registered.

Hours of Registration.
     The registration will be taken between the hours of 7 a.m. and 9 p.m., June 5, at the regular precinct voting places. Every man, sick or well, married or single, white or black, between the ages of 21 and 30, inclusive, will be required, under penalty, to register.
     In cases where a man is ill or expects to be absent from his place of residence on registration day, he may apply at once to the clerk for registration.
     Not only is there a jail penalty attached to failure to register, but like penalty attaches to failure on the part of registration boards, or members of such boards, to perform the full duties required of them.
     When a person has registered he will receive a registration certificate.
     The instructions as to how to answer the questions which will be asked of persons registering, emphasize the fact that the government does not desire that any man shall increase the misery of war by failure to qualify for exemption where other people are dependent upon him solely for support, yet , on the other hand, it is also made clear that the government does not propose that men who are eligible to draft shall “hide behind petticoats or children.”

Governor Names Boards.
     The governor has appointed the county boards of registration. These boards will have charge of the registration in their respective counties. The state of Georgia and war department will hold them responsible. They must see to the appointment of registrars in each precinct in their county and look after the registration and making out of returns and reporting to the governor or adjutant general.
     Owning to the fact that some counties have no county physicians; some counties have as many as three and four, and others have county physicians who live many miles from the county site, Governor Harris could not appoint the county physicians as a class, but had to select physicians to serve each county without respect of their employment by the counties.
     The following list shows the boards for the respective counties. The names appearing in the following order:
     First, the sheriff, who will be executive officer of the board; second, the clerk of the superior court, who will be secretary or clerk of the board; third, the ordinary; fourth, the physician for the board.

The Board, once organized, saw to the appointment of registrars in each precinct in the county to administer the registrations. In Berrien County these registrars included:

Franklin Otis Baker, farmer, Alapaha, GA
Seaborn Jackson Baker, County School Superintendent, Nashville, GA;
William Arthur Bradford, farmer, Adel, GA ;
Eugene F. Bussey, merchant, Enigma, GA ;
James R. Carter, farmer, Adel or Greggs, GA;
John Samuel Carter, farmer, Lois, GA
James Griffin Connell, farmer, Massee, GA ;
William Riley Crumpton, merchant, Lenox, GA;
William Montieth Evarts, farmer, Adel, GA;
Lyman Franklin Giddens, barber, Ray City, GA ;
Vinter B. Godwin, general merchandise salesman, Lenox , GA;
George Washington Gray, farmer, Enigma, GA ;
John D. Gray, farmer, Alapaha, GA;
Frank Griffin, farmer, Nashville, GA;
John T. Griffin, mail carrier, Nashville, GA;
Sims Griffin Griffin, farmer, Nashville, GA
William Henry Griffin, farmer, Nashville, GA ;
Adolphus Brown Hammond, farmer, Enigma, GA ;
Charlie Brown Harris, farmer and merchant, Enigma, GA
Samuel J. Harwell, druggist, Adel, GA ;
Edward L. Ivey, naval stores operator, Cecil, GA ;
Joseph J. Knight, cross tie camp manager, Milltown (Lakeland), GA
Perry Thomas Knight, minister, Milltown (Lakeland), GA;
Henry Lee Lovett, farmer, Sparks, GA ;
Ralph George Luke, bank cashier, Cecil, GA;
Perry Newton Mathis, bookkeeper for J.N. Bray Lumber Co., Cecil, GA;
Hady Calvin McDermid, farmer and doctor, Sparks, GA;
William J. McKinney, dry goods merchant, Sparks, GA;
Malcom J. McMillan, retail merchant, Alapaha, GA
B. G. Moore;
Henry Moore, Alapaha, GA
Irwin Newton Moore, farmer, Nashville, GA ;
Luther Glenn Moore, student, Sparks, GA;
Richmon Newbern, farmer, Massee, GA ;
Charles. S. Parham, salesman and teacher, Nashville, GA;
William Manning Pafford, dry goods salesman, Milltown (Lakeland), GA ;
Arthur Henry Robinson, clergyman, Adel, GA ;
Thomas Morgan Rowan, farmer, Nashville, GA;
W. Rowe;
David Asa Sapp, turpentine operator, Ray City, GA ;
James David Cooper Smith, dry goods merchant, Tifton, GA
H.C. Smith;
Early Hamilton Spivey, farmer, Bannockburn, GA ;
O. Sutton;
James Henry Swindle, merchant, Ray City, GA ;
Charles Oscar Terry, druggist, Ray City, GA ;
William Edwin Tyson, teacher, Lenox, GA;

Penalties for giving false testimony to Exemption Boards were published in local newspapers.

Penalties for giving false testimony to Exemption Boards were published in local newspapers.

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