Henry Elmo DeLaney, Survivor of the H.M.S. Otranto Disaster

Grave of Henry Elmo DeLaney, City Cemetery, Nashville, GA. Image source: Searcher

Henry Elmo DeLaney, of Berrien County, GA, was among the WWI soldiers aboard the troop transport HMS Otranto on October 6, 1918 when it was fatally damaged in a collision with the HMS Kashmir off the coast of Islay, Scotland. The transport had sailed from New York on September 25, 1918 carrying more than 1,025 American soldiers and crewmen as part of a convoy headed for the fight in Europe. Delaney and most of the Georgia soldiers aboard the Otranto had trained at Fort Screven on Tybee Island, GA.

Delaney was below decks, just finishing breakfast when the collision occurred.

The seriousness of the situation was not immediately apparent to the men, who were told to remain where they were.  But within 15 minutes, every was ordered to go up on deck. The  ship was beginning to list, and the lights went out. The men emerged into a gale force wind and the footing was treacherous on the wet decks. Henry Elmo DeLaney emerged on the “B” deck with other men of his company and took a seat on a bench near the hatch.  He was seated next to Joseph Eden Hewell, a soldier from Woodville, GA when they observed the British destroyer HMS Mounsey coming along side the Otranto,  the destroyer looking tiny in comparison to the huge troopship.

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When the destroyer maneuvered to get alongside, Capt. Davidson of the Otranto warned Lieut. Craven, commanding the destroyer, not to make the attempt. When it was seen that Craven would make the attempt anyway, The men were ordered to remove their shoes and heavy clothing…

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Captain Craven, standing on the Mounsey’s bridge as the two ships came within leaping distance, used his megaphone to encourage the men on the Otranto. He shouted over and again, as loudly as he could, “Jump men! Jump.”

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” As the Mounsey neared the side of the Otranto the men began to jump from thirty to forty feet from her decks…many of the men leaped too quickly and missed their reckoning and dropped between the boats. Some of these disappeared in the water, but others of them were caught and crushed to death between the boats and the lifeboats which had been lowered to act as buffers…Many of those who reached the decks of the vessel suffered broken bones or otherwise were hurt. Those who missed the deck of the destroyer went to almost instant death.

Delaney and Hewell stood at the rails of the doomed Otranto, and watched as their fellow soldiers leaped for their lives.

Delaney observed they had better jump, too. The rough seas were crashing the ships together and men who lept with ill-timing were crushed between the hulls or plunged through to the frigid waters below. First DeLaney then Hewell managed a safe landing on the deck of the destroyer, and were taken to Belfast, Ireland along with nearly 600 other survivors. Hundreds of others stayed behind with the Otranto and went down with the ship when she broke up on the rocks off the Isle of Islay.  Hewell later wrote a journal about the final voyage of the Otranto (see Hewell’s 1918 Journal.)

The overloaded Mounsey precariously made way with the survivors to Belfast, Ireland where the American Red Cross was  waiting for their arrival. Not knowing when or where the disaster would come, The American Red Cross had prepared in advance for disaster.  Of those who succeeded in leaping to the deck of Mounsey, some perished from injuries or exposure and were buried in Belfast, Ireland.

Many, many bodies washed ashore on Islay, Scotland and were buried in mass graves. Berrien men among the hundreds of Otranto dead  included  Benjamin F. McCranieJim Melvin BoyettJohn Guy CoppageHiram Marcus BennettLafayett Gaskins,  William C. Zeigler and other men.  Early Steward of Nashville, GA was among the very few who washed up on the rocky coast of Islay still living.   The lost Georgian soldiers would later be honored in the Georgia WWI Memorial Book, (SEE Also Ray City, GA Veterans of World War I), and Berrien County, GA would commission the first monument to commemorate American soldiers killed in the Great War.

After recuperation, Henry Elmo DeLaney was sent on to France where he was assigned on December 3, 1918 to Battery F, 57th Artillery, Coastal Artillery Corps.

WWI service record of Henry Elmo Delaney

WWI service record of Henry Elmo Delaney

Battery F, which had seen heavy fighting in the Meuse Argonne, had been “ordered back to Brest, France to prepare for embarkation back to America.

1st Lt. Charles J. Foley, of the 57th Artillery reflected :

All operations having ceased, we were assigned to Doulevant to prepare for our return home. Property affairs were settled and the regiment proceeded to the camp at Brest for Embarkation. It might be well to state that we knew of no other ports from which we would prefer to sail, but not desiring to disappoint the A.E.F. officials by selecting any other route, we accepted their invitation and submerged ourselves in the mud of camp Pontenazen.

Camp Pontanezen was most likely where Henry Elmo DeLaney caught up with the 57th Artillery CAC. Camp Pontanezen  at Brest, France, was the point from which American soldiers were returned to the United States. Sergeant James L. Grace, Battery D,  57th Artillery CAC called Pontanezen “ a camp of mud and water. We were put into tents; where we remained until the 29th of December; 1918.

WWI Camp Pontanezen at Brest, France

WWI Camp Pontanezen at Brest, France

CAMP AT BREST

        Here we have a great port of embarkation for American soldiers. At times 80,000 men were camped there, the harbor crowded with shipping. In the early months after we entered the war, when everything had to be done with a rush and we were new to the job, conditions were very bad at Brest. As we see, it is a dismal, unattractive spot, cluttered with buildings, railway spurs, and raw, stark barracks. It rains most of the year at Brest, and the roads, firm underneath, are coated with slippery, semi-fluid mud which endless lines of motor trucks whirl viciously to every side. There is nothing to see but dismal wet barracks or soaked the bedraggled tents. At first, thousands of our boys had to camp in these tents, sleep on the damp ground, wade interminably through thick, sticky mud. One who had the misfortune to be at Brest in those days will never forget the place.
       But American energy and enterprise transformed Brest before the war ended. Enough barracks were built to accommodate everybody, board walks were laid everywhere. The camp was made as comfortable as a camp could be in such a moist climate.
       Brest is at the head of a magnificent, landlocked bay on the northwest coast of France. For centuries it has been a great port, Richelieu, in 1631, constructed the first wharves that were built there. It is the capital of one of the five naval arrondissements of France. There are gun factories, great workshops, magazines, docks and yards, employing thousands of men.

From the docks at Brest, the men were ferried by lighters out to the waiting troop transport USS Huntington.

Troops on board the lighter Amackassin, waiting to board Huntington for their passage home from France, 1919.

Troops on board the lighter Amackassin, waiting to board Huntington for their passage home from France, 1919.

 

US Naval History photo of the USS Hunting underway, circa 1919. The cruiser USS Huntington was converted to a troop transport following the signing of the Amistice ending WWI.

US Naval History photo of the USS Hunting underway, circa 1919. The cruiser USS Huntington was converted to a troop transport following the signing of the Armistice ending WWI.

The regiment embarked from Brest for New York on January 2nd, 1919, on the United States Cruiser “Huntington.” The Huntington had served on escort duty to defend convoys of transports ferrying the dough boys to Europe.

After the Armistice was signed Huntington was converted into a troop transport and assigned to Transport Force, Atlantic Fleet.  Huntington next sailed for France to bring home veterans of the European fighting. She departed New York 17 December, arrived in the harbor at Brest, France on 29 December 1918. On 2 January 1919 she embarked over 1,700 passengers the bulk of which was the 57th Artillery who had seen much action while in France, to New York [arriving] 14 January.

 

Devine services on USS Huntington's quarterdeck, while transporting troops in 1919. Henry Elmo Delaney and the other soldiers of the 57th Artillery CAC were among the first contingent of troops to be transported home by the Huntington.

Divine services on USS Huntington’s quarterdeck, while transporting troops in 1919.

The cruiser USS Huntington was converted to a troop transport following the signing of the Amistice ending WWI. Henry Elmo DeLaney, of Berrien County, GA, was among the 1,700 passengers on her first voyage as a transport returning from France. The ship made five more voyages to France and return, bringing home nearly 12,000 troops, and terminated her last voyage at Boston 5 July 1919.

Henry Elmo DeLaney, of Berrien County, GA, was among the 1,700 passengers on Huntington‘s first voyage as a transport returning from France, January 1919. The ship made five more voyages to France and return, bringing home nearly 12,000 troops, and terminated her last voyage at Boston 5 July 1919.

Delaney’s voyage back from France was uneventful with only two days rough seas and the usual amount of seasickness among the troops of the 57th Artillery CAC. Lieutenant Foley observed, “As we caught the first glimpse of the Statue of Liberty and heard the shouts from the Mayor’s Committee of Welcome we decided that there is but one country on the face of this earth-The United States Of America.”

Hoboken, NJ welcome committee greets WWI troops returning from France.

Sergeant Grace recalled,

 We arrived safely the morning of the 14th of January; 1919; docking at 9:35 A. M. at Pier 5 Hoboken, N. J. We immediately disembarked and entrained for Camp Merritt; N. J.;

Americans glad to be home - awaiting trains for demobilization camp, Hoboken. This is the WWI Port of Embarkation now serving as the Port of Debarkation. U.S. Army soldiers are waiting to board a train. The men are just east of the Headquarters, apparently between piers 3 and 4.

Americans glad to be home – awaiting trains for demobilization camp, Hoboken. This is the WWI Port of Embarkation now serving as the Port of Debarkation. U.S. Army soldiers are waiting to board a train. The men are just east of the Headquarters, apparently between piers 3 and 4.

These Americans, thousands of them, standing about holding aluminum drinking cups are waiting for their first meal on United States soil after a period of overseas service. Their packs are lying on the ground, all of them made up in the regulation fashion but for the present discarded until the much more “important” business of eating is over.

Behind that freight car which is being loaded with regimental baggage, you can see the Military Post Office of Hoboken and the low building next to it is the office of Headquarters, Port of Embarkation.

The building on the top of the hill is one of the Stevens Institute group, and beneath it you can see the side of the Hudson Hut, one of the Y.M.C.A. buildings that catered to the comfort and needs of the men just returned from overseas.

Before the Armistice only 15,000 men had been returned home, and a constant stream of men had been going overseas. The condition had to be reversed after the Armistice. This work of bringing back the men was carried on very expeditiously and in three months’ time more men had been brought back and mustered out of the service than the entire number mustered out after the Civil War.

 

WWI soldiers home from France arriving at Camp Merritt, NJ

WWI soldiers home from France arriving at Camp Merritt, NJ

Sergeant Grace continued,

Arriving there [Camp Merritt] at 2:30 P. M. and going into barracks for the time being. At 3:30 P. M. dinner was served and at 7:10 supper was served and at 8:50 P. M.  we went to the delousing station and all hands were deloused; and God knows we needed it. Delousing process completed about ten o’clock and we turned in for a much needed rest.

A few weeks later Battery “F” was demobilized at Fort Sandy Hook, New Jersey.

After discharge, Henry Elmo DeLaney returned to South Georgia.  In February, The Sparks Eagle reported he was taking up his previous position with the railroad.

The Sparks Eagle reports the homecoming of Henry Elmo Delaney.

The Sparks Eagle reports the homecoming of Henry Elmo Delaney.

By 1920, Henry Elmo DeLaney had relocated his family to Willacoochee where he continued to work as section foreman for the Georgia & Florida Railroad. The DeLaneys made their home on South Railroad Street.

By the 1930s, the DeLaneys moved to West Palm Beach, FL where Henry worked as a railroad inspector.

 

May 27, 1937 death certificate of Henry Elmo Delaney, survivor of the Otranto disaster of 1918.

May 27, 1937 death certificate of Henry Elmo Delaney, survivor of the Otranto disaster of 1918.

Henry Elmo Delaney died of a stroke on May 27, 1937 at age 43. In death he returned to Berrien County, GA. He was buried Sunday, May 30, 1937 in the City Cemetery at Nashville, GA.

Obituary of Henry Elmo Delaney, SFB, June 3, 1937

Impressive funeral services for Mr. Henry Elmo Delaney, 42, were held last Sunday afternoon from the Nashville Methodist Church, conducted by the Rev. J.A. Rountree in the presence of a large number of relatives and a number of local people. The speaker paid a nice tribute to the deceased and impressed those present. Interment followed in the City Cemetery, with the Giddens Funeral Home in charge of the arrangements. Pallbearers were legionnaires members of Otranto Post and were as follows: Messrs J.R. Bennett, O.L. Tyson, Gus C. Vining, Buren Griner, A.E. Alexander and Mark Sutton. Mr. Delaney passed away Thursday morning in the Veterans hospital in Augusta, where he had been confined for several months. The body arrived in Nashville Saturday afternoon and was carried to the home of Mr. & Mrs. S.J. McLendon, parents of his widow.

He was born and reared at Swainsboro, GA, the son of the late J.N. Delaney, who was an engineer on the Georgia and Florida Railroad for many years. His father was born and reared in Ireland and came to this country as a young man.

Twenty-three years ago he was married to Miss Rose McLendon, daughter of Mr. & Mrs. S.J. McLendon of Nashville. At that time the McLendons were residing at Swainsboro.

Surviving besides his widow are two sons, Elmo, Jr. and Jack, also a half sister, Gertrude Evans of Miami, Fla. There are also three cousins, Messrs John, Mark, and Tom Hall of Swainsboro. Out of town relatives attending the last sad rites included Mr. & Mrs. W.H. Dorsey of Augusta, Mr. & Mrs. J.A. McLendon, Mr. & Mrs. W.D. McLendon, Miss Mae McLendon and James Underwood of Swainsboro; Mr. & Mrs. A.H. Martin Vegue, Mr. & Mrs. Fred N. Tittle and Mr. & Mrs. Dave Hughes of Miami, Fl.; Mr. & Mrs. J.A. Coleman, Miss Frances Coleman, Mrs. Ben Gunner, Mr. Robert Moxley, Mr. & Mrs. Wade Moxley of Valdosta.

–Nashville Herald–

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A Log Rolling in Old Lowndes County, GA

When Dr. Jacob Rhett Motte arrived at Franklinville, GA in the fall of 1836, he became perhaps the first surgeon in Lowndes County, GA, which then encompassed a vast area including most of present day Lowndes, Berrien, Brooks, Cook, Lanier and Echols counties. Motte was the first of the medical men anywhere in the vicinity of the pioneer homesteaders at the settlement now known as Ray City, GA. Dr. Motte, a U.S. Army surgeon detailed to serve under the command of Major Greenleaf Dearborn, had come to Franklinville, GA at the onset of the Second Seminole War.

1836 map showing relative location of Franklinville, Camp Townsend, Camp Clyatt, Squire Swilley's, Warner's Ferry and other locations. Source: A Journey into Wilderness

1836 map showing relative location of Franklinville, Camp Townsend, Camp Clyatt, Squire Swilley’s, Warner’s Ferry and other locations. Source: A Journey into Wilderness

While encamped at Camp Townsend, Lowndes County, GA in 1836, Dr. Jacob Rhett Motte recorded many details of local folk life, which continued despite the threat of Indian attacks. In the fall of 1836 Dr. Motte  and Major Thomas Staniford were invited to a log rolling event held at the home of an unnamed Lowndes County resident.

A log rolling. Pioneers clearing the land.

A log rolling. Pioneers clearing the land.

Log Rolling was, according to Ward’s History of Coffee County, GA,

When a farmer decided to clear up a piece of land he split every tree on the land that would split into fence rails. The logs that would not split were cut up into pieces twelve or fifteen feet long to be burned at some convenient time in the fall or winter. The farmer gave a “log rolling, quilting and a frolic.” The neighbors were invited to a big dinner and a “log rolling.” The wives and daughters came to sew and to quilt.

As with many southern narratives, historical accounts of log rollings tend to ignore the role of enslaved African-Americans in the settlement of the southern frontier. Dr. Motte’s journal does not acknowledge the presence of slaves.  But slave narratives from Alabama recorded by the Works Project Administration relate, “When they had a log rolling on a plantation, the Negroes from the neighboring plantations came and worked together until all the jobs were completed.” After the log rolling the slaves were given “molasses to make candy and have a big folic.” For slaves, log rolling:

was great times, cause if some of the neighboring plantations wanted to get up a house, they would invite all the slaves, men and women to come with their masters. The women would help with the cooking and you may be sure they had something to cook. They would kill a cow, or three or four hogs, and then have peas, cabbage, and everything that grows on the farm. And if there was any meat or food left they would give that to the slaves to take home, and just before dark the overseer or Ol’ Master would give the slaves all the whiskey they wanted to drink. Sometimes after the days work, they would have a frolic, such as dancing, and old time games.

Cordelia Thomas, born into slavery on a Georgia plantation, shared the following memories of log rolling:

On our place they spent about two whole days cookin’ and gittin’ ready. Master asked everybody from far and nigh, and they always come ’cause they know he was going to give ’em a good old time. The way they rolled them logs was a sight, and the more good corn liquor Master passed ’round, the faster them logs rolled. Come night time, Master had a big bonfire built up and set lots of pitch-pine torches ’round so as there would be plenty of light for ’em to see how to eat that fine supper what had done been set out for ’em. After supper, they danced nigh all the rest of the night. Mammy used to tell us ’bout the frolics next day, ’cause us children was made to go to bed at sundown.

Irving Lowery, born into slavery on Puddin Swamp plantation, South Carolina, described the significance of log rolling in slave life:

A day was set on which the log-rolling was to take place, and then invitations were sent out to the neighboring planters, and each sent a hand. This work was returned when the others had their log-rolling. A log-rolling always meant a good dinner of the best, and lots of fun, as well as a testing of manhood. This testing of manhood was something that everybody was interested in. The masters were concerned, and consequently they selected and sent to the log-rolling their ablest-bodied men; the slave women were concerned: for they wanted their husbands and sweethearts to be considered the best men of the community. Then, too, the men took great pride in the development of their muscles. They took delight in rolling up their shirt sleeves, and displaying the largeness of their arms. In some cases, their muscles presented the appearance of John L. Sullivan–the American pugilist.

The woodlands of the South were covered with a variety of trees and undergrowth. Among the trees, were to be found the majestic pine, the sturdy oak, the sweet maple, the lovely dogwood, and the fruitful and useful hickory. When a piece of woodland was cleared up, and made ready for planting, it was called “new ground.” In clearing up new ground, the undergrowth was grubbed up and burned; the oaks, maples, dogwood, and hickories were cut down, split up, and hauled to the house for firewood; and the pines were belted or cut round, and left to die. After these pines had died and partially decayed, the winter’s storms, from year to year, would blow them down: hence the necessity for the annual log-rolling. These log-rollings usually took place in the spring of the year. They formed an important part of the preparations for the new crop.

On the appointed day, the hands came together at the yard, and all necessary arrangements were made, the most important of which was the pairing or matching of the men for the day’s work. In doing this, regard was had to the height and weight of the men. They were to lift in pairs, therefore, it was necessary that they should be as nearly the same height and weight as possible. The logs have all been cut about twenty feet in length, and several good, strong hand sticks have been made. Now, everything is ready, and away to the fields they go. See them as they put six hand-sticks under a great big log. This means twelve men–one at each end of the hand-stick. It is going to be a mighty testing of manhood. Every man is ordered to his place. The captain gives the order, “Ready,” and every man bows to his burden, with one hand on the end of the handstick, and the other on the log to keep it from rolling. The next command given by the captain is, “Altogether!” and up comes the big log. As they walk and stagger toward the heap, they utter a whoop like what is known as the “Rebel yell.” If one fails to lift his part, he is said to have been “pulled down,” and therefore becomes the butt of ridicule for the balance of the day. When the women folks learn of his misfortune, they forever scorn him as a weakling.

At 12 o’clock the horn blows for dinner, and they all knock off, and go, and enjoy a good dinner. After a rest, for possibly two hours, they go to the field again, and finish up the work for the day. Such was the log-rolling in the “days before the war.”

At a subsequent day the women and children gather up the bark and limbs of these fallen trees and throw or pile them on these log heaps and burn them. When fifty or seventy-five log heaps would be fully ablaze in the deepening of the evening twilight, the glare reflected from the heavens made it appear that the world was on fire. To even the benighted and uneducated slave, the sight was magnificent, and one of awe-inspiring beauty.

As an urbanite, Dr. Motte was unfamiliar with the frontier traditions of log rolling. According to Encyclopedia.Com,

A farmer chopped enough logs for a log rolling only when he had to clear acreage, so chopping frolics and log rollings primarily took place on the frontier. Work frolics derived from similar European and African traditions of communal agricultural labor. An individual, family, or community confronted with a task too large to complete on its own invited neighbors to help them. In return, the host provided refreshments and revelry. Work frolics composed a vital segment of the rural economy in America until the late nineteenth century. For over 200 years, the relatively low cost of renting or owning land in America resulted in a shortage of rural wage laborers. Faced with scarce labor and high wages for the few laborers available, farmers relied on the work frolic as a means for exchanging labor. Attendance at a work frolic granted neighbors the right to call on the host when they needed help. Besides meeting economic realities, work frolics contributed to the formation of communities by tying people into local networks of obligation.

Farmers called work frolics to accomplish a range of tasks, including corn husking, house (or barn) raising, quilting, sewing, apple butter making, chopping wood, log rolling, sugar (or syrup) making, spinning, hunting, and nut cracking. These events required planning and preparation [and followed] seasonal cycles of agriculture…To ensure farmers did not deplete their labor force by planning frolics on the same day, families collaborated to produce a frolic schedule. Hosts also finished preliminary tasks to allow visitors to focus on the large projects that the host family could not complete alone… Competition drove workers to accomplish their tasks quickly… Log-rolling teams strove to move the most wood. Obligatory reciprocity promised hosts that their neighbors would show up, but the party after the work served as a secondary lure. Most workers felt short-changed when hosts did not meet traditional expectations of decent food and alcohol. Entertainment at the parties consisted of music and dancing.

Ward’s History explains how the task was done in a competitive spirit.

The method of rolling logs was to take hand spikes, prize up the log, and put about three hand spikes under the log with two men to each stick, one on each side of the log. Many a contest in strength was made in lifting logs. If the log was very heavy, the men had to be very strong in their arms, legs and backs to lift. If the man at the other end of the stick was not likewise a very strong man, he could not come up with his end of the log and so he became the laughing stock of the crowd. It often happened that a small man was much stronger than a big man. I knew one little man who could lift as heavy a log as any man; the harder he pulled at his hand spike, redder and redder his face got, the veins in his neck bulged larger and larger. When a man claimed he was very much of a man and then wanted the light end of the load he would bluff the crowd by saying, ” I can carry this and then some. Jump on my end of the log and take a ride.”

While the men were busy rolling logs in the fields, the women and girls at home were busy making quilts and cooking dinner. One of the main dishes for dinner was a sixty-gallon sugar boiler full of rice and chicken and backbones. The largest dinner pot was full of greens and dumplings. When the greens were served on the largest dish a boiled ham was placed on top, while sweet potatoes, cracklin bread, potatoes, mudgen [lard] and cakes, two-story biscuits which were served in large quantities. When dinner time comes some one blows a big cow horn loud and long. All hands took a drink and went to dinner. All sorts of dishes are used on the table, broken cups, cracked plates, knives without handles, forks with but one prong, but they all had a good dinner and a bushel of fun while they ate.  When the log rolling and quilting is over and the sun sets into the West, old Bill Mundy, the colored man, came in with his fiddle. A lot of sand was put on the floor and everything is cleared for the dance. The dancers get on the floor with their partners, the fiddler starts up “the One-eyed Gopher,” and the frolic is on. The tune “One-eyed Gopher played by the fiddler was a repetition of the words, “Oh, the one-eyed gopher, he fell down and couldn’t turn over,” etc. He would play it high, play it fast, and play it slow. When the dancing was over, “They got Sandy Moore to beat the strings while he played “Squirrel Gravy,” and thus the frolic ended.

Dr. Motte wrote in his journal about the Lowndes County log rolling, which was held about six miles from Camp Townsend:

“[The host] and candidate for the legislature having given out that on a particular day he intended to have a log-rolling, quilting, and dancing frolic, and having sent an especial message to Major Staniford and myself to attend; our curiosity was excited to witness the originality of such an affair of which we had heard, but never witnessed; so we determined to go.

Thomas Staniford, major of the Regiment stationed near Franklinville, GA in 1836.

Thomas Staniford, major of the Regiment stationed near Franklinville, GA in 1836.

We had to ride six miles and arrived there about sun-set not caring much to participate in the log-rolling part of the entertainment; the [host] was busily engaged erecting a long table out of rough boards in the open air; while his wife was as busily engaged in cooking pork and cabbage in the kitchen, into which we were invited, being informed that it was the reception room. We there found the company assembled, and on entering would have removed our hats, to show our breeding in the presence of the fairer sex; on looking round, however, we noticed that such a procedure would not have been in conformity with the rules or customs of the company, and being decidedly outré would only have exposed us to their ridicule; so quaker-fashion we remained; and the fair angels whose gaze were fixed upon us, seemed by their approving smiles not to take our conduct amiss, – probably liked us the better for appearing to disregard their presence. The pork and cabbage were in due time dispatched, and a few of the gentlemen put to bed, in consideration of not being able to use their legs from a too free use of our host’s whiskey.

Then began preparations for the double-shuffle. There were three fiddlers; but unfortunately for the exercise of their united talents, only one fiddle; and that deficient in some of its strings. The three votaries of Apollo therefore exercised their functions successively upon the cracked instrument, and did not fail to produce such sounds as would have attracted the admiration of even the mighty goddess of Discord herself. Their chief merit seemed to consist in all producing a similar concatenation of sounds, which they persisted in dignifying with the appellation of tune; the name of which, however, was more that the brightest faculties could call.

The Major could not be induced to venture his carcase in the violent exercise of double-shuffle and cross-fling; so I had to support the credit of our camp by my own exertions; and so successfully, that the [host] was in raptures, and made an attempt to exhibit his admiration by embracing me before the whole company; but I could not stand such a flattering display, so bolted.

The intervals of the dance were filled up by the gentlemen handing round in a tumbler, what I thought was whisky and water, but which the Major asserted, from closer in inspection, was unadulterated whiskey; the younger ladies were generally satisfied with one or two mouthfuls from each tumbler, but as the same ceremony was to be gone through with each gentleman in rapid succession, the fairest of creation did not lose their proper allowance. The old ladies, who were veterans in the business, never loosened their grasp of the tumblers until their lips had drained the last drop of the precious liquid. As a necessary consequence it was impossible for them to sit up long, and soon all the beds were occupied by these ancient dames; the gentlemen who afterwards got into a similar predicament were compelled to lie wherever they fell.

At one o’clock fighting commenced, when the Major and myself, not being ambitious of distinguishing ourselves in the pugilistic art, made a retreat; and at two in the morning we were in our tents, after a bitter cold ride.

 

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Third Georgia Regiment U.S. Volunteers Camp at Savannah

In the Spanish-American War, nowhere was there greater fervor than in Georgia.  “When the United States became involved in war with Spain, Georgia furnished according to population more volunteers than any other State of the Union.”

Among Berrien County, GA men who volunteered for service in the Spanish American War were Walter A. Griner, Carl R. O’QuinnPythias D. Yapp,, Zachary T. Hester, W. Dutchman Stephens, Samuel Z. T. Lipham, James M. Bridges, Charles A. Courson, Love Culbreath, George C. Flowers, James L. Jordan and George A. Martin.  All enlisted in Company D, 3rd Georgia Regiment, U.S. Volunteers.

The Third Georgia Regiment, under the command of Colonel John S. Candler, completed its organization August 24, 1898 at Camp Northen, The regiment remained at Camp Northen until November 21, when it boarded the trains to Savannah, GA in preparation for embarkation to Cuba.

The Third Georgia Regiment arrived at Savannah in the early morning of November 22, 1898  on the Central Railroad, according to the Atlanta Constitution.

Atlanta Constitution
November 22, 1898

Third Georgia is in Savannah

      Savannah, Ga., November 21. -(Special.)- Colonel Curtis Guid, Jr., inspector general of the Seventh army corps, has been busy all day making arrangements for the camp site for the Third Georgia regiment, which was to have reached the city tonight shortly after 7 o’clock. The arrival of the regiment was reported at the DeSoto hotel at one time this evening, but it turned out that there had been a delay for some cause up the Central railroad, and the train dispatcher informed the corps officials that the first section of the regimental train would not reach the city until 2 o’clock in the morning. The second section will follow shortly afterwards, and the third will be in before 5 o’clock.
      Colonel George E. Pond, chief quartermaster of the corps, instructed the railroad authorities tonight to switch all the trains bringing the Third Georgia out to the works of the Georgia Car and Manufacturing Company, on the Ogeechee road, about three miles from the city. This is the spot where Colonel Sergeant’s regiment of immunes was camped and from which it had such a long and hot march to the Central railroad wharves. Arrangements had been made, however, to have the Third Georgia moved to the wharf on trains.         The regiment will not pitch all of its tents here…The officers’ tents will be pitched, but the men will be housed under the large shed belonging to the company, the use of which has been kindly permitted by President J.J. McDonough, one of Chatham’s legislators.

The men didn’t pitch their tents because the regiment expected an imminent departure. But the first available troop transport ships went to other regiments.   There was a cold snap and the men spent a chilly night under the open shed of the Georgia Car and Manufacturing, a mistake they wouldn’t make twice.

Atlanta Constitution
November 24, 1898
THIRD GEORGIA’S UNIQUE CAMP.

The Boys Pitch Tents on Flat Cars.
No Orders To March Set.
      Savannah, Ga., November 23. -(Special.)- The time of the departure of the Third Georgia regiment for Cuba is a matter of much doubt. The officers of the regiment supposed when they arrived here that they were to go on the transport Chester, which left New York yesterday and will be in Savannah tomorrow night, but today it developed that the Chester will carry the Fifteenth infantry to Neuvitas. The only other transports coming to Savannah now are the Manitoba, which will take to the same place six troops of the Eighth cavalry, and the Michigan, which will carry six more troops of cavalry to Porto Rico. The officers and men of the Third Georgia are a bit anxious about the matter, but it seems settled that the Fifteenth infantry will go first, as it has been ordered to leave Huntsville, Ala., for Savannah tomorrow. In this event the Third Georgia will hardly leave for Cuba until after the Chester has gone to Nuevitas and returned, which will require at least two weeks’ time, as vessels going to that port have to unload on lighters.
      The Third Georgia men put up their tents today, as they came pretty near freezing last night. Their tents are set up under a big shed and on top of a lot of flat cars at the Georgia Car and Manufacturing Company’s works and the camp is one of the most unique to be found in the country. The men are not complaining, but there is one thing certain, that there will be sickness among them if they have to remain long where they are. The country is low, and they cannot dig two feet without striking water. It is impossible, therefore, to secure sinks that will last for any length of time. Colonel Berner is somewhat anxious about the matter, but so far he has been unable to secure any definite information.

 

November 24, 1898 Savannah Morning News. The Savannah firm Lindsey & Morgan advertised portable heaters for soldiers' tents during the Spanish American War.

November 24, 1898 Savannah Morning News. The Savannah firm Lindsey & Morgan advertised portable oil heaters for soldiers’ tents during the Spanish American War. “You can take it with you to Cuba, if you go.

 

Other drawbacks to the site of Camp Carpenter were its remoteness from Savannah and the fact that the site provided no opportunity for drill or dress parade.  Despite some unfavorable conditions there were no reported complaints from the men and the discipline of the regiment was said to be in splendid shape.

State Legislators Visit Camp Carpenter

On November 26, the military committee of the state House of Representatives “arrived in the city…for the purpose of inspecting the Third Georgia regiment and looking in to the situation so far as the local state militia is concerned.” In the morning the committee was entertained by the city then were taken by carriages to tour the military facilities in the city, the army transport ships at the wharf,  and to the temporary camp of the Third Georgia regiment on the Ogeechee Road. The regiment named this site Camp Carpenter in honor of General Louis Henry Carpenter.

In the afternoon “the committee assembled in carriages at the park extension, being accompanied by General Fitzhugh Lee and officers of his staff, and there was a formal review of the Third Georgia led by Colonel R. L. Berner.

Fitzhugh Lee, nephew of Robert E. Lee. President Grover Cleveland appointed him consul general in Havana in 1896, a position he retained even after the election of President McKinley. At this time, Cuba was in chaos. Lee hoped for a U.S. intervention to help the rebels desiring independence, even though President McKinley wanted the Spanish government to come to a settlement without recourse to U.S. troops. A few hours after the President ordered the U.S.S. Maine to Havana Harbor, Lee telegraphed his advice not to send such a ship. Following the explosion on the Maine, Lee returned to Washington. On May 5, 1898 he was made a major general in the army and put in command of the Seventh Army Corps.

Fitzhugh Lee, nephew of Robert E. Lee. President Grover Cleveland appointed him consul general in Havana in 1896, a position he retained even after the election of President McKinley. At this time, Cuba was in chaos. Lee hoped for a U.S. intervention to help the rebels desiring independence, even though President McKinley wanted the Spanish government to come to a settlement without recourse to U.S. troops. A few hours after the President ordered the U.S.S. Maine to Havana Harbor, Lee telegraphed his advice not to send such a ship. Following the explosion on the Maine, Lee returned to Washington. On May 5, 1898 he was made a major general in the army and put in command of the Seventh Army Corps.

 Macon Telegraph
November 30, 1898   

       The committee, accompanied by Gen. Fitzhugh Lee and several of his staff officers, reviewed the Third Georgia  in the park extension. Though little was known of the fact that the regiment would be there, the people of Savannah gathered in large numbers, and the walks of the park and those around it were well filled when the review took place. The Third Georgia, in command of Col. Robert L. Berner, marched into the city, arriving about ten minutes before 3:30 o’clock, the time for the review. The regiment had an average of seventy-two men to the company, having left a large guard and kitchen detail at the camp, and made a splendid showing, upon which it was warmly complimented by Chairman Hardwick and all the members of the committee. After the review the committee was entertained at Thunderbolt by Messrs. LaRoche and McMillan.
      The object of the visit of the legislative committee was to gather an idea as to the advantages of the state militia, by making a study of the Third Georgia, In which are many of Georgia’s volunteer soldiers, and also of the situation here with the local military. The question of the state military appropriation for the year is at stake, and the matter Is a most important one, especially in view of the fact that retrenchment is now being made on all sides possible, except the matters of education and pensions.
      “I will say that the committee was well pleased with everything it has seen, ” Chairman Hardwick said. ”We were desirous of keeping up the appropriation if it were possible to do so, and if the need for it were made apparent. Since our investigation we are thoroughly satisfied of the advantages to be gained, and there is no question that the committee will recommend the full appropriation this year.”
      The committee was evidently well pleased with the treatment it received here, and was most favorably impressed from every standpoint. The usual military appropriation is 120,000, and the committee, as stated, will recommend the full amount this year.
      The committee returned to Atlanta last night, with the exception of Messrs. Hopkins, Hutchins and Erwin, who remained as guests of Mr. Jim Barrow, who came down with the committee.
     The following statement was drawn up by the committee just prior to Its departure last night, and its publication re quested :
     ”We desire to express our appreciation of the courteous treatment accorded the military committee of the House by your city officials, the Chatham delegation and the officers and men of the Third Georgia Regiment.
      “We tender our heartiest thanks to the Hon. I. W. Meldrim, Mayor of the city of Savannah, and to Dr. W. W. Owens, Mayor pro tem, for the hearty and cor dial welcome given by them to the committee, and for their many courtesies to us during our visit to their city.
      “We also desire to tender our thanks to Mr. John M. Egan for his courteous and considerate reception and entertainment of the committee. We are also grateful to the Hon. T. H. McMillan and Hon, W. P. LaRoche for their hospitable attentions and royal entertainment.
       We also highly appreciate the courteous attentions of Col. Berner and the officers and men of the Third Georgia Regiment for the splendid review given by the regiment, in honor of the committee’s visit. We feel very proud of the magnificent bearing and soldierly appearance of the regiment, and feel that no state has contributed a finer body of men to the service of the country. Our attention has been called by Gen. Lee to the fact that the Third Georgia is the only regiment he has seen which has not been provided’ with a handsome state flag, and we think the state of Georgia should remedy this over sight before the regiment leaves for Cuba by providing such a flag for the regiment at once.”
     The statement was signed by Hon. T. W. Hardwick, chairman committee on military affairs. House of Representatives, and J. M. Hopkins, secretary.

♦♦♦

Macon Telegraph
November 27,1898

The Third Georgia

May Be Some Time Before It Goes to Cuba.

       Many people will be interested to know that the Third Georgia may not go to Cuba for some time to come, and that it will be transferred to Gen. Lee’s headquarters. The story is told as follows by the Savannah Morning News:
        The Third Georgia regiment may be attached to the seventh army corps, in which event it will not go to Cuba for the present.
       Gen. Fitzhugh Lee, commanding the seventh army corps, received a telegram front the war department yesterday telling him that the Third Georgia regiment would be detained here for the present, asking him to provide a suitable camping ground for it, and stating that it might be attached to the seventh army corps. The statement on this line, while not positive indicated the probable intention of the war department to put the Third Georgia in Gen. Lee’s corps instead of leaving it in the second army corps, to which it is now attached.
     In the event this change is made as proposed, the Third Georgia will probably go to Havana instead of Nuevitas, as appears to have been intended. It is, of course, now definitely settled that the regiment will not go to Cuba on the transport Chester, which arrived here yesterday for the purpose of taking the Fifteenth Infantry, United States regulars, to Nuevitas, and if they are to be sent to that point shortly they will have to wait at least until the Chester returns.
      On account of the apparent change in the plans for the Third Georgia it has been found necessary to change their camping ground, and this will lie done at once. Gen. Lee has decided to put the regiment out on the Waters road something over half a mile beyond the junction of that road with Dale avenue. It will be located therefore considerable distance from the regiments composing the first division of the corps.
     The camp site having been decided upon, the work of extending water pipes to it from the mains put out in that part of the country by the city will be done today, and the Third Georgia will begin moving its camp from the works of the Georgia Car and Manufacturing company, on the Ogeechee road, today or tomorrow.
        The camp can be moved and set up within twelve or fourteen hours, with a sufficient supply of army wagons for the transportation, and from present appearances the movement will begin either Sunday or Monday.
     Should the Third Georgia regiment eventually be attached to the seventh army corps, the question is, where will it be placed? There are now two divisions of two brigades each in the corps. It would throw the corps somewhat out of proportion to have an odd regiment thrown in, but some provision will doubtless be made for it. Gen. Lee is of the opinion that other regiments will be sent here to be attached to the corps, in which event another brigade could be formed. The Second United States artillery, as is well known, is now on its way to Savannah, but Gen. Lee says the artillery regiment will not be brigaded with infantry, as it will have to be assigned to duty on the fortifications.
     The Third Georgia was, strange to say, the thirteenth regiment of Infantry to come to Savannah, the seventh army corps having brought twelve, and one of the officers remarked upon that fact the other day. He is not superstitious, but he has a curiosity to know just what is going to be done with the Georgians.
      Lieut. Orr of Newnan, quartermaster of the Third Georgia, has been in the city every day since the arrival of his regiment looking after its wants. Lieut. Orr says the regiment passed a most satisfactory Thanksgiving day, and the boys had all they wanted to eat. He says the men are very well situated in their camp at present, though there is some question as to whether it would be safe for them to remain there any length of time. He was of the opinion that a change would be made in the camp, and the chances are that the men will be notified to get ready to move at once.
     The Third Georgia boys are not complaining about their camp, but they all feel as if they would like to be within more convenient access to the city as long as they are stationed, here. Their camp on the Waters road will undoubtedly be a more satisfactory one, from every point of view.

♦♦♦

Savannah Morning News
November 29, 1898

MAY WAIT UNTIL TO-MORROW.
      Third Georgia Will Not Move Its Camp If the Weather Is Bad. It has not been definitely decided whether the Third Georgia Regiment will change its quarters to-day or not. If the weather is good the chances are that the work of moving may be begun; otherwise it will not. The new camping ground for the Third Georgia is now in good shape, the water supply having been put in and the company streets staked off. The regiment, however, is not suffering in its present quarters at the Georgia car works, and there is no necessity for moving in bad weather. The regiment in fact is quite comfortably quartered since its tents are set up under the sheds and no rain falls upon them. The wind, too, is shut off, and altogether the boys are getting on finely. It begins to look as if the Third Georgia will soon be attached to the Seventh Corps. No orders have been received with regard to it in some days. One of the staff officers when asked about it yesterday said: “The only definite thing with regard to the stay here of the Third Georgia is that it is indefinite.” 

♦♦♦

November 30, 1898

WILL MOVE THEIR CAMP TO-DAY.
Third Georgia Regiment to Change Its Quarters to Dale Avenue.

The camp of the Third Georgia Regiment will be moved to-day. The Georgians will come in from their quarters on the Ogeechee road and pitch their tents on the southern side of Dale avenue, a short distance to the west of the First Texas and Second Louisiana Regiments of the First Brigade, First Division. The work of moving camp will take about one day, and by to-night the new camp will be in good shape. A sufficient number of army wagons to carry the whole outfit will be sent out to the car works, and the Georgia boys will lose no time about moving. They have been very comfortably located where they are, but they want to get settled, and they are quite anxious to get near a car line as many of them like to come into the city occasionally. 

Col. Berner spoke proudly of the Third Georgia Regiment:

Robert Lee Berner

Robert Lee Berner

      “The Third Georgia is in splendid condition for the trip to Cuba. My men are in good health and spirits, and they are glad the day of departure has come. There was never a finer regiment of soldiers in the volunteer army, and I am proud of the men who will go to Cuba under my command. The boys are soldiers and gentle men, and you will hear of no outbreaks or disorder by them. They are well disciplined and are anxious to serve their country on Cuban soil. There are no brigands or outlaws among them, and they will not raid stores, stands or other people’s property, as has been done by some soldiers.
     “We do not expect to remain in Savannah but a few days. The regiment has been ordered to Neuvitas, Cuba, and as soon as the transports reach Savannah we will go on board and start for the Cuban port, which is to be our home for the next year or two, at least.
     “You may say to the people of Georgia that they need have no fear as to the conduct of the Third Georgia while in Cuba. My men will uphold the dignity of the state and the soldiery of Georgia, and good reports will be returned because there shall be no ground for bad ones.
     “We are deeply grateful for the many kind messages of good cheer sent its by friends throughout the state and they are appreciated sincerely.”
Lieut Col. Spence said:
      “The Third Georgia is a fine regiment and it will compare favorably with any of the service. I am glad to go to Cuba with the Georgia boys. The men are in good condition.”

Maj. John S. “Jack” Cohen said:
      “Our boys are happy that they are to go. To a man they want to see Cuba and they will board the transports cheerful and contented. Ours is the only regiment which is to see active service, and for that reason the men will make the very best record possible.”

The following week, it was ordered that all of the troops at Savannah would march in review for General Fitzhugh Lee,

Atlanta Constitution
December 4, 1898

Parade of Seventh Corps
General Lee Issues Order To All The Soldiers

Will be the Grandest Military Procession Seen in the South for Many Years.

      Savannah, Ga., December 3. -(Special.)- General Lee this afternoon issued an order for a grand parade and review of the entire Seventh army corps at 3 o’clock Tuesday afternoon at the park extension. This not only includes the Seventh army corps, but all the soldiers in and around Savannah, the Maine artillery, the signal corps, the Second regular regiment, light artillery and the batteries of the regulars just in from Porto Rico; the order also includes the Third Georgia regiment, which will be the first appearance of Colonel Bob Berner’s men. This will probably be the last appearance in Savannah of General Lee and his staff and of the Seventh army corps before their departure for Cuba. It will be the largest military parade held in the south since General Breckinridge reviewed the troops of Chickamauga from Snodgrass hill.
      It is doubtful now if General Fitzhugh Lee will be in Savannah when President McKinley visits the city, the middle of the month. Orders were issued today providing for the removal within a week of the First brigade, Second division, Seventh army corps to Havana, and the announcement is made that the transports Michigan, Mobile and Roumania will carry the brigade…

♦♦♦

Atlanta Constitution
December 7, 1898

FAREWELL REVIEW OF SEVENTH CORPS

General Fitzhugh Lee Reviews Sixteen Thousand Troops.

Third Georgia Was In Line

Confederate Veterans Formed General Lee’s Escort.

Savannah, Ga., December 6. – The farewell review of the Seventh army corps before its departure for Cuba took place in Forsyth park today. Sixteen thousand troops passed in review before General Lee. Besides the Seventh corps, the Third Georgia regiment, Second Unites States artillery and two light batteries from the Third, one from the Fourth and one from the Fifth and the First Maine artillery took part in the review.
Troop A of the First Georgia cavalry-the famous Jeff Davis legion of the civil war -formed General Lee’s escort and a dashing appearance on the reviewing field…

♦ ♦ ♦

Thirty thousand people witnessed the review, which was one of the most imposing ever seen in Savannah.Americus Times-Recorder, Dec 8, 1898

Seventh Army Corps passing in review, 1898

Seventh Army Corps passing in review, 1898

 

Related Posts:

Berrien Men Prepared for Spanish-American War at Camp Northen, GA

Spanish-American War Vet Rests at Ray City, GA

Remember the Maine, Aaron Cook and the Spanish American War

Roster of Company D, 3rd Regiment Georgia Infantry U.S. Volunteers

James & Ida Lou Patten and the Cruise to Cuba

 

Roster of Levi J. Knight’s Independent Militia Company, 1838 with Notes on the Soldiers

Second Seminole War
Levi J. Knight’s Independent Company, 1838

In 1836 as bands of Indians moved across Lowndes County, GA towards the Okefenokee Swamp, Captain Levi J. Knight’s company and other local militia companies engaged them in skirmishes at William Parker’s place, Brushy Creek, Warrior Creek, Cow Creek, Troublesome Ford and other places. In 1838, when Indians raiding from the swamp attacked and massacred nearby settlers and travelers militia companies were again called up, first on local authority of the Lowndes County Committee of Vigilance and Safety, then on the authority of Governor Gilmer.  J. T. Shelton summarized the situation in Pines and Pioneers:

In 1838, Governor Gilmer authorized the call up of eight additional volunteer companies, notifying Colonel Enoch Hall to have any company raised there to report to General Charles Floyd in charge of the militia at Waresboro.  Levi J. Knight promptly volunteered the services of a company of mounted riflemen of which he was captain, Barzilla Staten first lieutenant, and George Roberts second lieutenant, and sixty-five men who were “ready at a minutes warning-to march where ever you may order.” Knight had been operating for some time under the Committee of Safety for Lowndes County; He had searched the west side of the Okefenokee for fifty miles and found signs of about 500 warriors who had left ten days ago; he believed they would come back to steal corn and potatoes; he approved of the executive’s use of “efficient means to rid us of these troublesome neighbors.” Gilmer quickly accepted Captain Knight’s independent company and that of Captain Tomlinson into Floyd’s regiment. Knight, with a full company complement of seventy-five men served in the “sudden emergency” from August 15 to October 15, 1838.  

The 1838 muster roll of Knight’s company was transcribed and published in the South Georgia Historical and Genealogical Quarterly. Nearly a third of the men in Captain Knight’s Company had prior military service. Many had served under Captain Knight in skirmishes with the Indians in 1836.   Governor Schley had noted in his November 7, 1837 address to the Georgia Assembly that militia volunteers who served enlistments in 1836 had received “payment for articles lost ‘in battle, or in the immediate pursuit of the Indians, or while employed in actual service,’ which shall not extend ‘beyond the loss of horses and equipages, wagons and wearing apparel of the soldier.’ The Governor paid “all accounts for ‘subsistence forage, ammunition, clothing, tents, camp equipage, cooking utensils, medicine, hospital stores &c.’…  “The laws of the United States allowed each militia man in the service of the United States, two dollars and fifty cents per month in lieu of clothing.” No compensation was given for horses which died of natural causes.  Militia volunteers, privates and officers received the same pay as soldiers enlisted in the U. S. Army. Sick or wounded men were compensated for any expenses for medical treatment they received from civilian physicians.
The militia volunteers enlisting in 1838 probably expected similar compensation.

Muster roll of Levi J. Knight's Independent Company, 1838. South Georgia Historical and Genealogical Quarterly

Muster roll of Levi J. Knight’s Independent Company, 1838. South Georgia Historical and Genealogical Quarterly

 

(Editor’s Note: In 1838 the Indians in this section of Georgia went on the warpath, and the state malitia was called out to repel them. The following seven companies of state militia from Ware and Lowndes counties saw service in this war, and these rosters are taken from the records in the capitol at Atlanta. The following is the caption as copied concerning Capt. Levi J. Knight’s company:

MUSTER ROLL OF CAPT. LEVI J. KNIGHT’S Independent Company from Lowndes county, from 15th day of August, 1838 to 15th day of October, 1838, which entered the service on a sudden emergency to repel the invasion of the Indians into that county in the year 1838.

  • Levi J. Knight, Captain
  • Barzilla Staten, First Lieut.
  • George Roberts, Second Lieut.,
    Martin Shaw (1803-1876), First Sargent
    Martin Shaw (Jr.), born in SC April 1, 1803, a son of Pvt. Martin Shaw; apparently moved with his father and siblings to Liberty County, GA between 1811 and 1816; moved by 1825 to McIntosh County where he paid a poll tax of 31 cents and 2 1/2 mills in Captain Duncan McCranie’s district; moved to Lowndes County, GA about 1828; a Whig in politics; in 1834-1835, a member of the State Rights Association of Lowndes County, GA; deputy sheriff of Lowndes County, 1834-1836;   served as a private in Captain Hamilton W. Sharpe’s Company of Florida Volunteers in the Indian War of 1836; Sheriff of Lowndes County 1836-38, and at that time a resident of Franklinville, the then county seat of Lowndes County; after a short residence at Franklinville moved to that part of Lowndes County cut off into Berrien in 1856; married 1st in 1839, to Elizabeth Mathis, daughter of James and Rhoda Monk Mathis; married second Mrs. Matilda Sharpe of Colquitt County; served in the Indian War as a private in Captain Levi J. Knights company of Lowndes County Militia in 1838; served on 1849 committee to nominate a Whig candidate for Lowndes County representative to the state legislature; in 1852, administrator of the estate of Riley Deloach, Lowndes County, GA; in 1853, administrator of the estate of Abraham Deloach; He was cut out of Lowndes County into Berrien in 1856; elected one of the first Justices of The Inferior Court of Berrien county, serving 1856-1861; in 1858, served on Resolutions Committee to protest the proposed route of the the Atlantic & Gulf railroad to the south to bypass Troupville, GA; paid 1866 IRS “buggy” tax in Berrien County, GA; served as County Commissioner of Berrien County, 1872-73; 1872 offered as unsuccessful Democratic candidate for Berrien County representative to the state legislature; died suddenly at his home in Berrien County, GA (now Cook), two miles east of Adel, November 7, 1876; buried Old Salem Church cemetery, now in the City of Adel, GA and known as Woodlawn Cemetery.
  • William P. Roberts, Second Sargent
    A fortunate drawer in the 1827 Georgia Land Lottery.
  • Abram Register, Third Sargent,
  • Reubin Roberts, Fourth Sargent
  • James Johnson, First Corporal
  • Mark Ratcliff, Second Corporal
  • John Register, Third Corporal
  • Harmon Gaskins, Fourth Corporal

PRIVATES

  1. Box, John (1795- )
    John C. Box (1795- ) born in South Carolina; came to Lowndes County, GA some time between 1830 and 1838; moved to Clinch County, GA prior to the 1860 census.
  2. Brance, James T. (1818-1906)
    James Thomas Branch, born February 6, 1818, Laurens County, GA; as a young man moved to Irwin County, GA; Married February 13, 1838 to Ruthie Ann Sumner; served in Levi J. Knight’s Independent Company, Lowndes County, GA, 1838; Commissioned as militia Captain, September 7, 1861; enlisted as a private Company F, 49th Georgia Infantry Regiment, March 4, 1862; transferred to Company A, 61st Georgia Infantry Regiment; May 1864 elected Justice of the Peace, 690th Georgia Militia District, Irwin County, GA; moved to Berrien County, GA about 1878; later moved to Worth County; died November 8, 1906; buried Hickory Springs Baptist Church, TyTy,GA.
  3. Bell, David
    David Bell; resident of Mattox’s District, Lowndes County, 1832; served as militia captain in Lowndes County; supporter of State Rights Association of Lowndes County; fortunate drawer in the 1832 Land Lottery; served for the January, 1837 term of the Grand Jury of the Lowndes Superior Court; served as a private in Levi J. Knight’s Independent Company of Lowndes County, 1838, during Indian Wars.
  4. Clements, John F. (1810-1864)
    John Franklin Clements born October 7, 1810 in Wayne County, GA;  served as Wayne County Tax Collector  1830-32; moved to Lowndes County (now Berrien) in 1832; served in Levi J. Knight’s Independent Company of Lowndes County; married Nancy Patten, a daughter of James M. Patten and Elizabeth Lee, in 1840; served on the Lowndes County Grand Jury of 1841; died on September 23, 1864; buried at Union Church Cemetery, Lakeland, GA.
  5. Clements, William
  6. Clements, David
    Marched with Levi J. Knight’s company in the Indian Wars of 1836;
  7. Cribb, John (1897-)
    John Cribb, born about 1897 in South Carolina; came to Lowndes some time prior to 1838; served in Levi J. Knight’s Independent Company of Lowndes County; appears in the 1840 and 1870 census of Lowndes County, GA.  John Cribb died between 1870 and 1880. His widow, Eady Cribb, and daughter, Elizabeth Cribb, appear in the 1880 census of the 661 Georgia Militia District, the Naylor District, Lowndes County, GA.
  8. Douglas, Eaton (1800- )
    Eaton Douglas, born 1800, Burke County, GA; relocated to Tattnall County, then Appling County, GA; married Maria Branch in Appling County, GA; Administrator of the estate of Penelope Branch, 1835, Appling County, GA; about 1835 he located on Land lot 506 in the 11th District, north of Stockton, Lowndes County (now Lanier), GA;  in 1838 served in Levi J. Knight’s Independent Company of Lowndes County;  served as 2nd Lieutenant under Captain John J. Johnson in the Indian War, September 22, 1840 to October 18, 1840; joined September 9, 1848 to Union Primitive Baptist Church, expelled by request September 11, 1863.
  9. Douglas, Barzilla (1821- )
    Barzilla Douglas, born about 1821, son of Eaton Douglas and Maria Branch; in 1838 served in Levi J. Knight’s Independent Company of Lowndes County;   married Dicey Bennett about 1839; established his household next to his father’s homeplace north of Stockton, GA; later moved to Florida.
  10. Devane, Francis (c1798-1868)
    Francis DeVane, born circa 1798 in North Carolina, son of Captain John DeVane, Jr. and Ann Julia Davis, and brother of Benjamin Devane; Private, War of 1812 in Captain Montesquieu W. Campbell’s Company, New Hanover County Regiment of Militia, NC; Private in the company of Bladen County, NC Militia commanded by Captain Sellers. married  Frances Giddens about 1815; tax defaulter, 1815-16, New Hanover County, NC; in 1825, acted as attorney for Lucretia Rogers and her children James Rogers, Ann Rogers and Benjamin Devane in the sale of 585 acres of land in New Hanover Count, North Carolina; relocated to Lowndes County (now Brooks County), Georgia in 1828, moving with the Rogers family;  in 1838 served in Levi J. Knight’s Independent Company of Lowndes County; Died March 8, 1868 in Berrien County, Georgia; buried Pleasant Cemetery.
  11. Devane, Benjamin (1796-1878)
    Benjamin Devane  was born 1796 in New Hanover County, NC,  son of Captain John DeVane, Jr. and Ann Julia Davis, and brother of Francis Devane; served in the War of 1812 as a Corporal  in the New Hanover Regiment of Militia, New Hanover County, NC, serving from July 20, 1813, to August 2, 1813, under Captain George W. Bannerman; in 1814 married Mary Rogers of New Hanover County and afterwards moved to Bulloch County, GA; moved to Lowndes County, GA around 1828;  enlisted as a private at Pedro, Fl, under Captain M. C. Livingston in the 2nd Regiment, East Florida Volunteers, June 16, 1837, and was honorably discharged at Newnansville, December 18, 1837; In 1838, Benjamin Devane served as a private in Captain Levi J. Knight’s Company, Lowndes County, GA; served as a private in Captain Thomas Langford’s Florida Mounted Militia, volunteering at Fort Collins, September 4, 1839, serving until March 4, 1840; In 1848 moved to Madison County, Fl; about 1858 moved to Brooks County, GA; in 1861 returned to Shady Grove, Madison County, FL; after the Civil War moved to Hillsborough County, Fl; received a land grant June 29, 1878, for services in the Indian War; received a pension for service in the War of 1812; died October 28, 1879 in Hillsborough County, FL; buried in Mount Enon Baptist Church cemetery near Plant City, FL.
  12. Durrance, William (1804-1841)
    William Durrence was born in 1804; married Lourany Deloach on February 19, 1824, in Tattnall County, Georgia and settled on land near Bull Creek; Justice of the Peace, 1829, Tatnall County; moved to Lowndes County, GA some time after 1830; In 1836 served in Captain Hamilton W. Sharpe’s Company of Florida Volunteers; In 1838,  served as a private in Captain Levi J. Knight’s Company, Lowndes County, GA; 1841, filed a fi fa action in Lowndes Superior Court, Troupville, GA, against Elias Skipper; died on March 8, 1841, in Lowndes County, Georgia, at the age of 37.
  13. Edmondson, James (1799-1870)
    James Edmondson, born 1799 in Bulloch County, GA, son of Revolutionary Soldier Isaac Edmondson and Ann Cox; married Sabra James about 1820 in Bulloch County; between 1825 and 1828 moved to that part Lowndes County, GA now in Brooks County; relocated one year later to near the Withlacoochee River, about 8 miles southwest of present day Ray City, GA (four miles east of Hahira); baptised into Union Primitive Baptist Church, December 12, 1832; a lucky drawer in the 1832 Cherokee Land Lottery, drawing Lot 55, 18th District, Fourth Section, Walker County, GA; transferred Muscogee County, GA land grant to Thomas Belote in 1832; appointed by the Georgia legislature December 12, 1834 as a commissioner to determine a new location for the Lowndes County courthouse and jail; served as a private in Captain Levi J. Knight’s Independent Company 1836-1838, in the skirmish with Indians at William Parker’s place and afterwards; owned in 1840, 490 acres, Lot 3, 11th District of Lowndes; owned in 1844, 980 acres and 5 slaves in Lowndes County, GA;  dismissed by letter from Union Primitive Baptist Church, October 9, 1847 and later joined Pleasant Church; died about 1870.
  14. Emanuel, Amos (1795- )
    Amos Emanuel, born about 1795 in South Carolina; married about 1819, wife Martha; located in Montgomery County, GA by 1820, owning Lot Nos. 250 and 240 in the 11th District, Montgomery County; involved in 1825 Fi Fas legal action with John J. Underwood against William Gibbs; sold at auction in Montgomery County, April 3, 1827, one slave woman, Mary Ann, property of Amos Emanuel; relocated to Lowndes County, GA about 1827; authorized by the Georgia Legislature  on November 14, 1827 “to establish a ferry across Little River where Coffee’s road crosses the same, in Lowndes County, on his own land“; enrolled for six months service, June 16, 1837 to December 16, 1837 in Captain John G. Johnson’s Company of the 2nd Regiment East Florida Mounted Volunteers; In 1838, served as a private in Captain Levi J. Knight’s Company, Lowndes County, GA; removed to 719th Georgia Militia District, Ware County, GA prior to 1840; July 2, 1844 Ware County Sheriff seized seven head of stock cattle, taken as property of Amos Emanuel, to satisfy debts owed to the Superior Court of Ware County.
  15. Griffis, Joel (1803-1871)
    Joel Griffis, born 1803 in Clinch County, Georgia, a son of Nancy and Samuel Griffis, elder brother of Pvt. Littleberry Griffis and Pvt. John Griffis, and nephew of Charles A. Griffis; the father, Samuel Griffis (1775-1851), also served with Captain Levi J. Knight in the Indian Wars; moved to Appling County with his parents when he was young; Captain of the militia in the 719th district, Ware Co, 1835-1840; served a short volunteer term of enlistment in Capt. Levi J. Knights independent company of Lowndes County militia in 1838; married Elizabeth Bennett, 1841, daughter of John Bennett and Sallie Register; lived on lot of land number 310, 12th district of Ware County; sold out to Abraham Hargraves, of Ware County in 1851, and moved to Land lot number 149, 12th district in the southwest corner of Clinch County; Joel and  Elizabeth Griffis were received and baptized in 1847 in Wayfare Primitive Baptist Church – He was excluded in March 1867; died 1871 in Clinch County, Georgia; buried at Wayfare Church, graves unmarked.
  16. Griffis, John (1809-1880)
    John Griffis born 1809 in Georgia; a son of Nancy and Samuel Griffis, brother of Pvt. Joel Griffis and Pvt. Littleberry Griffis; the father, Samuel Griffis (1775-1851), also served with Captain Levi J. Knight in the Indian Wars; married Easter Bennett (1817-1855) about 1830;  moved in his youth with his parents to Appling County, thence to Ware County; served as a second lieutenant in the Ware County militia, 719th district 1830-35; served as a private in Capt. Levi J. Knight’s militia company in 1838 in the Indian War; married about 1843 to divorcee’ Esther Padgett who had abandoned her husband, John Stalvey, and children; moved to that part of Columbia County, FL later cut into Bradford County, FL; died about 1880 in Bradford County, FL
  17. Griffis, Littleberry (1811-1895)
    Berrian “Littleberry” Griffis, born August 24, 1811 in that part of Ware County cut into Clinch County, GA, in 1850, and into Atkinson County in 1917; a son of Nancy and Samuel Griffis, younger brother of Pvt. Joel Griffis and Pvt. John Griffis; the father, Samuel Griffis (1775-1851), also served with Captain Levi J. Knight in the Indian Wars; married Easter Bennett (1817-1855) about 1830; moved with his family to the 12th land district of Ware county (now Clinch); October 30, 1833, purchased a note held by A. E. Thomas on Lot Number 57,  Sixth District, Carroll County, GA and sold same note August 15, 1850 to Miles J. Guest; In 1838 in the Indian Wars, served as a private in Captain Levi J. Knight’s Company, Lowndes County, GA; November 1st to December 31, 1839,served as a private in Captain David Johnson’s company of Ware County militia; purchased land lot 417, 12th district, Clinch County, about 1852 where he established his homeplace; married second, widow Mrs. Sarah Brooker; baptized October 2, 1874 into Bethel Primitive Baptist Church, Echols County, GA and dismissed March 9 1876 to unite in constituting Ramah Church in Clinch County, which he did April 15, 1876- expelled July 24, 1882; married third, Sidney Lee in Cinch Co, Dec 16 1878 -separated in August 1884-divorced 1892; died April 1, 1895; buried Moniac Cemetery, Charlton County, GA.
  18. Giddens, Thomas (1789-1857)
    Thomas Giddens, born 1789 in North Carolina, believed to be the son of Thomas Giddens, Sr., Revolutionary Soldier; brother of Frances Giddens Devane, Ann Giddens Rogers, Morris Giddens and Pvt. Duncan Giddens; married first  Mrs. Gregory; married second, on April 25, 1825, Mary “Pollie” Nevill in Bulloch County, GA; moved from Bulloch County to Mattox’s District, Lowndes County, GA some time before 1830; a fortunate drawer in the 1832 Cherokee Land Lottery, drawing Lot 280, 9th District, Walker County, GA; marched with Levi J. Knight’s company in the Indian Wars of 1836; volunteered April 3, 1838, at Troublesome, GA (now Statenville) and served under Captain David R. Byran in his company of Lowndes County militia, and was honorably discharged there July 22, 1838; served July, 1838 to October 15, 1838 as a private in Captain David R. Bryan’s mounted company; served as a Private in Capt Levi J Knight’s Company of Georgia Militia, 1838; In 1850 assigned power of attorney to Captain Levi J. Knight to secure 80 acres of bounty land due Giddens as compensation for eight months of military service during the Indian Wars; died February 22, 1857.
  19. Giddens, Frederick (1812-1867)
    Frederick Giddens born 1812 in New Hanover County, North Carolina, son of Thomas Giddens (1789-1857); his mother died when he was a boy and from age 12 he was raised by his step-mother Mary “Pollie” Nevill; came with his father to Lowndes County before 1830; December 8-9, 1833, fortunate drawer in the Cherokee Land Lottery, drawing Lot 325 in the 4th District of Cherokee County, GA; married Elizabeth Mathis, 1833, in Lowndes County, GA; Lowndes County 1834 tax records show he owned 80 acres of oak and hardwood land in Cherokee County; settled in  Lowndesin that part which was  cut into Berrien County in 1856, on the Nashville-Valdosta Road, the homeplace later being known as the Harmon F. Gaskins place; served as a Private in Captain Levi J Knight’s Company of Georgia Militia in 1836 in the skirmish at William Parker’s place and in 1838; Lowndes County 1844 tax records show the Frederick M. Giddens homeplace was 980 acres in Captain Sanderson’s District on Land lots 464 and 465 in the 10th District; February 6,1867, administrator of the estate of John W. Giddens, acting in the sale of 365 unimproved acres of Lot No. 334, widow’s dower excepted, in the 10th District of Berrien ; According to Berrien County court records,  Frederick Giddens sold property to Benjamin Wooding which included the grave of a Giddens’ infant, and subsequently a feud arose between the two over burial rights at what Giddens considered a family burial ground; died July 5, 1867 in Berrien County, GA; buried Woodlawn Cemetery, Adel, GA.
  20. Guthrie, Aaron (1788-)
    Born 1788 in South Carolina; Lowndes County Tax Digest show him in Captain Sermon’s District in 1840;
  21. Guthrie, John (1795-c1870)
    John L. Guthrie, brother of Aaron Guthrie; born 1795 in South Carolina; In the Indian Wars (Second Seminole War) served enlistments in Captain Johnson’s Company, Captain David R. Bryan’s Company, and Captain Levi J. Knight’s Company; donated the land for Guthrie Cemetery, Berrien County, GA; His son, Samuel Guthrie married Martha Newbern, daughter of Etheldred Newbern;  Died about 1870; buried Guthrie Cemetery.
  22. Guthrie, John, Jr. (c1821-1904)
    John Hamilton “Hamp” Guthrie, son of John L. Guthrie; born about 1821; in 1849 a member of the Berrien Tiger hunting party along with brother Samuel Guthrie; Census of 1850 shows he lived on 675 acres in Clinch County, GA; died 1904; grave unknown.
  23. Guthrie, Hamilton
  24. Giddens, Isbin (1788-1853)
    Pioneer settler of Berrien County, GA and brother-in-law of Captain Levi J. Knight; born in Blounts Creek, Beaufort County, North Carolina on November 4, 1788; lieutenant of the 334th District Militia, Wayne County, from 1816 to 1820;  Member of Kettle Creek Baptist Church, 1823; Member of Union Primitive Baptist Church, 1827; Fortunate drawer in the 1827 Georgia Land Lottery; marched with Levi J. Knight’s company in the Indian Wars of 1836;
  25. Giddens, William
    Marched with Levi J. Knight’s company in the Indian Wars of 1836;
  26. Giddens, Moses  (1821-1906)
    Son of Isbin Giddens and Kiziah Amanda Knight, born November 14, 1821, Appling County,GA; served with Levi J. Knight’s company in 1836 skirmishes with Indians; a private on the 1860 muster roll of Levi J. Knight’s Berrien Minute Men, Company K, 29th Georgia Regiment; died January 11, 1906, Alapaha, GA.
  27. Griffis, John J.
  28. Gaskins, John (1802-1865)
    Pioneer settler and cattleman of Berrien County, GA; born June 29, 1802 in Warren County, GA; marched with Levi J. Knight’s company in the Indian Wars of 1836; Gaskins’ own home was raided by Indians while the family was away; died July 13, 1865; buried Riverside Cemetery, Berrien County, GA.
  29. Griffis, Leighton
  30. Griffis, Richard
  31. Gaskins, Harmon (1811-1877)
    Harmon Gaskins, Brother of Pvt. John Gaskins; born January 15, 1811; among Captain Levi J. Knight’s Company of men who fought in the Indian Wars of 1836; appointed one of the first judges of the Inferior Court of Berrien County; Justice of the Peace;  Died September 4, 1877; buried Gaskins Cemetery, Berrien County, GA
  32. Giddens, Duncan (1808-1907)
    Duncan Giddens, Son-in-law of Pvt. John Mathis; born in North Carolina in 1808; came to Lowndes County, now Berrien about 1827-1828; 1st Lieutenant of the militia in the 664th District of Lowndes County 1834-1840; died in Brooks County, GA, on November 26, 1907; buried Old Giddens Family Home Cemetery, Sandy Bottom, Atkinson County, Georgia.
  33. Griffis, Charles, Jr. (1800-1875)
    Charles Griffis, Jr., born 1800 in Montgomery County, Georgia, and died 1875 in Appling County, Georgia.
  34. Hodges, John (1809-1875)
    John Hodges, born in Tattnall County in 1809 and came to Lowndes County at the age of nineteen; participated in the Battle of Brushy Creek; established a mule-powered cotton gin on his farm; died 1875.
  35. Hodges, Alex. (1816-1884)
    Alexander Hodges, brother of Pvt. John Hodges; born May 17, 1816 in Tattnall County, GA; became a Primitive Baptist reverend; Died April 6, 1884 at High Springs, FL; buried New Hope Primitive Baptist Church.
  36. Hodges, James
    James Hodges, Brother of Pvt. Alexander Hodges and Pvt. John Hodges.
  37. Harnage, George (1807-1895)
    George Harnage, born 1807; came to Lowndes from Liberty County, GA; a son-in-law of Jeremiah Shaw; marched with Levi J. Knight’s company in the Indian Wars of 1836; Primitive Baptist Deacon; died about 1895.
  38. Harnage, Isaac (1804-1868)
    Isaac Harnage, Brother of Pvt. George Harnage; buried Boney Bluff Cemetery, Echols County, GA
  39.  Hearndon, Wm. Z. (c1804-1865)
    William Z. Herndon, born about 1804 in North Carolina; married Amelia Ann Freaux (or Fruhock); made their home in  Appling, Lowndes and Ware County, GA; Served in Levi J. Knights Independent Company of Lowndes County from August 15, 1838 to October 15, 1838; about 1842 moved to Columbia County, FL; appointed U.S. Postmaster, January 20, 1853 at New River, Columbia County, FL; became a Methodist Preacher in Indian River County, FL; in 1860 moved to Fort Meade, Polk County, FL; died in 1865; buried at Homeland, FL.
  40. Henley, Elmore
  41. Johnson, David (1804-1881)
    David Johnson, born January 29, 1804, Bulloch County, GA, son of Martha Hardeman and David Johnson, Revolutionary Soldier, and grandfather of J.H.P. Johnson, of Ray City, GA; moved in 1822 to the Mud Creek District near the Alapaha River in Irwin County (now Clinch) where he was among the first to settle; about 1825 moved to Leon County, Florida Territory; about 1828 moved to Lowndes County, GA near present Valdosta, GA; married about 1828 to Nancy “Mary Ann” Burnett; moved to Ware (now Clinch) County GA; served as a Private in Capt Levi J Knight’s Company of Georgia Militia, 1838; from November 1, 1839 – December 31, 1839, captain of a Georgia Militia company ordered into Federal Service in the Indian Wars; commissioned Major General of the 2nd Brigade, 6th Division of the State Militia on December 16, 1850; elected April 1, 1850, Justice of the Inferior Court, Clinch County; served as Justice of the Inferior Court April 12, 1850-1854;  in 1855 a candidate for state senator from Clinch County; Justice of the Inferior Court January 10, 1861; on February 2, 1861, resigned commission as Major General of the 2nd Brigade, 6th Division of the State Militia; delegate to the 1868 Democratic district convention at Blackshear, GA; died April 9, 1881; buried Fender Cemetery, Lanier County, GA.
  42. Johnson, James R.
  43. Knight, Jonathan
    Jonathan Knight, Son of William Cone Knight; came to Irwin County (in the Lowndes territory) over the winter of 1824-25; a constituting member of Union Primitive Baptist Church; marched with Levi J. Knight’s company in the Indian Wars of 1836;
  44. Knight, John
    John Knight, marched with Levi J. Knight’s company in the Indian Wars of 1836; In 1844 John Knight owned Lot No. 453 in the 10th District, Lowndes county, with 490 acres of pine land. No slaves were assessed, with his total property tax being $0.85.
  45. Knight, Aaron
    In 1844, Aaron Knight owned the adjacent Lot No. 454, with all 490 acres in pines. No slaves were assessed, with his total property tax being $0.85.
  46. Knight, William
  47. Kirkland, Lemuel
  48. McDonald, Wm.
    William McDonald, born 1810; Lucky Drawer in the 1832 Georgia Gold Lottery, drawing Lot 1034 in Cherokee County; died on December 1, 1889; buried at Cat Creek Primitive Baptist Cemetery
  49. Mathis, Riley (1817-1864)
  50. Mixon, Michael
  51. Mathis, Tyre (1806-1891)
    Tyre Mathis joined Union Church by letter April 12, 1828, dismissed by letter December 11, 1847; buried Prospect Church Cemetery, Clinch County, GA
  52. Mathis, John (1802-1875)
    John Mathis, Brother of Pvt. Tyre Mathis; born 1802, Bulloch County, GA; Ensign of Militia, District 442, Appling County, GA 1822-25; married in 1827 to Jemima Lee b 1807 GA, daughter of Joshua Lee; Justice of Peace, District 664, Lowndes County, GA 1833-38; Coroner, Clinch County, GA 1851-58 and 1861-64; transferred his church membership January 22, 1859 to Prospect Primitive Baptist Church, Clinch County, GA near his home; owned land Lot 441, 7th Dist in Clinch County, GA; died 1875, Hamilton County, FL; buried Prospect Cemetery, White Springs, FL.
  53. Mixon, Joshua
  54. McKennon, James (1804-1880)
    James McKennon (or McKinnon) Born about 1804 in North Carolina; a private in the Indian War under Captain Levi J. Knight, Lowndes County Militia; enumerated in 1840 in the 586th militia district of Ware County; sheriff of Coffee County 1856 to 1858; died 1880, Coffee County, GA.
  55. McDaniel, Benj. (1790-)
  56. Newbern, Etheldred (1794-1874)
    Etheldred Dryden Newbern, born 1794 in South Carolina, the eldest son of Thomas Newbern; came with his family to Georgia about 1798, to Bulloch County; said to have fought in the War of 1812; had moved with his family to Tattnall County by 1815; moved with his family to Appling County, near present day Blackshear, GA; married 1823 to Elizabeth  “Betsy” Sirmans and homesteaded in Appling County; cut into Ware County in 1825; 1825 to 1827 served as First Lieutenant of militia, 584th district; 1828, moved to Lowndes County (now Berrien) to a site on Five Mile Creek; elected First Lieutenant of the militia in the 664th district of Lowndes County, Captain Levi J. Knight’s district; July, 1836, served as a  private in Captain Levi J. Knights Independent Militia Company in the skirmish at William Parker’s place; moved to a homestead on the west side of the Alapaha River; 1865 moved to Clinch County; purchased Lot 256, 10th District; died 1874; buried in an unmarked grave at Wayfare Church, Echols county, GA.
  57. Peterson, Eldred
  58. Peterson, Henry
  59. Prester, Henry
  60. Roberts, Lewis (1802-1854)
    Lewis Leonard Roberts, son-in-law of Jonathan Knight; his home was a polling place in the Lowndes County election of 1829; died September 1, 1854; buried Swift Creek Cemetery, Lake Butler, FL
  61. Roberts, Bryant (1809-1888)
    Bryant J. Roberts, born in Wayne County, GA on June 4, 1809 and came to Lowndes County in 1827; ensign in the 663rd district of the Lowndes County militia, 1827 to 1829; Justice of the Peace in the 658th district, Lowndes County, 1834-1837 term; private in Captain Levi J. Knight’s company of Lowndes County militia, and present at 1836 skirmish with Indians at William “Short-arm Billy” Parker’s place; Died July 8, 1888; buried Cat Creek Primitive Baptist Church.
  62. Sirmans, Jonathan (1796-1850)
    Jonathan Sirmans, neighbor of Etheldred Newbern; father of Rachel Sirmans, Hardeman Sirmans; step-father of Melissa Rowland who married Harmon Gaskins; buried Fender Cemetery, Lanier County, GA
  63. Sirmans, Hardy
  64. Shaw, Jeremiah (1800-1883)
    Owned portions of Lots 499 and 500, 10th Land District, Lowndes County (later Berrien);
  65. Sloan, Daniel
  66. Stalvey, John J.
  67. Slaughter, Moses (c1796-1868)
    Moses Slaughter, father of Samuel and William Slaughter; the murder of his son William in 1843 resulted in two sensational trials at Troupville, GA and the hanging of Samuel Mattox; owned 490 acres on Lot 240, 10th District, Lowndes County;
  68. Sirmans, Hardeman (1821-1896)
    Hardeman Sirmans, son of Pvt. Jonathan Sirmans; son-in-law of Captain Levi J. Knight
  69. Skinner, Randol
  70. Shaw, Martin, Sr. (1773-1863)
    Martin Shaw Sr., born about 1773 in South Carolina; married 1st to unknown in South Carolina; came to Georgia between 1811 and 1816; married 2nd, Elizabeth Chancey on September 12, 1816 in Liberty County, GA; moved by 1825 to McIntosh County, owning 400 acres of pineland and 200 acres of swamp in Captain Duncan McCranie’s district; a fortunate drawer in the 1827 Georgia Land Lottery, drawing 400 acres in Muscogee County, GA; moved to Lowndes County, GA about 1828, establishing residence in Folsom’s District; a fortunate drawer in the 1832 Cherokee Land Lottery; in 1834 a tax defaulter in Captain Caswell’s District, Lowndes County, GA; in 1835 paid taxes on 980 acres of pineland on Cat Creek in Captain Bell’s District on Lots 408 and 420, 10th District, Lowndes County and 40 acres in Cherokee County, GA; marched with Levi J. Knight’s company in the Indian Wars of 1836; served as a private in Captain Levi J. Knights company of Lowndes County Militia in 1838;  died 1863; buried Old Salem Church cemetery, now in the City of Adel, GA and known as Woodlawn Cemetery.
  71. Slaughter, John (1798-1859?)
    John Slaughter, born about 1798 in South Carolina, son of James Slaughter, and uncle of William Slaughter who was murdered in Lowndes (now Berrien) county, GA in 1843; married Sarah ? some time before 1825; came to Lowndes County about the time it was created from part of Irwin County, and settled in that part of the county which would be cut into Berrien County in 1856; served as a private in Captain Levi J. Knights company of Lowndes County Militia in 1838; Resided in Lowndes until 1840 when he removed to Jefferson County, FL; in the Civil War, his sons, Moses H. Slaughter and John H. Slaughter deserted Confederate service and took their families to seek refuge on the U.S.S Sagamore at Cedar Key, FL along with hundreds of other Floridians.
  72. Thomas, Dixon
    Dixson Thomas, according to family researchers born 1805 in Screven County, GA, eldest son of William Thomas and cousin of Ryall B. Thomas, Isham B. Thomas, and Elias Thomas; in 1831, occupied as a surveyor in Bulloch County, GA with his cousin Ryall B. Thomas; married on May 2, 1831 to Susannah Bennett in Bulloch County; juror for the July 1833 term of the Inferior Court of Bulloch County; by 1836 moved to the vicinity of Franklinville, Lowndes County, GA with others of the Thomas family connection; served August 6, 1836 to September 6, 1836 in Captain Levi J. Knight’s Company during which time was engaged in local actions against Creek Indians along Warrior Creek, Little River, and at Cow Creek; served September 19, 1836 to October 15, 1836 in Captain Levi J. Knight’s Company;  in November 1836, held on charges of riot, along with William M. Thomas – after the two escaped from custody charges were dropped; purchased in September, 1838 Lot number 180, District 11, Lowndes county for $250 – sold same to Joshua Hightower on January 14, 1845 for $250; purchased in November 1845 Lot number 89 and half of Lot number 50, District 11 Lowndes County for $150; purchased in March 1848 the remaining half of Lot 50 for $33 – “Lot 50 included all and every part and parcel of town lots originally lay out and runs off in the town of Franklinville, GA”; sold Lot numbers 50 & 89 to Thomas A. Jones in July 1851 for $600; in 1852, moved to that area of Camden County, GA which was cut into Charlton County in 1854; on March 5, 1855 received 80  acres bounty land in Lowndes County, GA, Warrant No. 47,191 for service in the Indian Wars; On April 05, cancelled warrant number 47,191 and requested William Smith to prosecute his claim and receive his (new?) Warrant when issued; In 1855 received 80 acres bounty land in Charlton County, GA, Warrant number 19383, probably at Trader’s Hill, then the government seat of Charlton County, GA; died October 10, 1857 in Charlton County, GA;  said to be buried at Mill Creek Primitive Baptist Cemetery, Nassau County, FL with others of the Thomas family connection, although the grave could not be located in 2016.
  73. Thomas, Harvey
  74. Thomas, Elias
  75. Thomas, Jesse

Roster of Company D, 3rd Regiment Georgia Infantry U.S. Volunteers

In  1898, nowhere was there greater fervor for the Spanish-American War than in Georgia.  “When the United States became involved in war with Spain, Georgia furnished according to population more volunteers than any other State of the Union.”

A number of Berrien County, GA men volunteered for service in the U.S. Army.

Walter A. Griner, Carl R. O’QuinnPythias D. Yapp,, Zachary T. Hester, W. Dutchman Stephens, Samuel Z.T. Lipham, James M. Bridges, Charles A. Courson, Love Culbreath, George C. Flowers, James L. Jordan and George A. Martin all enlisted in Company D, 3rd Georgia Regiment, U.S. Volunteers. Aaron Cook served as a private in Company E, Third Regiment, U.S. Volunteer Infantry. Other Berrien countians serving in the Third Regiment were Luther Lawrence Hallman and William F. Patten, both in Company B.

Company D, 3rd Georgia Infantry, US Volunteers, Spanish-American War. Image source: http://www.spanamwar.com/3rdGeorgia.htm

The Third Regiment was organized at Camp Northen, Griffin, GA over the summer of 1898 and mustered into the service of the United States on August 24, 1898 with 43 officers and 1,243 enlisted men. The Third Regiment was assigned to Second Brigade, Third Division, Second Army Corps on October 7, 1898. The regiment left Griffin November 21 and arrived at Savannah November 22, 1898. It appears the Third Regiment  encamped at Camp Onward, awaiting embarkation. They sailed from Savannah on S.S. Roumania on Friday the 13th of January, 1899; arrived at Nuevitas, Cuba, January 18; changed station to Minas, Cuba January 30 and February 1. The regiment sailed from Nuevitas March 25, 1899 and arrived at Augusta, GA, March 29, 1899. The Third Regiment Mustered out of the service of the United States at Augusta, GA, April 22, 1899, with 46 officers and 945 enlisted men. Casualties while in the service: Officers – died of disease, 1; Enlisted men -died of disease, 24; killed by accident, 1; deserted, 50. – Correspondence Relating to the War With Spain

 

Company D, 3rd Georgia Infantry, US Volunteers
Muster Roll

  1. Stewart, Henry J. Captain. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 28; born, Rome, GA; occupation, Clerk; enlisted, Rome, GA, 1898-06-25; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 9, 1898 (later captain of Co. K, 43 Georgia Infantry US Vols); buried Myrtle Hill Cemetery, Rome, GA
  2. Brock, Benj. T. 1st Lieut. Residence, Trenton, GA; age, 32; born, Trenton, GA; occupation, Lawyer; enlisted, Trenton, GA, 1898-06-25; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 9, 1898; buried Brock Cemetery, Trenton, GA
  3. Land, Max E. 2nd Lieut.. Residence, Abbeville, GA; age, 26; born, Bullard, GA; occupation, Lawyer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, 1898-06-25; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 9, 1898; buried Sunnyside Cemetery, Cordele, GA
  4. Omberg, Frank Cleveland 1st Sgt.. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 21; born, Rome, GA; occupation, Bk-Keeper; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898; buried Rosemont Cemetery, Newberry, SC
  5. Culver, William H. Sgt. Residence, Atlanta, GA; age, 30; born, Greenville, GA; occupation, Mgr. Compress; enlisted, Atlanta, GA, July 13, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 16, 1898
  6. Baumgartner, Fred C. QM Sgt.; Residence, Rome, GA; age, 22; born, Knoxville, TN; occupation, Cabinet Maker; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; Mustered in Camp Northern, July 8, 1898; buried Myrtle Hill Cemetery, Rome, GA
  7. George, LaFayette F. Sgt. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 21; born, Rome, GA; occupation, Molder; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898; buried West Lawn Cemetery, Henryetta, OK.
  8. Logan, Eugene P. Sgt.. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 24; born, Rome, GA; occupation, Motorman; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  9. Gunn, Donald G. Sgt.. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 19; born, Rome, GA; occupation, Stone Cutter; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  10. Lipham, Samuel Z.T. Corporal. Residence, Sparks, GA; age, 21; born, Berrien County, GA; occupation, Lawyer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 16, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898; buried Dade City Cemetery, Dade City, FL
  11. Logan, Ernest J. Corporal. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 22; born, Rome, GA; occupation, Candy Maker; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  12. Porter, Bernard L. Corporal. Residence, Trenton, GA; age, 22; born, Trenton, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Trenton, GA, July 7, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  13. Mardell, William V. Corporal. Residence, Cordele, GA; age, 24; born, Bainbridge, GA; occupation, Bk-Keeper; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 30, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 2, 1898
  14. George, Rugar E. Corporal. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 18; born, Rome, GA; occupation, Machinist; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 23, 1898
  15. Gwinns, Payton. Corporal. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 19; born, Winchester County, VA; occupation, Clerk; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; Mustered in Camp Northern Griffin, July 18, 1898
  16. Bell, DeWitt. Corporal. Residence, Farrill, AL; age, 24; born, Casandra, GA; occupation, Fireman; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  17. Brock, William H. Corporal. Residence, Trenton, GA; age, 18; born, Trenton, GA; occupation, Student; enlisted, Trenton, GA, July 7, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  18. Byrd, Phil L. Corporal. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 18; born, Rome, GA; occupation, Clerk; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  19. Ellis, Flisha F. Corporal. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 19; born, Kingston; occupation, Wood Worker; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  20. Howell, William M. Corporal. Residence, Abbeville, GA; age, 25; born, Lumberton, NC; occupation, Merchant; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  21. King, Spencer B. Corporal. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 18; born, Rome, GA; occupation, Clerk; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  22. Allums, John J. Private. Residence, Douglasville, GA; age, 37; born, Henry Co., GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 30, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 3, 1898
  23. Arnold, John H. Private. Residence, Dallas, GA; age, 23; born, Dallas, GA; occupation, Farmer ; enlisted, Camp Northern GA, August 6, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 6, 1898
  24. Atkins, Tom. Private. Residence, Reasling, Floyd County, GA; age, 20; born, Floyd County, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Rome, GA, August 13, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 19, 1898
  25. Baumgartner, Schubert. Artificer. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 18; born, Knoxville, TN; occupation, Cabinet Maker; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 21, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 23, 1898
  26. Baxter, Homer E. Private. Residence, Vans Valley, GA; age, 18; born, Vans Valley, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  27. Baxter, John R. Private. Residence, Vans Valley, GA; age, 23; born, Vans Valley, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Rome, GA, August 3, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 5, 1898
  28. Baxter, William A. Residence, Six Mile Sta., GA; age, 28; born, Floyd County, GA; occupation, Six Mile Sta., GA; enlisted, Rome, GA, August 1, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 3, 1898
  29. Black, Fain B. Residence, Calhoun, GA; age, 26; born, Dalton, GA; occupation, Milling; enlisted, Trenton, GA, July 29, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 30, 1898
  30. Brannan, James F. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 25; born, Cumming, GA; occupation, Mill Operator; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  31. Bridges, James M. Private. Residence, Adel, GA; age, 21; born, Yorksville, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Adel, GA, July 21, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 27, 1898; buried Sparks City Cemetery, Sparks, GA
  32. Bunn, Chas. C., Jr. Private. Residence, Cedartown, GA; age, 18; born, Cedartown, GA; occupation, Clerk; enlisted, Rome, GA, August 3, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 8, 1898
  33. Chasewood, Richard A. Private. Residence, Atlanta, GA; age, 40; born, Newton County, GA; occupation, Shoe Maker; enlisted, Atlanta, GA, July 29, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 31, 1898
  34. Cliett, Hugh A. Private. Residence, Powersville, GA; age, 21; born, Bowersville, GA; occupation, Druggist; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  35. Collier, William. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 24; born, Peeks Hill, AL; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  36. Courson, Chas. A. Private. Residence, Hahira, GA; age, 21; born, Dupont, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Sparks, GA, July 23, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 27, 1898; died of typhoid fever at 1st Division Hospital, Savannah, GA, December 23, 1898; buried Friendship Cemetery, Hahira, GA
  37. Culbreath, Love. Private. Residence, Hahira, GA; age, 18; born, Troutman, NC; occupation, Mill Hand; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 28, 1898
  38. Culpepper, Morris P. Private. Residence, Mingo, GA; age, 23; born, Mingo, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; Mustered in Camp Northern, Griffin, July 15, 1898
  39. Davis, Chas. T. Private. Residence, Benn, GA; age, 21; born, Benn, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  40. Davis, Robert L. Wagoner. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 25; born, Spg Garden, AL; occupation, Clerk; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  41. Dorminy, Andrew J. Private. Residence, Dorminy Mills, GA; Record ID age, 20; born, Dorminy Mills, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 11, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  42. Dunford, John. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 27; born, Rockmart, GA; occupation, Clerk; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  43. Dunwoody, Chas. A. Private. Residence, Cedartown, GA; age, 35; born, Roswell, GA; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  44. Earle, Marcus B. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 28; born, Everett Springs; occupation, Railroader; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  45. Earp, Will G. Private. Residence, Sulphur Springs, GA; age, 18; born, Jasper, TN; occupation, Saw Milling;  enlisted, Trenton, GA, August 2, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 3, 1898
  46. Eustice, Hilliard. Musician. Residence, Rising Faun, GA; age, 18; born, Silver Plunk, CA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Trenton, GA, July 14, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  47. Flowers, George C. Private. Residence, Sparks, GA; age, 34; born, Avery, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Sparks, GA, July 22, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 27, 1898
  48. Fountain, John T. Private. Residence, Tippettsville, GA; age, 21; born, Hawkinsville, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898.  Died, disease, December 8, 1898 at Savannah, GA
  49. Fowler, Columbus S. Private. Residence, Likeme, AL; age, 21; born, Melton, FL; occupation, Brickmason; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  50. Gillwater, Chas. E. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 39; born, Eufaula, AL; occupation, Brick Mason; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 23, 1898
  51. Graham, William F. Private. Residence, Fitzgerald, GA; age, 23; born, Independence, KS; occupation, Carpenter; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 25, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 30, 1898
  52. Griner, Walter A. Private. Residence, Nashville, GA; age, 19; born, Nashville, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  53. Haholzer, Mike. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 21; born, Pittsburg, PA; occupation, Tinner; enlisted, Rome, GA, 1898-08-01; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 3, 1898
  54. Hall, Burress. Musician,; Residence, Rising Fawn, GA; age, 21; born, Rising Fawn, GA; occupation, Musician; enlisted, July 18, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  55. Hawk, Mitchell. Private. Residence, Rising Fawn, GA; age, 21; born, Rising Fawn, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Trenton, GA, July 14, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  56. Herring, Eugene. Private. Residence, Lindale, GA; age, 23; born, Marshall County, MS; occupation, Mill Operator; enlisted, Rome, GA, 1898-08-02; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 4, 1898
  57. Hester, Zachary T., Jr. Private. Residence, Sparks, GA; age, 18; born, Glenville, MS; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 27, 1898
  58. Hoffman, Frederick. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 18; born, Jacksonville, AL; occupation, Shoe Maker; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 23, 1898
  59. Jackson, Central Z. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 21 8/12; born, Rome, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  60. Jobe, Henry W. B. Private. Residence, New England City, GA ; age, 21 3/12; born, Trenton, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Trenton, GA, July 7, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  61. Johnson, Earl L. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 21 2/12; born, Elberton, GA; occupation, Clerk; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 16, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 23, 1898
  62. Jones, George H. Private. Residence, Goldsboro, N.C.; age, 28 7/12; born, Goldsboro, NC; occupation, Sawyer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  63. Jones, James A. Private. Residence, Tippettsville, GA; age, 27 2/12; born, Tippetsville, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  64. Jordan, James L. Private. Residence, Adel, GA; age, 25 7/12; born, Valdosta, GA; occupation, Mechanic; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  65. Keith, Ben. Private. Residence, Rising Fawn, GA; age, 21 3/12; born, Valley Head, AL; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Trenton, GA, July 15, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 3, 1898
  66. Keith, Thomas M. Private. Residence, Rising Fawn, GA; age, 25 11/12; born, Valley Head, AL; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Trenton, GA, July 14, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  67. Kersey, Ike T. Residence, Cole City, GA; age, 29 5/12; born, Long Island, AL; occupation, Brakeman; enlisted, Trenton, GA; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA
  68. King, Robert N. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 21 11/12; born, Curryville, GA; occupation, Motorman; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  69. Langham, Nash. Private. Residence, Namnie, GA; age, 25 1/12; born, Dykes, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  70. Lawham, Virgil. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 23 8/12; born, Rome, GA; occupation, Oiler; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 16, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 23, 1898
  71. Martin, George A. Private. Residence, Hahira, GA; age, 21 5/12; born, Quitman; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Sparks, GA, July 23, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 27, 1898
  72. McGiboney, Chas. W. Private. Residence, Siney, GA; age, 21 9/12; born, Cave Springs, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Rome, GA, August 1, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 3, 1898
  73. Murray, Elmore E. Private. Residence, Savannah, GA; age, 21 1/12; born, Barton, Vt.; occupation, Teacher; enlisted, Sparks, GA, July 21, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 27, 1898
  74. O’Quinn, Carl R. Private. Residence, Nashville, GA; age, 18; born, Dupont, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  75. Porter, Aleck. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 18; born, Cave Springs, GA; occupation, Clerk; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  76. Porter, F. Private. Residence, Cole City, GA; age, 21; born, Long Island, GA; occupation, Guard; enlisted, Trenton, GA, July 18, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  77. Posey, Thomas. Private. Residence, Margie, GA; age, 18; born, “Don’t Know” AK; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Rome, GA, August 2, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 5, 1898
  78. Rawlins, Marvin M. Private. Residence, Stockbridge, GA; age, 21; born, Snearsville, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Sparks, GA, July 21, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 27, 1898
  79. Reid, Ed. Private. Residence, Rome; age, 20; born, Rome, GA; occupation, Laborer; enlisted, Rome, GA, 1898-08-01; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 3, 1898
  80. Richardson, Wm. H. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 21; born, Coaco, GA ; occupation, Farmer;  enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  81. Rouse, Allen G. Private. Residence, Hahira, GA; age, 22; born, Fayetteville, N.C.; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Sparks, GA, July 23, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 27, 1898
  82. Rustin, David L. Private. Residence, Reidsville, GA; age, 31 1/2; born, Reidsville, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  83. Sanford, Rowan G. Private. Residence, Graham, GA; age, 23 2/12; born, Graham; occupation, Mechanic; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  84. Shannon, Oscar. Private. Residence, Etwah, GA; age, 20 7/12; born, Cleveland, TN; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Cleveland, TN, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 30, 1898
  85. Shelly, Lewis. Private. Residence, Cedar Bluff, AL; age, 19 3/12; born, Cedar Bluff, AL; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Rome, GA, August 4, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 6, 1898
  86. Sisk, Elijah W. Private. Residence, Everett, GA; age, 19 3/12; born, Plainsville, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Rome, GA, 1898-08-02; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 5, 1898
  87. Slaton, Purcelle. Private. Residence, Rising Fawn, GA; age,21 3/12; born, Rising Fawn, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Trenton, GA, July 15, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  88. Smith, F H. Private. Residence, Atlanta, GA; age, 23 3/12; born, Gadsden, AL; occupation, Candy Maker; enlisted, Atlanta, GA, July 28, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 30, 1898
  89. Snider, George W. Private. Residence, Morristown, TN; age, 27 4/12; born, Maryville, TN; occupation, Med. Student; enlisted, Trenton, GA, July 7, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  90. Snow, Henry O. Jr. Private. Residence, Abbeville, GA; age, 22 2/12; born, Brookville, Fla.; occupation, Med. Student; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 16, 1898
  91. Stappins, Wofford. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 22 10/12; born, Cartersville, GA ; occupation, Mill Operator; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; Mustered in AtCamp Northern Griffin, July 18, 1898
  92. Stephens, W. Dutchman. Private. Residence, Sparks, GA; age, 20 5/12; born, Wadley, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 27, 1898
  93. Swift, Mathews T. Private. Residence, Fitzgerald, GA; age, 21 11/12; born, Wrens, GA; occupation, Engineer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 25, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 30, 1898
  94. Tidwell, Williams. Private. Residence, Rising Fawn, GA; age, 18 1/12; born, Rising Fawn, GA; occupation, Painter; enlisted, Rising Fawn, GA, July 7, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  95. Walden, William H. Private. Residence, Cason, GA; age, 22 3/12; born, Cason, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  96. Walker, John S. Private. Residence, Rising Fawn, GA; age, 26 6/12; born, Cedar Grove, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Trenton, GA, August 2, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 3, 1898
  97. Webb, Wiley. Private. Residence, Long Island, AL; age, 34 8/12; born, Cole City; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Trenton, GA, July 18, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  98. Wheeler, Floyd T. Private. Residence, Trenton, GA; age, 21 4/12; born, Trenton, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Griffin, GA, July 10, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  99. Wilder, Robert T. Private. Residence, Lindale, GA; age, 22 7/12; born, Cherokee Co., AL; occupation, Mill Hand; enlisted, Rome, GA, August 2, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 3, 1898
  100. Wilkinson, Ernest C. Private. Residence,Atlanta, GA; age, 19 11/12; born, Wilmington, N.C.; occupation, Electrician; enlisted, Atlanta, GA, July 13, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  101. Williams, Arthur E. Private. Residence, Jacksonville, GA; age, 19 3/12; born, McRae, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 11, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  102. Yapp, Pythias D. Private. Residence, Nashville, GA; age, 19 5/12; born, Dublin, GA; occupation, Mill Hand; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 28, 1898
  103. Young, Joseph. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 23 6/12; born, Canton, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898

Berrien Men Prepared for Spanish-American War at Camp Northen, GA

In the Spanish-American War, nowhere was there greater fervor than in Georgia.  “When the United States became involved in war with Spain, Georgia furnished according to population more volunteers than any other State of the Union.”

Among Berrien County, GA men who volunteered for service in the U.S. Army were Walter A. Griner, Carl R. O’Quinn, Pythias D. Yapp,, Zachary T. Hester, W. Dutchman Stephens, Samuel Z.T. Lipham, James M. Bridges, Charles A. Courson, Love Culbreath, George C. Flowers, James L. Jordan and George A. Martin.  All enlisted in Company D, 3rd Georgia Regiment, U.S. Volunteers.

Spanish-American War enlistment record of Walter A. Griner, Nashville, GA

Spanish-American War enlistment record of Walter A. Griner, Nashville, GA

The enlistments came as Georgia responded to the destruction of the battleship USS Maine in the harbor at Havana, Cuba.

“The federal government requested that Georgia supply 3,000 troops in the form of two regiments of infantry and two batteries of light artillery for the upcoming military campaigns in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. Five days later Governor William Y. Atkinson issued a call for men by setting various quotas for Georgia’s major cities. The first state induction camp [Camp Northen] was established at Griffin (the seat of Spalding County, GA) on May 4. Volunteer enlistments from the state were slow in coming, but Governor Atkinson eventually mobilized three infantry regiments and two light artillery batteries of the state militia…Only the Third Georgia Infantry would see any overseas duty and that was as an occupation force in Cuba during the first three months of 1899.” -New Georgia Encyclopedia

Want ad dated July 12, 1898 advertising for recruits for the 3rd Georgia Regiment US Volunteers

Want ad dated July 12, 1898 advertising for recruits for the 3rd Georgia Regiment US Volunteers

The 3rd Georgia Regiment U.S. Volunteers mustered in at Camp Northen (frequently and incorrectly called Camp Northern).  The camp was named for William J. Northen, two-term governor of Georgia from 1890-1894. The assembly of the Third Georgia Regiment, U.S. Volunteers was under the command of Colonel John Slaughter Candler.

Colonel John Slaughter Candler, commanding, 3rd Georgia Regiment, U. S. Volunteers, Camp Northen, Griffin, GA

Colonel John Slaughter Candler, commanding, 3rd Georgia Regiment, U. S. Volunteers, Camp Northen, Griffin, GA

 

The men of Company D, 3rd GA Regt, US Vols began arriving at Camp Northen in July 1898.

1898 sketch of soldiers at Camp Northen, near Griffin, GA

1898 sketch of soldiers at Camp Northen, near Griffin, GA

A visitor at Camp Northen observed,

“The men in camp here are a queer lot – a composite collection from all walks of life. Social, educational, commercial lines have been obliterated by a common unity, the foundation of which is patriotism. Patrician lies in the same tent, on the same straw bed, with plebeian without a thought of the distinction. There are lawyers, bankers, doctors, preachers, clerks, carpenters, farmers and blacksmiths in one company. Some of the very best and some of the humblest families in the state are represented in the ranks. A finer lot of fellows has never been got together, however, and they long for the day when they may splice Spanish hides with American bullets. There is fight in the old land yet.”

Camp Northen had been established about 1892 as the location of the annual encampment of the Georgia National Guard, the land being contributed by the people of Griffin. Prior to the assembly of the 3rd Georgia Regiment at Camp Northen, the camp had been occupied by the 1st Georgia Regiment U.S. Volunteers (Rays Immunes). The First Regiment moved to Chickamauga Park by mid-June 1898.

A street car line ran from Griffin to Camp Northen.  The Atlanta Constitution reported,

“Camp Northen is acknowledged by army officials to be one of the best sites for an encampment in the United States. It is situated on the side of a gently sloping hill in a dense grove of oaks. On top of the hill commanding a view of the entire camp is the Colonel’s tent with the tents of the adjutant, quartermaster, commissary and surgeons near by.

Just over the brow of the hill is a spring, the water of which is as pure as crystal and almost as cold as ice. The Grounds are lighted with electricity from the Griffin power house and ever company street is supplied with a water hydrant and shower bathhouse from Griffin’s waterworks system. All the company’s quarters are supplied with kitchens, mess halls, bath-houses, tents for privates and officers, the latter being situated at the head of the streets. “

Assistant Surgeon Joseph G. Jarrell, 1st Georgia Volunteer Infantry, said of the camp, in 1898 “every convenience in the way of bath houses, kitchens, and privies were at the disposal of the troops.

The camp facilities also included a hospital, Y.M.C.A. tent, an armory, rifle range and stables. The Atlanta Constitution observed, “Some of the prettiest horses ever seen in this part of the state belong to the officers stationed here. The colonels and their staffs and the majors ride, and all have purchased fine animals for use during the war.

There was a post office on the grounds and mail was delivered to the camp several times a day. As in all wars and times, the soldiers looked forward to mail call with great anticipation. The Southern Bell Telephone Company placed a phone booth near the colonel’s quarters with a long-distance telephone. Soldiers could telephone to and be telephoned from any part of the state. A large bulletin board near the telephone booth displayed the latest war bulletins from the office of the Atlanta Constitution.

In the summer of 1898, the 3rd Georgia Regiment was ill equipped.  There weren’t enough guns for all the men, and the guns they did have were older equipment from the state guard. It would be late September 1898 before “the long-looked-for new guns, canteens, knapsacks, etc arrived and were issued to the troops. They were the latest patent Springfield rifles, and each company was furnished with a gun for every man.”  The Krag-Jorgensen was the same rifle that would be used to kill a rampaging elephant in Valdosta, GA in 1902.

U.S. Model 1898 Springfield Krag-Jorgensen rifle

U.S. Model 1898 Springfield Krag-Jorgensen rifle

Guns or no guns, the men drilled. The daily routine of the camp was:

        At 5 a.m. one gun and a bugle call summoned the soldiers from their slumbers; fifteen minutes were allowed for dressing, followed by a cup of coffee and hardtack in the mess halls; one hour was then devoted to drilling on the parade grounds, after which the men marched back to their quarters for breakfast at 7 o’clock.
       Guard mount took place soon after breakfast, when the guard for the day was selected and the colonel chose the man making the best appearance from the ranks to be his orderly during the subsequent twelve hours.
       This was followed by regimental or company drills, after which the camps were policed and the streets cleaned up.  -Atlanta Constitution, May 9, 1898

1898 sketch of soldiers' life at Camp Northen, Georgia preparing for deployment in the Spanish-American War

1898 sketch of soldiers’ life at Camp Northen, Georgia preparing for deployment in the Spanish-American War

      “….the location of the tents and ..the tented homes of the soldiers are laid off in the same way as a town is laid off, except that it is more regular. Between the tents are streets and these streets need cleaning every day, just as the streets of Atlanta are cleaned by a hired force at night. The parade grounds, too, are known as the prettiest in the south, and it is known, too, that from that same large spacious lawn trash which accumulates every day must be removed.
       But, unlike a city, the work of cleaning the streets or walks in the camp and of removing the debris from the drill ground is not done by hired men. It is done by the boys of Georgia, the pride and bone of the state…To see some of the pets of Atlanta’s society, to say nothing about the society boys of other cities of the state sweeping the street, clouds of dust coming around them, while others handled wheelbarrows into which the dirt was thrown by still others, and over all an officer standing, whose social position was away down in the grade, comparatively speaking, would convince even the loving mothers of the boys that, in the army at least, there was no distinction. -Atlanta Constitution, June, 1894

By order of the camp commander company streets, ground about tents, the kitchens, bathrooms and sinks were placed in thorough police every morning at police call under the supervision of company commanders. The regimental camp was inspected daily by the colonel or field officers.

1898 sketch of soldier on detail cleaning company streets at Camp Northen, near Griffin, GA

1898 sketch of soldier on detail cleaning company streets at Camp Northen, near Griffin, GA

Dinner occurred at 12 o’clock, after which the men were given a rest, while the officers held a conference on matters of moment, usually at the colonel’s headquarters, during which an officer usually delivered a dissertation on the matter up for discussion; another drill occurred at 4 o’clock, and dress parade and review at 6 o’clock; supper was served at about 7 o’clock and the men are given another rest until 10 o’clock, when the bugle ordered them to retire.

Beds were made out of clean straw covered with a blanket, of which each man had two. The ground inside the tents was covered with a low wooden platform and a small ditch was dug on the outside to prevent the water from coming in contact with the sleeper.

For the recruits at Camp Northen the arrival of the paymaster was a joyous occasion.  By noon on payday every man had received the months pay and that evening a large number of them were in the city parting with it.  An unfortunate fifty men, under the command of a company captain, were detailed to the city in the afternoon to keep down the disturbances among the men. Perhaps only second in significance to payday were the days that young lady visitors were entertained at the camp, under appropriate escort, of course.  On these days, the men confined to the hospital were cheered by the visitors. “The young ladies were entertained at lunch by the officers of the regiment. In the afternoon occurred the review and drill, which at the hour of sunset presented a most picturesque appearance. The men were splendidly drilled...”

A camp inspection by Lieutenant Colonel Peter J. A. Cleary, Deputy Surgeon General of the Department of the Gulf, reported in the October 31, 1898 Atlanta Constitution, that there was a shortage of bedsacks and straw at the camp. Some of the men had mattresses, but they were their own private property.

The Hospital

Lt Col. Cleary also inspected the hospital:

The hospital consists of a number of tents and one frame building, used partly as a hospital and partly as a dispensary. The sick were all provided with cots, with wire springs and mattresses. They seemed to have plenty of blankets. There were no serious cases in the hospital, though there were several convalescing from typhoid and other fevers. The men appear to be contented and the surgeon stated that he had ample supplies on hand in the way of food and medicines. I found, however, that the cots they used were rented and directed him to make requisition for any number of cots he needed, which will be supplied him at once. A large portion of the blankets in the hospital belong to the men. This also will be remedied, as he will be supplied with enough blankets without having to use those belonging to the men. He will need stoves for his tents, and was directed to make a request on the quartermaster for as many as he required, which, I presume, will be supplied him without delay. On the whole I find that the men were properly cared for and really were not suffering from anything.

Hospital Volunteers

1898 engraving of Mrs. DeForest Allgood, of Griffin GA

1898 engraving of Mrs. DeForest Allgood, of Griffin GA. Mrs. Allgood was a leading supporter of the hospital at Camp Northen during the Spanish-American War

Atlanta Constitution
November 20, 1898

Atlanta, Savannah, Macon, Augusta, Americus, Albany and Rome have all given to patriotic work representative women, and probably no city in the state proportional to its size has done more than Griffin, the little city that has for so long been the scene of the state encampments and near which is the present encampment of the Third Georgia Regiment.
The women of Griffin were among the first in the state to organize a relief association, and they have in their treasury at present over $1,200, which has been raised through their individual efforts in various ways.
Among the women of this association – which is like the Atlanta Relief Association, individual and distinctive – who have distinguished themselves for noble and unselfish work is Mrs. de Forrest Algood, the vice president.
Not only has she given money in generous contributions, but she has gone into the hospital and administered to the soldier as only a noble woman can. She has soothed many a suffering soldier into a quiet sleep by the tenderness of her solicitude and attentions; she has prepared with her own hand delicious delicacies that have been relished by the convalescing, and no soldier of the Third regiment who has known the discomfitures of a camp hospital will fail to murmur a blessing when the name of queenly and womanly Mrs. Algood is mentioned.
All the time when the hospital was crowded with men during September and early in October and when the practical assistance of the relief associations was given Mrs. Algood saw further necessity of trained assistance and offered to send two male nurses at her own expense, but the offer was refused.
An incident relative to her womanly consideration is told by a young officer who witnessed her devotion to an aged mother who had come to the deathbed of her son in the camp hospital.
When she reached there she was informed that he was dying. The anguish seemed insupportable till the strong arm of Mrs. Allgood came to her assistance, and with consoling, sympathetic words, she accompanied her to the camp. There lay the young soldier apparently cold in death, only a gasping breath now and then to tell the story of a struggling atom of life. But sobs from a mother’s aching heart, the warmth of the mother love and the tender words of the woman with her seemed to quiet the struggling life into more peacefulness. Warmth returned to the body and continued ministrations restored a consciousness that enabled the young soldier to once more recognize his mother.
Then for three days and three nights there was the agony of suspense, each hour seeming to be the one that would separate the young soldier forever from his mother. She sat patiently with him during this dreary period, but not alone, for by her side, whispering words of comfort, was Mrs. Algood. She had known sorrow and the sorrow of losing a child, and for every sigh that the elder mother drew the younger was in sympathy with her, and when the last did come and the young soldier sank back cold in death, the head of his grief-stricken mother was pillowed upon the shoulder of the beautiful and sympathetic young mother, who had watched with her, and not until the body of the soldier, borne by six comrades, was placed upon the train did Mrs. Algood return to her home from the camp where she had performed her work of womanly sympathy and comfort.

The Regimental Band

As was the typical practice, the Third Georgia Regiment had a regimental band. But unlike the national guard regiments, which usually hired musicians to form the band, the regular US Army refused to hire bands unless they were enlisted. At Camp Northen, a regimental band was one of the attractions of the camp. Prof. C. O. Pollard was the chief musician, H. P. Dane principal musician, and Edward Griggs of Dawson was appointed second principal musician. Josephus N. Slater was drum major. Other musicians included Eustice Hilliard, Burress Hall, Morris Stein, Arnold Stovall, Joseph J. Thompson, Walter C. Wilkerson, Frank H. Wilkie, and Ralph E. Wright.

Regimental Band of the 3rd Georgia Regiment U.S. Volunteers, Spanish American War. Image source: http://www.spanamwar.com/3rdGeorgiaband.htm

Regimental Band of the 3rd Georgia Regiment U.S. Volunteers, Spanish American War. Image source: http://www.spanamwar.com/3rdGeorgiaband.htm

The US flag was raised early every morning at Camp Northen, and the state flag was displayed in front of the Colonel’s headquarters. Every man was required to remove his hat when passing the flag.  The ceremony of lowering of the flag  which occurred every afternoon while the regimental band played the Star Spangled Banner attracted many visitors from Griffin.

YMCA

A Y.M.C.A. tent was established at Camp Northen prior to the assembly of the Third Georgia Regiment, which was to accompany the regiment wherever it was sent. The YMCA tent was opened under the direction of Frank K. Boland, of Atlanta, a graduate of the University of Georgia and a student in the Southern Medical College. The staff were issued army passes to travel with the troops and receive the same salary and rations apportioned to enlisted men.

“In the hardships of camp life through which the Georgia volunteers [experienced] while waiting for the order to march on Cuba they [were] cheered and strengthened, physically and spiritually, by the branch associations of the state Young Men’s Christian Association…” The Atlanta Constitution reported, “The army tent is circular in shape and forty feet in diameter, offering ample room for all the men of the regiment who desire to attend meetings. Papers and magazines will be kept on file in the tent and games, such as crokinole and checkers will be kept for those who care for the pastime. Hymn books and bibles have been furnished… and religious services will be held regularly in the tent.” Reading materials and writing facilities were provided. The men of the camp who were so inclined attended prayer meetings, Bible classes and other religious activities at the Y.M.C.A. tent.

1898 sketch of YMCA tent at Camp Northen near Griffin, GA.

The YMCA also added a commissary department to the army tent “used to furnish those of the Georgia troops who are indisposed and not sick enough to be sent to the hospital with nourishing food and careful treatment.” The YMCA anticipated, “Many of the experienced soldiers will be subject to despondency and home sickness, to whom the Young Men’s Christian Association will reach out a helping hand.” Former Governor W. J. Northen was chairman of the fundraising to support the YMCA tents at Camp Northen and other Georgia encampments.

The 3rd Georgia Regiment, under the command of Colonel John S. Candler, completed its organization August 24, 1898 at Camp Northen, where the regiment remained until November 21, when it boarded the train to Savannah, GA in preparation for embarkation to Cuba. In 1899 the 3rd Georgia Regiment returned to Georgia and was mustered out at Augusta, GA.

Related Posts:

Spanish-American War Vet Rests at Ray City, GA

Spanish American War

Does anyone remember the final resting place of Ben Howard?  When the young Spanish-American War veteran died at Ray’s Mill Pond in 1900, the citizens of Ray’s Mill, GA paid their respects.

Other Spanish-American War veterans of Berrien County, GA included Aaron Cook, Luther L. Hallman, William A. Knight, Samuel Z. T. Lipham, Walter A. Griner, Carl R. O’Quinn, Pythias D. Yapp, Henry C. McLendon, Charles A. Courson, George C. Flowers, Zachary T. Hester, Jr., W. Dutchman Stephens, and James L. Jordan.

Tifton Gazette
April 27, 1900

Found Dead Is His Boat.
The body of Ben Howard, a young white man, was found in a boat in the bottom of Ray’s mill pond last Saturday. The body had been there for two days or more, but the tragedy was kept a secret by the fact that the boat was a leaky vessel and had sunk to the bottom of the pond, carrying the body down with it. It is not known whether the young man was dead when the boat sunk or not, though it is thought that he had wounded himself by the accidental discharge of his gun while coming out of a tree, from which be had been shooting at fish in the water. The weapon was found at the foot of the tree and one barrel of it had been discharged. The boat was tied to the tree and the body either fell in it, or the wounded man managed to get to it.
Then the boat drifted out in the pond probably fifty yards and sunk to the bottom, the supposition being that Howard’s death was instantaneous, or else he was too badly wounded to manage the boat. A search for him lasted two days.
The burial services were conducted at Beaver Dam on Sunday and a large crowd attended them. Young Howard was a soldier in the war with Spain and did service in Cuba. —Valdosta Times.

 

Tifton Gazette, April 27, 1900 clipping of the death of Ben Howard at Ray's Mill Pond.

Tifton Gazette, April 27, 1900 clipping of the death of Ben Howard at Ray’s Mill Pond.

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Causton’s Bluff Part 4: Arrival of the 29th GA Regiment

Berrien Minute Men Arrive at Causton’s Bluff

On the night of April 16, 1862 the Berrien Minute Men, Company D, 29th Georgia Regimen moved to Causton’s Bluff, between Savannah and Tybee Island.   They came along with other companies of the 29th Georgia Regiment to reinforce the 13th Georgia Regiment which had fought an engagement with Federal troops of the 8th Michigan Infantry the evening before on Whitemarsh Island.  Causton’s Bluff was also the site of Camp Stonewall Jackson, the encampment of the 47th Georgia Regiment.

The Berrien Minute Men Company D, under command of John Carroll Lamb, was the second of two companies of that name going forth from Berrien County, GA in 1861.  They had made their campfires most of the previous year at coastal defenses of Georgia, first on Sapelo Island and then around Savannah, GA.

The Berrien Minute Men Company D had been encamped at Camp Tattnall, Savannah, GA and from that vantage point had witnessed the Federal bombardment and recapture of Fort Pulaski by U.S. Army forces from Tybee Island on April 11, 1862, exactly one year to the day from the Confederate seizure of Fort Sumter.  Within the week the Federal forces were probing the Confederate pickets on Whitemarsh Island, prompting the move of the 29th GA Regiment up to Causton’s Bluff.

  1. Causton’s Bluff Part 1: The Key to Savannah
  2. Causton’s Bluff Part 2: Challenge from Tybee
  3. Causton’s Bluff Part 3: War on Whitemarsh Island
  4. Causton’s Bluff Part 4: Arrival of the 29th GA Regiment
  5. Causton’s Bluff Part 5: Tidewater Time

 

Harmon Neal Baldree served with the Berrien Minute Men, Company K, 29th Georgia Regiment. In June, 1862 he was on detached duty as a ferryman at Causton's Bluff on St. Augustine Creek near Savannah, GA

Harmon Neal Baldree served with the Berrien Minute Men, Company D (K), 29th Georgia Regiment at Causton’s Bluff near Savannah, GA. In June, 1862 he went on detached duty as a ferryman on St. Augustine Creek at Causton’s Bluff

The Berrien Minute Men had arrived at Causton’s Bluff in the middle of the night on August 16th, having been aroused by an alert and summoned as reinforcements. After a quick march in darkness they took up a position at the bluff, only to find by morning it was to be their new encampment. Their equipment was sent down the next day.  Berrien Minute Men Company D (K) and most of the other companies of the 29th Regiment spent May of 1862 at Causton’s Bluff.  The Ocklocknee Light Infantry, Company E, was at Debtford Plantation adjacent to Causton’s Bluff.  Berrien Minute Men Company C (G) continued to serve at Battery Lawton on the Savannah River.

In some ways, the arrival of the Berrien Minute Men must have been similar to the experience described by Walter Augustus Clark upon his arrival at Thunderbolt battery, overlooking the marsh just south of Causton’s Bluff:

My earliest recollections of Thunderbolt is associated with a fruitless effort to mix turpentine soap and salt water. We had reached the place tired and dusty and dirty. As soon as the ranks were broken, the boys divested themselves of their clothing and soaping their bodies thoroughly plunged into the salt water for a bath. The result may be imagined. The dirt and dust accumulated in streaks, which no amount of scrubbing could dislodge for it stuck closer than a postage stamp.

The 29th Regiment’s move to Causton’s Bluff may have presented a welcome distraction to Lieutenant Thomas J. Perry of the Berry Light Infantry.   At Camp Wilson, a previous encampment of the 29th Regiment, Lt. Perry had gotten into a Regimental Feud with an officer of the 25th Georgia Regiment, publicly condemning gambling and loose discipline among the men of the 25th Regiment. Lieutenant W.P.M. Ashley of 25th Regiment had Perry hauled before a military tribunal and courtmartialed.  Lieutenant Perry was still awaiting the sentencing of the court. In early May, he was relieved to learn that the sentence from his court martial was a mild one: a reprimand from the Colonel and one week’s suspension. Ready to get on with the business of the regiment, Perry wrote:

Causton’s Bluff, near Savannah, GA
May 8, 1862

Our Regiment is on picket duty on Oakland [Oatland] and Whitmarsh Island [Whitemarsh Island], in connection with the 13th Regiment and 11th Battalion. We have had no fighting yet, though we are sometimes in shooting distance of the Yankees…There are no prospects of a fight here soon…The weather is remarkably pleasant. Days moderately warm and nights cool. The sea breeze is delightful. There is but a few cases of sickness in our company. It is much more healthy here than our up country friends would suppose. We have good water, but not so good as you have in Floyd [County]. 

Perry’s assessment of the healthfulness of the camp at Causton’s Bluff would turn out to be overly optimistic. The 29th Georgia Regiment had yet to face the oppressive heat and pestilence of summer on the marsh. The men at Causton’s Bluff would suffer with mosquitoes, fleas, sandflies,  fever, malaria, measles, tonsillitis, mumps,  wounds, typhus, dysentery, pneumonia, tuberculosis, syphilis, hepatitis, and rheumatism.

At Thunderbolt Battery, Walter Augustus Clark wrote further of summer conditions on the marsh:

We fought and bled, it is true, but not on the firing line. The foes that troubled us most, were the fleas and sand flies and mosquitoes that infested that section. They never failed to open the spring campaign promptly and from their attacks by night and day no vigilance on the picket line could furnish even slight immunity. If the old time practice of venesection as a therapeutic agent was correct in theory our hygienic condition ought to have been comparatively perfect. During the “flea season” it was not an unusual occurrence for the boys after fruitless efforts to reach the land of dreams, to rise from their couches, divest themselves of their hickory shirts and break the silence of the midnight air by vigorously threshing them against a convenient tree in the hope of finding temporary “surcease of sorrow” from this ever-present affliction. It was said that if a handfull of sand were picked up half of it would jump away. I can not vouch for the absolute correctness of this statement, but I do know that I killed, by actual count, one hundred and twenty fleas in a single blanket on which I had slept the preceding night and I can not recall that the morning was specially favorable for that species of game either. I remember further that as we had in camp no “Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals,” I corked up an average specimen of these insects to see how long he would live without his daily rations. At the end of two weeks he had grown a trifle thin, but was still a very lively corpse. But these were not the only “ills, that made calamity of so long a life,” for as Moore might have said, if his environment had been different,

“Oft in the stilly night,
Ere slumber’s chain had bound me,
I felt the awful bite
Of ‘skeeters buzzing ’round me “

Their bills were presented on the first day of the day of the month and, unfortunately, on every other
day. At our picket stations on Wilmington and Whitemarsh Islands and at the “Spindles” on the river where the young alligators amused themselves by crawling up on the bank and stealing our rations, there was a larger variety known as gallinippers, from whose attacks the folds of a blanket thrown over our faces was not full protection.

But there were still others. On dress parade in the afternoons, while the regiment was standing at “parade rest” and no soldier was allowed to move hand or foot until Richter’s band, playing Capt. Sheppards Quick stephad completed its daily tramp to the left of the line and back to its position on the right, the sandflies seemed to be aware of our helplessness and “in prejudice of good order and military discipline” were especially vicious in their attack upon every exposed part of our anatomy Capt. C. W Howard, I remember, was accustomed to fill his ears with cotton as a partial protection. I have seen Charlie Goetchius, while on the officers’ line in front of the regiment, squirm and shiver in such apparent agony that the veins in his neck seemed ready to burst. Neither whistling minies, nor shrieking shells, nor forced marches with no meal in the barrel nor oil in the cruse ever seemed to disturb his equanimity in the slightest degree. Quietly and modestly and bravely he met them all. But the sandfly brigade was a little too much for him. In addition to these discomforts, the salt water marsh, near which we were camped, never failed to produce a full crop of chills and fever… Of the one hundred and fifteen men in our ranks only three escaped an attack of this disease. The writer was fortunately one of the three. One man had fifty-three chills before a furlough was allowed him. Quinine was scarce and boneset tea and flannel bandages saturated with turpentine were used as substitutes. Whiskey was sometimes issued as a preventative. In pursuance of a resolution formed on entering the service I never tasted the whiskey and as soon as my habit on this line became known, I was not subjected to the trouble of looking up applicants for the extra ration.

At Causton’s Bluff in May, 1862 Joel J. Parrish, Berrien Minute Men,  went out on sick furlough; despite his absence he was promoted to Sergeant on May 13th.  Charles R. Oliver, Alapaha Guards, was absent sick, but returned and in August was on special duty as a nurse; he later deserted. Reuben Dollar and Isaac B. Stroud, Berry Infantry, came down sick and went home. Dollar was sent to the convalescent camp at Springfield, GA & never returned to the unit. John G. Stroud and John L. Tanner, Berry Infantry, were at hospital in Augusta, GA.  James Sellars, 17th Patriots, contracted measles and was sent to Guyton Hospital at Whitesville, GA. On May 11, 1862, Isaac Watson, Thomas Volunteers, was certified disabled at Causton’s Bluff because of fever and rheumatism. On May 12, 1862,  Joseph N. Singletary, 17th Patriots, died at Screvens Ferry, and George W. Fletcher, Alapaha Guards, was sent home with an “indolent ulcer” on his right leg that went clear down to the bone.   Richard M. Aycock, Berry Infantry, was discharged on May 14, by reason of a severe cut across his foot with an axe which he received before he came into the service.  W. E. Carter, Thomas Volunteers, died of pneumonia May 15, 1862. Daniel M. Banks, Berry Infantry, got sick and was sent to Savannah where he died of fever May 15, 1862. William Ferris, Berry Infantry, on May 15 was at Augusta and died of fever.

Letter from Headquarters of the 29th Georgia Regiment, Causton's Bluff, Savannah, GA supporting discharge of T. S. Gregory on account of consumption. Written May 17, 1862 by Captain, George P. Burch, Thomas Volunteers.

Letter from Headquarters of the 29th Georgia Regiment, Causton’s Bluff, Savannah, GA supporting discharge of T. S. Gregory on account of consumption. Written May 17, 1862 by Captain, George P. Burch, Thomas Volunteers.

James H. Archer, Thomasville Guards, got sick and went home; he died of typhoid dysentery in his mother’s house on May 18, 1862. On May 20, 1862, Frederick Green Thompson, 17th Patriots, died of pneumonia at Screvens Ferry. T.S. Gregory, Thomas Volunteers, who being too weakened and impaired for duty had been serving as a nurse for the previous two months, was discharged at Causton’s Bluff on May 21, 1862 with consumption. James Jones, Alapaha Guards, was discharged May 22, 1862 on account of chronic nephritis. Wesley A. Pugh, Ocklochnee Light Infantry was discharged May 23, 1862 with tertiary syphilis, chronic rheumatism, and chronic hepatitis. On May 24, Lewis J. Collins, Thomas Volunteers, died of typhoid fever at Causton’s Bluff. Philip Schiff, 4th corporal of the Thomasville Guards, 29th GA Regiment, was found physically unfit for duty and discharged on May 26, 1862. Robert A. McKinnon, Ocklochnee Light Infantry, died of typhoid fever on May 27,1862. John E. Dickey , Ochlocknee Light Infantry, got sick in May, went to the hospital and never returned. On May 28, 1862, Waldo McCranie, Berrien Minute Men, was discharged on account of rheumatism; he reenlisted in 1863. On May 29, 1862 Cpl. R. M. Hancock, Thomas Volunteers, died of typhoid fever at Causton’s Bluff. James N. Winn, Ocklochnee Light Infantry was sick at hospital in Savannah; the following month he furnished John E. Bryan as a substitute and received a discharge. Jasper M. Luke, Berrien Minute Men, was discharged about this time with chronic rheumatism. Matthew Godwin, Thomas Volunteers was discharged on account of tuberculosis on May 31, 1862 – the regimental assistant surgeon was of the opinion Godwin suffered from “a hereditary taint in his blood” since his mother also had tuberculosis.

On May 11, 1862, the Federals made another showing on Whitemarsh Island opposite Causton’s Bluff:

Savannah Republican

More Prisoners. – Our pickets on the marsh opposite Causton’s Bluff captured another respectable batch of Yankee Prisoners yesterday afternoon [May 11, 1862], and without firing a gun.
         It seems two detachments were sent out from the 13th Georgia, and stationed in the marsh near Augustine creek. During the afternoon a boat was heard coming from towards Wilmington, when the nearest party threw themselves down in the marsh and awaited its arrival opposite them. Unconscious of danger, the Federals rowed up to within a few yards of the pickets, when the latter suddenly sprang to their feet and ordered a surrender. Taken by surprise, and unarmed, the entire party, numbering fifteen, gave up and came ashore. They were taken in custody by Colonel [Marcellus] Douglass and brought to town for safe keeping.
         The prisoners are fifteen in number – six officers, good looking, well dressed men, and the remainder seamen, all from the steamer Sumter, stationed off Wilmington. They were doubtless reconnoitering, but say they were bound for Fort Pulaski, on a trip of pleasure. The capturing party consisted of only four.

Federal gunboats periodically challenged the Confederate batteries, trying to navigate through the marshes into St. Augustine Creek. Cannon fire from the batteries overlooking Whitemarsh Island was easily heard by the men of the Berrien Light Infantry, Company I, 50th Georgia Regiment encamped some three miles west near Fort Brown. On May 18, 1862 Sergeant Ezekiel Parrish of the Berrien Light Infantry wrote of hearing the cannonade of Thunderbolt Battery:

May 18, 1862, Savannah, GA

We heard some heavy firing of cannon last night about 9 o’clock. There was ten or fifteen fired in quick succession and then at intervals of ten or fifteen minutes I heard some four of five of the heaviest guns I ever heard in my life. Some thought the fight had commenced but up to this time all is quiet here as far as regards a general engagement with the common enemy. I heard that the shooting we heard was at Thunderbolt battery firing at one of the enemy’s gunboats that was trying to poke by our batteries and reports say she made the best of her way back to her own quarter.

Confederate Picket Station.  The Berrien Minute Men, and the 29th Georgia Regiment were stationed at the post on Causton's Bluff  and did picket duty on Whitemarsh Island and at Caper's Battery.

Confederate Picket Station.  The Berrien Minute Men, and the 29th Georgia Regiment were stationed at the post on Causton’s Bluff  and did picket duty on Whitemarsh Island and at Caper’s Battery.

Men from Causton’s bluff were constantly rotated on picket duty or patrolling on Oatland and Whitemarsh Island and the surrounding creeks.  A ferry was kept at a dock below the bluff to move the men across St. Augustine Creek. In June, 1862, Pvt Harmon N. Baldree, Berrien Minute Men, and Pvt Mitchell Griffin, Thomas Volunteers, were among the men on detached duty as ferrymen. Lieutenant Thomas J. Perry of the Berry Light Infantry wrote on May 20,

Causton’s Bluff, Near Savannah, Ga.

May 20, 1862

Since my last letter we have lost, by death, two more member of our company – Daniel M. Banks and W. N. Farris, the former died in the city at St. John’s Hospital, the latter in the Augusta Hospital. This makes four we have lost. The entire company deeply sympathise with the friends and relatives of each, although they did not die on the battlefield, in the defense of their homes and firesides, yet they fill a soldier’s grave and are justly entitled to the Honor as tho’ they did, for they have been found in the line of battle more than once, for the purpose of meeting the enemy in a deadly conflict. When sickness did not prevent, they were true and trusty.
There is but few on the sick list at present, none seriously so. Our duties are laborious at present. Our company have to go on the Island every four days, in addition to working on the fortifications.
While on the island today we saw a large balloon go up from Fort Pulaski, several times, and remain up several minutes at a time.
There does not seem to be any prospect of a fight here soon, if ever. If there is any it will doubtless be a river fight, and if we don’t whip the fight, it will not be because we had not time to prepare for it.
Recruits are coming in rapidly to the different companies, swelling their ranks to a respectable size.
Floyd.

 

In June, 1862, sickness at Causton’s Bluff continued to take a toll on the effectiveness of the 29th Georgia Regiment.  Jacob Marks and John T. Barker of the Berrien Minute Men were among many who were absent sick.  Isaac Baldree, Berrien Minute Men, was at the general hospital at Guyton and J.S. Massey, Thomasville Guards, was “absent sick in hospital”; both were discharged by civil authority in August. William W. Spencer, Captain of the Ocklochnee Light Infantry, who had been on station at Camp Mackey went on sick furlough. Abel A. Braswell, Seventeenth Patriots, went on sick furlough and was discharged by civil authority in September. John W. Callahan, Berry Infantry, was furloughed on sick leave and was absent sick for seven months. William Shores, Berry Infantry, was absent sick in June and July. John Johnston, 1st Lt of the Stephens Volunteers was sick at Causton’s Bluff, then under arrest for two months before going back on the sick roll; in December, 1862, he was detailed as an enrolling officer. Isaac H. Carter, 17th Patriots, went on sick leave in June and died of disease October 10, 1862. Council Singletary, 17th Patriots, was on sick furlough. Benjamin P. Singletary, Thomas Volunteers, was absent sick, then detailed to work in the regimental hospital. Asa C. Crowe, Stephens Volunteers, discharged with disability at Causton’s Bluff, June 3, 1862 because of an old accidental gunshot wound to his left hand.  On June 9, 1862, Corporal John A. Money, an over-age soldier of the Berrien Minute Men, was discharged at Causton’s Bluff, being disabled by frequent attacks of intermittent fever. Lt Robert Thomas Johnson, Thomas Volunteers, went home sick from Causton’s Bluff on June 10 and Lt. John Green Lindsey, Seventeenth Patriots, died of disease that same day.  Sgt Sherod S. Little, Ocklochnee Light Infantry, was discharged for disability on June 22, 1862 after suffering an acute attack of rheumatism and pericarditis. William G. Price Ocklochnee Light Infantry, reported as a substitute for Michael H. Young, but was detailed June 26, 1862 as a tailor. William Cowart, Berrien Minute Men, enlisted November 18, 1861 and was discharged for disability on June 26, 1862; Captain J. D. Knight said he has “been unfit for duty two thirds of the time since he has been in the service, has had measles, tonciliatus, mumps, fever, and seems to have indication of dropsey.” Tim G. Whiddon, Thomas Volunteers went to St. John’s Hospital, Savannah and died of typhoid fever on June 26, 1862. Daniel B. Lammons, Ocklochnee Light Infantry, went on sick leave in June and died of typhoid fever in Thomas County on the 4th of July, 1862. On June 30, 1862, Samuel Staten, Alapaha Guards, was reported sick in an Augusta, GA hospital.

On June 11th, 1862 the Chatham Artillery joined the garrison at Causton’s Bluff, having moved from their previous station at Camp Hardee on Cedar Hammock. (A detachment of the Chatham Artillery had been captured at the fall of Fort Pulaski.) The camp of the Chatham Artillery at Causton’s bluff was named Camp Stonewall Jackson.  A Historical Sketch of the Chatham Artillery provides a complete roster of the company on arrival at the bluff and describes the conditions of the encampment:

Situated as was the camp in the vicinity of the rice fields, low grounds, and brackish marshes of the Savannah river, and therefore in the midst of a truly malarial region, the men suffered so generally and so severely from fevers, that at one time there were scarcely cannoneers enough in camp to perform guard duty, or drivers to attend to stable duties. Several deaths occurred…

Junior 1st Lieutenant John E. Wheaton wrote:

June 11th – Vacated the camp at Cedar Hammock and camped at Causton’s Bluff, in company with a brigade of infantry in command of Col. C.C. Wilson. The guard and picket duty there was severe, and the situation one of the most unhealthy in Chatham county. A large number of the men were made sick. Privates Wylly J. Cash and James Rafferty died in hospital at Savannah, August 7th, and Private W. H. Elliot at Cartersville, Ga., August 12th.  – Reminiscences of the Chatham Artillery during the war 1861-1865 

Regimental returns for July 1862 from the Berrien Minute Men Company D are sparse, but it seems the health of the company suffered as much as any at Causton’s Bluff. On July 27, 1862 Sergeant John W. Hagan wrote, “The company is very sickly & dose not seem to improve. The health of the troops at this post is very bad. We have had 3 deaths in 24 hours & others expecting to die evry day.”  That month, Stephen Roberts and Guilford Tomlinson, Alapaha Guards, were at a convalescent camp; Roberts died of pneumonia the following month at the Springfield convalescent camp. Lt. Thomas J. Perry, Berry Infantry, was absent sick, but returned in August. James Rhodes, Berry Infantry, went to hospital and was furloughed home to recover; he was back in November, detailed as a ferryman. James W. Ferris, Berry Infantry, was sent to Springfield convalescent camp, then to hospital and eventually deserted. Thomas Allen and  George W. Kirk, Stephens Volunteers, were at convalescent camp; Allen spent the rest of the year in the hospital or furloughed sick.  Merritt A. Chandler, Stephens Volunteers, was sent to the hospital at Whitesville, GA then was in and out of hospitals until February, 1863, when he was diagnosed with “Tertian Fever,” a type of malaria in which the fever spikes every three days. Calvin H. Kytle, Stephens Volunteers, went to the hospital in Savannah. Nathaniel Bryan, Seventeenth Patriots, went on sick furlough. John D. Hires, Wiliam F. Southwell, Lt William Pendarvis, Moses W. Spence, James H. Hodges John T. Strickland, William Thornton and William F. Southwell, Georgia Foresters, were sick in the hospital. Hodges would be out for four months, Strickland six months, Southwell and Thornton never returned. Spence was detailed as a nurse. Randall Phinnie, Thomas Volunteers, was absent sick. F. M. Rawls and J. S. Rawls went to the convalescent camp. F.M. Rawls headed home without leave and died December 9 in Thomas County. J. S. Rawls was sent to Springfield and never returned. James W. Farris, Berry Infantry, went to a convalescent camp and was out five months. Toliver Trapp, Berry Infantry, was at convalescent camp; he had been working as a nurse in the Savannah hospital. Reuben R. Pyles, 17th Patriots, was at the Convalescent camp. Barry Scoggins, 17th Patriots was under arrest at Oglethorpe Barracks, Savannah; he escaped in November 1862. On July 2, 1862, John Muller reported as a substitute for John G. Fondren and deserted the same day. Hayes Singletary, who had enlisted in the 17th Patriots in May, died of pneumonia on July 3, 1862 at Causton’s Bluff. On the 4th of July, 1862, James Sellars, 17th Patriots, died of pneumonia at Guyton Hospital. On July 10, John Tomlinson, Alapaha Guards, furnished a substitute to serve in his place. J. Peacock, 17th Patriots, died of fever, July 10, 1862. On July ll, 1862, Lewis Ebbinger, who worked in the company commissary of the Ocklochnee Light infantry, died of congestive chill. J. Kilby Carroll was discharged at Causton’s Bluff on July 16, 1862 as “incapable of performing the duties of a soldier because of chronic ulceration of the leg“; he later was sent to Ocmulgee Hospital, Macon, GA and worked in the Confederate States Laboratory, the center of Confederate States Ordnance testing and production. Patrick W. McKinnon, Ocklochnee Light Infantry, died of typhoid fever July 18, 1862. William J. McKinnon, Ocklochnee Light Infantry, went to a hospital at Whitesville, GA; he died August 28th, 1862. B.F. Fudge, Thomasville Guards, was at a convalescent camp; he was discharged in August for being over age. Thirty-six-year-old Jarrod Johnson, who joined at Darrien, GA, had been incapacitated by rheumatism every single day of his enlistment and was discharged on certificate of disability on July 19, 1862. On July 22, 1862 Dempsey Griffin, Thomas Volunteers, died of pneumonia at Causton’s Bluff. G. W. Martin, Thomasville Guards, caught Typhoid pneumonia and received a certificate of disability for discharge at Causton’s Bluff, July 23, 1862. That same day, July 23, Cpl. William T. Connally and Wilber W. Williams, Stephens Volunteers, and Duncan R. McIntosh, 17th Patriots, died of fever in Savannah. James C. Smith, corporal of the Ochlockonee Light Infantry got sick and was sent to Guyton Hospital at Whitesville, GA where he died of intermittent fever on July 25, 1862. Greenberry Holt, 17th Patriots, enlisted at Causton’s Bluff on May 16 and died of jaundice and fever on July 28, 1862. William Harper and James H. Lester, Thomasville Guards, got sick in July. Harper spent four months in the hospital but eventually returned to the regiment and served until the end of the war. Lester went home and on July 28, 1862 died of typhoid fever.

In August, 1862  Josiah Goode, Stephens Volunteers, went sick to the Savannah hospital and after several months of illness was furloughed home; he died September 14, 1863 of chronic diarrhea. In Stephens Volunteers, Sgt William J.
Poole left camp in August and died of fever in Franklin County, GA on September 16, the same day Sgt Lowrey G. Patterson died of fever at Causton’s Bluff. S. R. Taylor was assigned to duty as a hospital steward; the following month he was discharged, overage.

The Chatham Artillery vacated Causton’s Bluff on August 13, 1862, moving to White Bluff.  The Berrien Minute Men, Company D, 29th Georgia Regiment would remain at Causton’s Bluff through the first week of October.

Muster Roll of Berrien Minute Men, Co. D, 29th GA Regiment

Berrien Minute Men, Company D, was the second of two companies of men raised in Berrien County, GA during the Civil War.  The campfires of the Berrien Minute Men were made with the 29th Georgia Regiment.

MUSTER ROLL OF
COMPANY D, 29th REGIMENT GEORGIA VOLUNTEER INFANTRY
(Became Co. K, at reorganization May 7, 1862.)
ARMY OF TENNESSEE C. S. A.
BERRIEN, CLINCH & LOWNDES COUNTIES, GEORGIA
BERRIEN MINUTE MEN

  1. Lamb, John C., Captain October 1, 1861. See Private, enlisted, Co. C.
  2. Staten, James W., 1st Lieutenant November 20, 1861. Retired May 7, 1862. Elected Captain of Staten’s Company, 11th Regiment GA State Guards Cavalry (6 months troops), August 4, 1863. Mustered out, expiration term of service, about February 1864. Appointed on Relief Committee and served in that capacity until close of war.
  3. Parrish, Joel J., 2d Lieutenant November 7, 1861. See 3d Sergeant, Co. C.
  4. Knight, Jonathan D., Jr. 2d Lieutenant November 7, 1861. See Private, enlisted , Co. C.
  5. Knight, William W., 2d Sergeant October 1,1861. Died of chronic diarrhoea at Milltown, GA December 27, 1863.
  6. Hagan, John W., 3d Sergeant October 1, 1861. Captured near Atlanta, GA July 22, 1864. Paroled at Camp Chase, OH and transferred to City Point, VA for exchange, March 4, 1865. Received at Boulware & Cox’s Wharves, James River, VA, March 10-12, 1865. No later record.
  7. Millican, Thomas J., 4th Sergeant October 1, 1861. Discharged by civil authority at Savannah, GA August 19, 1862.
  8. Money, John A., 1st Corporal October 1, 1861. Discharged at Causton’s Bluff, GA June 9, 1862. Enlisted as a Private, enlisted in CO. H, 4th Regiment GA Cavalry (Clinch’s), September 1, 1863. Roll for June 1864, last on file, shows him present. No later record.
  9. Parrish, Henry E., 2d Corporal November 4, 1861. Died of typhoid fever at Lauderdale Springs, MS September 8, 1863.
  10. Knight, Barzilla, 3d Corporal November 4, 1861. Elected Jr. 2d Lieutenant May 7, 1862; 1st Lieutenant May 13, 1862. Killed at Chickamauga, GA September 19, 1863.
  11. Lastinger, Peter C., 4th Corporal October 1, 1861. On special duty at Camp Young December 1862. Paroled at Thomasville, GA May 24, 1865. (Born in Lowndes County, GA in 1834.)
  12. Baldree, Harmon N., Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. On detached duty, ferryman at Causton’s Bluff, GA, June 1862. Pension records show he was wounded at Chickamauga, GA September 19, 1863. (Born in Tattnall County, GA in 1840.)
  13. Baldree, James H., Private, enlisted December 21, 1861. Died of pneumonia at Florence, SC January 2, 1863.
  14. Barker, John T., Private, enlisted December 13, 1861. Captured at Nashville, TN December 14, 1864. Released at Camp Douglas, IL June 18, 1865.
  15. Boggs, Ezekiel L., Private, enlisted January 3, 1862. Wounded in right hip at Jonesboro, GA August 31, 1864. Admitted to Ocmulgee Hospital at Macon, GA September 8, 1864, and transferred November 18, 1864, place not given. Pension records show he was in Atlanta, GA hospital, wounded, close of war. (Born in Clarke County, GA in 1842.)
  16. Brown, James J., Private, enlisted December 25, 1861. Died of camp fever at Savannah, GA April 14, 1862.
  17. Browning, Pierre (or Perry), Private. Captured at Franklin, TN December 17, 1864. Forwarded to Camp Chase, OH January 14, 1865, and died there of pneumonia February 12, 1865. Grave #1206, Camp Chase Confederate Cemetery.
  18. Carroll, Wyley F., Private, enlisted September 3, 1862. Captured near Atlanta, GA July 22, 1864. Paroled at Camp Chase, OH and transferred to City Point, VA for exchange, March 4, 1865. Received at Boulware & Cox’s Wharves, James River, VA, March 10-12, 1865. (Born in Alabama in 1837.)
  19. Chapman, Elbert J., Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. On furlough December 31, 1861. Absent without leave December 31, 1862. Delivered to headquarters of regiment as a deserter May 30, 1863.  Executed by firing squad.
  20. Clements, John C., Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. On sick leave December 31, 1861. Wounded at Jonesboro, GA August 31, 1864. Paroled at Thomasville, GA May 25, 1865.
  21. Couey, Samuel, Private, enlisted 1862. Captured near Nashville, TN December 16, 1864. Released at Camp Douglas, IL June 18, 1865.
  22. Cowart, William, Private, enlisted November 21, 1861. Discharged at Causton’s Bluff, GA June 26, 1862.
  23. Cox, Thomas W., Private, enlisted March 18, 1862. On duty as teamster December 31, 1862. No later record.
  24. Davis, James M., Private, enlisted November 21, 1861. Pension records show he was captured near Atlanta, GA July 22, 1864, and was paroled at Camp Chase, OH March 4, 1865. Furloughed for 60 days at Richmond, VA March 1865. (Born in Greene County, GA November 4, 1845.)
  25. DeLoach, James, Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Wounded through both thighs at Jonesboro, GA August 31, 1864. Admitted to Ocmulgee Hospital at Macon, GA September 6, 1864, and transferred September 7, 1864. No later record. (Born December 25, 1844.)
  26. Duren, Richard, Private, enlisted December 6, 1861. Wounded at Chickamauga, GA September 19, 1863. Admitted to Floyd House & Ocmulgee Hospitals at Macon, GA October 1, 1863, and furloughed for 30 days October 31, 1863. Pension records show he was at home on wounded furlough close of war. (Born in Lowndes County, GA in 1838.)
  27. Finley, Alfred B., Private, enlisted December 25, 1861. Contracted measles and erysipelas in service, which resulted in loss of left eye. Captured near Nashville, TN December 16, 1864. Released at Camp Chase, OH June 12, 1865. (Born in GA January 15, 1840. Died at Nicholls, GA October 18, 1921.)
  28. Funderburk, Isaac C., Pension records show he enlisted October 1863, and surrendered at Greensboro, NC April 26, 1865. (Born in Gwinnett County, GA January 30, 1823.)
  29. Garrett, Benjamin S., Private, enlisted October 1, 1861.
  30. Gaskins, Harrison, Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Pension records show he was wounded in both feet at Jonesboro, GA August 31, 1864, and furloughed for 60 days. Unable to return to command. (Born in GA)
  31. Giddens, Hardeman, Private, enlisted November 4, 1861. On extra duty as mail carrier October 31, 1862. On special duty at Camp Young December 31, 1862. No later record.
  32. Giddens, Isbin B., Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Roll for December 31, 1861, last on file, shows him present. No later record.
  33. Giddens, John, Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Died at Savannah, GA September 19, 1862.
  34. Giddens, John W., Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Died of camp fever at Savannah, GA April 2, 1862.
  35. Giddens, Thomas C., Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Died of camp fever at Savannah, GA March 26, 1862. Buried in Cave Hill Cemetery at Louisville,KY
  36. Giddens, William H., Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Died of pneumonia at Springfield, GA September 14, 1862.
  37. Griffin, John M., Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Appointed Sergeant in 1861. Roll for December 31, 1861, last on file, shows him on sick leave. No later record.
  38. Harrell, Hiram F., Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Died of measles at Darien, GA February 4, 1863.
  39. Henry, John, Private, enlisted March 1862. Captured at Nashville, TN December 16, 1864. Released at Camp Douglas, IL June 19, 1865. (Born in Georgia in 1842.)
  40. Herndon, John, Private, enlisted December 25, 1861. Killed at Chickamauga, GA September 19, 1863.
  41. Hodges, Jesse (or Hodge), Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. On expired sick furlough October 31, 1862. Pension records show he was captured at Nashville, TN December 16, 1864, and sent to Camp Chase, OH or to Camp Douglas, IL No later record. Died in Berrien County, GA December 7, 1893.
  42. Hodges, William (or Hodge), Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Captured at Nashville, TN December 16, 1864. Died of pneumonia at Camp Chase, OH January 26, 1865. Grave #901, Camp Chase Confederate Cemetery.
  43. James, John A., Private, enlisted November 4, 1861. Sick at Springfield, GA
    September 30, 1862. Admitted to St. Mary’s Hospital at LaGrange, GA June 19, 1864. Killed at Murfreesboro, TN December 7, 1864.
  44. Johnson, Jarred, Private, enlisted December 5, 1861. Discharged on account of chronic rheumatism at Causton’s Bluff, GA, July 19, 1862.
  45. Lastinger, Elias, Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. At Camp Young on special duty December 31, 1862. Killed at Peachtree Creek, GA July 20, 1864.
  46. Lastinger, Lacy E., Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Captured at Nashville, TN December 16, 1864. Released at Johnson’s Island, OH June 16, 1865. (Born in Ware County, GA August 3, 1843. Died December 4, 1936. Buried at Adel, GA)
  47. Lindsey, M. R., Pension records show he enlisted May 10, 1862, was wounded in right shoulder at Kennesaw Mountain, GA June 27, 1864; was furloughed for 60 days in 1864, and was unable to return. (Born in GA)
  48. Luke, Jasper M., Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Received pay for services from October 1, 1861, to February 7, 1862, on May 2, 1862, and was discharged, disability, date not given.
  49. Luke, John B., Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. On detail, nurse in hospital, December 30, 1862. No later record.
  50. Mainer, Lovett B., Private, enlisted December 5, 1861. Died of chronic diarrhoea in Lowndes County, GA December 5, 1863.
  51. Marks, Jacob, Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Absent, sick, June 1862. Pension records show he was wounded and permanently disabled at Chickamauga, GA September 19, 1863.
  52. McCranie, Elijah, Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Roll for December 31, 1861, last on file, shows him present. Pension records show he was wounded and permanently disabled near Atlanta, GA August 7, 1864, and was on Provost Guard duty close of war. (Born in Lowndes County, GA December 6, 1839.)
  53. McCranie, Neil, Private, enlisted November 4, 1861. Died of pneumonia at Yazoo City, MS June 7, 1863.
  54. McCranie, Waldo C., Private, enlisted November 4, 1861. Discharged on account of rheumatism, at Causton’s Bluff, GA May 28, 1862. Pension records show he reenlisted in 1863 and was in Columbus, MS hospital close of war. (Born in Lowndes County, GA July 16, 1840.)
  55. McCutcheon, John, Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Paroled at Thomasville, GA May 20, 1865.
  56. McDermid, Angus, Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. On furlough September 30, 1862. Killed at Murfreesboro, TN December 7, 1864.
  57. McNabb, Daniel R., Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Wounded at Chickamauga, GA September 19, 1863. Died of wounds near Dalton, GA September 22, 1863.
  58. Morris, Edward, Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Died of camp fever and measles at Savannah, GA March 5 or 15, 1862.
  59. Nickens, William W., Private, enlisted October 5, 1861. Died at Mont- gomery, ALA October 3, 1863.
  60. O’Neil, James L., Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Absent, sick, December 31, 1862. In French’s Division Hospital at Lockhart, MS August 31, 1863. No later record.
  61. Parrish, John A., Private, enlisted November 1, 1861. Absent, sick, December 31, 1861. In Convalescent Camp August 31, 1862. Wounded at Pine Mountain, GA June 14, 1864. Never returned to command.
  62. Parrish, Redding B., Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Died of measles at Darien, GA December 17, 1861.
  63. Patterson, John R., Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Appointed Sergeant. Wounded near Atlanta, GA August 1864. Died in Ford (or Foard) Hospital at Forsyth, GA August 14, 1864.
  64. Peeples, Joseph H., Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Died of chronic diarrhoea at Lauderdale Spring, MS September 10, 1863.
  65. Peeples, William H., Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Paroled at Thomasville, GA May 25, 1865.
  66. Pounds, James D., Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Appointed Sergeant. Captured near Atlanta, GA July 22, 1864. Paroled at Camp Chase, OH and transferred to City Point, VA for exchange, March 4, 1865. Received at Boulware & Cox’s Wharves, James River, VA, March 10-12, 1865. No later record.
  67. Richardson, Eli T., Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. At Convalescent Camp August 31, 1862. Pension records show he was at home on furlough close of war. (Born in Thomas County, GA in 1841.)
  68. Richardson, M. J., Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Roll for December 31, 1861, last on file, shows him present. No later record. (Born in Coweta County, GA in 1834.)
  69. Sirmans, William S., Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Captured at Atlanta, GA July 22, 1864. Paroled at Camp Chase, OH and sent via New Orleans, LA for exchange, May 2, 1865.
  70. Smith, George Pinkney, Private, enlisted 1862. Received within Union lines as a Confederate deserter June 18, 1864. Took oath of allegiance to U. S. Government, at Louisville,KY June 18, 1864, and was sent to be released north of Ohio River. (Born in South Carolina.)
  71. Strickland, Elias, Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. On extra duty as teamster September 1862. No later record. Pension records show he contracted pneumonia on march with General Hood into TN Died at home.
  72. Strickland, Joseph, Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Discharged by civil authority at Camp Young November 26, 1861.
  73. Tomlinson, Jonas, Private, enlisted November 21, 1861. Elected Lieutenant. Captured at Decatur, GA July 22, 1864. Released at Johnson’s Island, OH June 15, 1865.
  74. Tomlinson, Leonard H., Private, enlisted November 21, 1861. Absent, sick, December 30, 1862. No later record.
  75. Tomlinson, Samuel, Private, enlisted November 21, 1861. Wounded in right eye, resulting in loss of sight, and captured at Nashville, TN December 16, 1864. Released at Camp Chase, OH June 12, 1865.
  76. Touchstone, Charles S., Private, enlisted December 25, 1861. Discharged by civil authority at Camp Young November 28, 1862. Enlisted as a Private, enlisted in Co. H, 4th Regiment GA Cavalry (Clinch’s), September 20, 1863. Appointed 2d Sergeant. Paroled at Thomasville, GA May 10, 1865.
  77. Touchstone, Richard, See Private, enlisted , Co. C.
  78. Truett, Jacob, Private, enlisted December 5, 1861. Wounded in left shoulder at Murfreesboro, TN December 7, 1864. Admitted to Way Hospital at Meridian, MS, on account of wounds, January 19, 1865. Pension records show he surrendered at Greensboro, NC April 26, 1865. (Born in South Carolina February 9, 1834.)
  79. Watkins, W. F., Enlisted as a Private, enlisted in Co. D, 2d Battalion. GA Cavalry December 3, 1861. Transferred to Co. D, 29th Regiment GA Infantry January 7, 1862.
  80. Wheeler, Evans, Private, enlisted November 4, 1861. Roll for December 31, 1861, last on file, shows him present. No later record.
  81. Wheeler, William W., Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Captured at Nashville, TN December 16, 1864. Paroled at Camp Chase, OH and sent via New Orleans, LA for exchange, May 2, 1865. Received at Vicksburg, MS May 12, 1865.
  82. Williams, Joshua, Private, enlisted October 1, 1861. Deserted at Camp Young, December 28, 1862.

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Causton’s Bluff Part 3: War on Whitemarsh

Causton’s Bluff Part 3: War on Whitemarsh

During February and March 1862, Confederate Troops at Causton’s Bluff had been in frequent skirmishes on Whitemarsh Island with Federal troops scouting from Tybee Island.

  1. Causton’s Bluff Part 1: The Key to Savannah
  2. Causton’s Bluff Part 2: Challenge from Tybee
  3. Causton’s Bluff Part 3: War on Whitemarsh Island
  4. Causton’s Bluff Part 4: Arrival of the 29th Georgia Regiment
  5. Causton’s Bluff Part 5: Tidewater Time

The Berrien Minute Men watched from Lawton Battery and Camp Tattnall when Fort Pulaski fell on April 11, 1862. Even from the distance of seven miles, the furious onslaught of artillery was a terrible scene to behold.

Bombardment of Fort Pulaski. Currier & Ives.

Bombardment of Fort Pulaski. Currier & Ives.

About a week later  U.S. troops from Tybee and Cockspur Islands made a reconnaissance of Wilmington Island. Brigadier General Quincy A. Gillmore’s purpose for ordering the mission was to determine “if any preparations by the enemy for boat expeditions against the hulk [USS Montezuma] on Lazaretto Creek or on the left of my position [were] being made.” Pickets from Causton’s Bluff had made contact with the Montezuma about March 27, 1862.

On April 16, 1862, A Federal mission under the command of  Lt. James Harrison Wilson and escorted by seven companies of the 8th Michigan Infantry Regiment led by Col. William M. Fenton,  were transported aboard the steamer Honduras (later commissioned the USS Honduras) from Goat Point at the mouth of Lazaretto Creek to Wilmington and Whitemarsh islands.

Steamer Honduras (later commissioned USS Honduras). Image courtesy of Florida Keys Public Libraries.

Steamer Honduras (later commissioned USS Honduras). Image courtesy of Florida Keys Public Libraries.

Landing rear companies on Wilmington Island at Screven’s Plantation, the Federal mission proceeded to land a force at Gibson’s Plantation on Whitemarsh Island. A work party of Confederate soldiers from Causton’s Bluff detected the landing party and reinforcements were quickly called up. A skirmish ensued in which both sides took losses.

Col. Marcellus Douglass filed an official after-action report with the Confederate States Army. Lieutenant Wilson and Col. William M. Fenton filed official U.S. Army reports.  On both sides of the conflict the size of the commands were understated, while the size of opposing forces were exaggerated.

The report of Col. Douglass was filed from Causton’s Bluff:

Headquarters Carston’s Bluff,

April 21, 1862.

Captain: I take this the first opportunity to make my report of the engagement between a portion of my command and a regiment of the enemy on Whitemarsh Island on the evening of the 16th instant:

The island lies east of this place, and between is the island called Oatland. I have for some time kept pickets and small scouting parties on Whitemarsh, knowing that the enemy occasionally visited it. On that day I had sent, under command of Lieut. Thomas G. Medders, of Company H, a party of about 45 men for scouting and picket duty. In the evening I took with me Capt. J. T. Crawford, of Company G; Lieut. B. T. Bowie, of same company, and 37 of their men, with axes, across to Oatland to have the trees on the island cut down. I required the men to carry with them their guns and cartridge boxes.

Soon after getting there and about 3 p. m. one of my pickets came in from Whitemarsh and told me that the enemy were landing at Mr. Gibson’s place, on the point of Whitemarsh next to Wilmington River, and that a steamer with about a regiment of men on board was lying in the river some 400 or 500 yards from the landing, and that Lieutenant Medders, with his men, had fallen back across the island to a cross-road some 2 miles from where the enemy were seen. I immediately started Captain Crawford, with his company of 37 men, to the place where Lieutenant Medders had halted. I gave to Captain Crawford instructions to remain at that point until I could return to camp and get an additional force, and also directed him to send out pickets from the cross-roads in two directions, one leading to Gibson’s place and the other to Turner’s place, which is on the point of Whitemarsh next to Augustine Creek, and in view from which is Skidaway Island. I then hurried back to camp, being delayed in crossing Augustine Creek. Taking with me three companies (A, B, and C), commanded respectively by Lieut. E. L. Connally and Capts. James McCallay and John L. Moore, I started for the island, hurrying the steamer Leesburg, at my command for this purpose. In order to take two chances of getting assistance to Captain Crawford I had Captain McCallay to land from the boat on Oatland, just across from the battery at this place, and directed him to hurry over to the cross-road on Whitemarsh, with orders that he and Captain Crawford should remain with their companies at that place until I could reach them with the two others, and not to attack the enemy until I joined them, unless they should ascertain that there was only a small party of the enemy, instead of a regiment, as reported to me by the pickets. My reason for not taking the three companies directly over Oatland to Whitemarsh was that the only means of crossing the stream between the two islands was a small boat that would carry about 10 or 15 men at once, and too much time would be consumed in this manner. I therefore went on the steamer with Companies A and C around to a landing on Whitemarsh. Being delayed at the mouth of Whitemarsh Creek about one hour the boat ran aground, and by the time I could get my men all on land it was near 5.30 o’clock.

In the mean time the pickets posted by Captain Crawford discovered a party of the enemy, about 50 strong, who had advanced 1 1/2 miles across the island. The pickets fired on them and fell back to the crossroad, and reported the number of men seen to be about 50 or 75, whereupon Captains Crawford and McCallay, after distributing between their two companies the scouting party under Lieutenant Medders, determined to endeavor to surround the enemy and capture or kill them. Captain Crawford with his force went the road toward Gibson’s, and Captain McCallay with his force up the road toward Turner’s, to where another road turned off to the left and led to Gibson’s place. Both parties met small parties of the enemy and the firing commenced, the force on each side being nearly equal. The enemy were driven back for 1 1/2 miles across little fields and skirts of woods to the Gibson house, where they sheltered themselves behind a hedge of cedar, and brisk firing began.”

This was the first firing I heard, the other being scattering and the noise of the steamer preventing those of us on board from hearing anything else. As soon, however, as we had landed and the reports of the guns were heard I started my men at a double-quick, having then 2 or 2 1/2 miles to go. This distance we made as quickly as possible. On the way I met several of the wounded men and those who were without cartridges coming back. At the distance of about half a mile or less from the Gibson house I met Captain Crawford with his men retreating across a small field, and learned from him that he and Captain McCallay, who with their forces had divided near the cedar hedge, had been overpowered after having sustained heavy loss and exhausted their ammunition, and were compelled to retreat, and that the enemy—a full regiment—were in hot pursuit. Seeing that Captain Crawford and all his men were completely worn out I ordered them to the rear, and formed my men in single rank along and just in the edge of a skirt of woods, ordering them to lie down and wait for the command to fire. Soon the enemy came, shouting as they came, apparently confident of overtaking and capturing the small party who had so long held them in check. The imprudence and impatience of one man prevented me from getting the enemy completely by surprise, and I believe in our power. He, contrary to orders, fired too soon, and knowing that a scattering fire would begin, I gave the command to fire, and one volley checked their progress and turned them back. They discharged their guns at us, but without effect. I kept my men in their position, expecting another advance, but no Yankee showed himself again. Soon Captain McCallay, about whom I felt great uneasiness, came in from a direction to the right of us, some of his men wounded and the rest without cartridges and all completely exhausted.

Night had then come on us, and having only about 60 men with cartridges and physically able to fight, I deemed it imprudent to pursue the enemy to their boats, knowing their overwhelming force of 800 men and also fearing an ambuscade, as a skirt of woods through which they retreated was between us, and we could not then ascertain whether they were fleeing or awaiting our advance.

On the next day I found that they had remained on the island only long enough to gather up their dead and wounded, as they had left knapsacks, cartridge boxes, canteens, haversacks, overcoats, blankets, &c., and a number of guns, all of which we gathered up. I also saw the doors that they had taken from the houses there and on which they had borne off their killed and wounded. The doors were very bloody.

During the first part of the engagement, and while Captains Crawford and McCallay were driving the enemy before them, a Federal lieutenant was mortally wounded, and from him the fact was ascertained that their force numbered 800 or 860; it was the Eighth Michigan. Another prisoner, who was taken with the lieutenant, also stated that the men we were fighting were not foreigners. Several caps were found with the letters of the companies to which the wearers belonged on them, showing that there were different companies. I also learn from the officers and men that while the fighting was going on in the field in front of and from here, just beyond the Gibson house, the enemy formed in line of battle and their entire force took part in the fight. Some time during the engagement the enemy landed some artillery (the tracks of the wheels were found by us the next day), but it was not brought into action at all, and I judge was carried back on the boat as quickly as it had been landed.

The officers of my command engaged were: Capt. J. T. Crawford and Lieut. B. T. Bowie, of Company G; Capt. James McCallay and Lieuts. A. W. Pearce and J. T. Horsley, of Company B; Capt. John L. Moore and Lieuts. T. M. Breed aud J. B. Breed, of Company C, and Lieuts. E. L. Connally and J. C. Steger, of Company A. Lieut. Thomas G. Medders, of Company H, was lieutenant of the scouting party sent out in the morning.

The whole force engaged at any one time was not over 90, some having been detailed as pickets to prevent surprise from the rear and to guard the steamer.

Below is a list of the casualties: *

Officers …………………………………………………… 3 wounded
Non-commissioned Officers ………………..1 wounded
Enlisted Men……………………………4 killed, 12 wounded
Total………………………………………….4 killed,  15 wounded

The loss of the enemy could not be ascertained, except approximately, by going over the ground and finding the bloody places which marked where they fell. There were quite a number of these, some of them indicating that those shot had bled very freely. Bloody garments were found, some caps that had been shot through, and the bloody doors upon which they had borne off their men; guns and various other things with blood on them indicate that the enemy suffered severely.

I had forgotten also to mention that the lantern they had used in searching for their dead and wounded was found the next day. In their haversacks were found plates, knives, and forks, butter-crackers, meat, &c., as if they had come prepared to remain on the island a day or two. They had also some ground coffee that they drooped in their hurry. The guns used by them were muskets, some of them large-bore Springfield muskets rifled.

The loss on our side, particularly in the ranks of Captain Crawford’s company (G), and the length of time they were fighting, show with what bravery they maintained their ground against overwhelming numbers—eight or ten to one.

I cannot omit to state my high appreciation of the skill and courage of Captains Crawford and McCallay and the valor of officers and men under them. Captain Crawford had command of the party until I arrived, and in his judgment and valor I have entire confidence. Captain McCallay nobly seconded him in every movement, and a braver, truer man cannot be found.

Individual instances of heroism and narrow escapes were reported to me, among them that of Garland Upshaw, of Company B, who in assisting in bearing off a wounded comrade had four bullet-holes made through his coat. Upshaw is quite a youth, and yet is considered one of the best scouts in the regiment. Private Pilkinton, of Company A, was shot just as he had loaded his gun, and after falling handed it to Captain McCallay, requesting him to discharge it at the foe. Captain Crawford and his men were nearly surrounded, and though exposed to fire from three directions bravely fought until they had no cartridges to use. Captain McCallay had a ball shot through his coat.

I have made this report too long, and yet not long enough to do full justice to the men who, less than 100, in a fair fight kept back 800 well armed Yankees for nearly an hour, and retreated only because they had no more ammunition with which to fight.

I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

M. DOUGLASS, Colonel, Commanding Post.
Gapt. Malloby P. King, A. A. G., Second Brigade.

 

The report of Lt Wilson was published by the New York Times, which incorrectly identified the source as Lieut. W.L.M. Burger.  Burger was indeed on the mission, but Official Records of the Union Army confirm that the following is the report of Lt. Wilson.

As a Lieutenant, James Harrison Wilson led the April, 1862 federal excursion on Wilmington Island.

As a Lieutenant, James Harrison Wilson led the April, 1862 federal excursion on Wilmington Island.

DEPARTMENT OF THE SOUTH.; A Severe Skirmish on Wilmington Island. A Reconnoitering Party Attacked by the Rebels. THE ENEMY REPULSED WITH LOSS, Ten of Our Men Killed and Thirty-five Wounded. OFFICIAL REPORT OF THE AFFAIR.

A skirmish occurred on Wilmington Island, above Fort Pulaski, on the 16th inst., the official report of which I send, and also a list of the killed and wounded. There is a discrepancy in the numbers of killed and wounded reported, and the list given me. I cannot explain it.

ON BOARD STEAMER HONDURAS,
OFF WILMINGTON ISLAND, Ga.,
April 17, 1862.

Lieut. W.L.M. Burger, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General Headquarters United States forces, Tybee Island, Ga.:

SIR: I have the honor to submit the following for the information of the General Commanding:

Escorted by seven companies of the Eighth Michigan Volunteers, commanded by Col. Fenton, and a small detachment of the Rhode Island Artillery, I embarked on the steamer Honduras at Goat’s Point about 8 o’clock yesterday morning, for the purpose of making a reconnaissance of Wilmington Island.

Proceeding through Lazaretto Creek, Tybee River and Wilmington Narrows, to Scriven’s [Screven’s] plantation, two companies, (G and B,) about 115 men, under the command of Capt. Pratt, were landed, with orders to march at once to the southwest end of the island, skirting Turner’s Creek on the right, so as to cover the boat party which was to follow that stream to Wilmington River. Ascending to the junction of Oatland and Turner’s Creeks, the balance of the command, in all about 300 men, was landed at Gibson’s plantation [on Whitemarsh Island].

The first company ashore was directed to move at once to the southwest end of Whitemarsh Island, skirting Turner’s Creek, and with instructions to leave a small picket at the intersection of the roads leading from Gibson’s and Oatlands to Turner’s, till another company should arrive at that point. A third company was to be thrown out on the road to the ferry at Canton’s Bluffs [Causton’s Bluff], to protect the boat party up Oatland Creek. The two remaining companies were to be held in reserve at Gibson’s plantation.

Lieut. Caldwell and sixteen men of the Rhode Island Volunteers, with one light 6-pounder, were left in charge of the steamer. The gun could not be landed on account of the inability of the boat to lie alongside of the landing.

Having proceeded through Turner’s Creek to Wilmington River, I returned by the same route, and landed at Gibson’s. Directly after arriving there, I was informed that our patrols had discovered the enemy in force at or near Fleetwood’s, and had seen traces of them all the way to Turner’s. Col. Fenton had already given order for the advance companies to fall back to Gibson’s, and and his dispositions for repelling an attack and covering our embarkation.

After an examination of the ground, at my suggestion, one company was thrown further forward to take shelter behind the hedge and fence surrounding one of the houses. The Colonel had already designated this position, and stationed another in the woods lining the marsh on the left, and the balance behind the houses and trees nearer the landing. After these dispositions were completed, and between 4 and 6 P.M. the rebels, subsequently ascertained to be the Thirteenth Georgia Volunteers, about 800 strong, armed with Enfield rifles, preceded by a heavy line of skirmishers, made an attack upon our position. After our advance line had delivered its fire from the hedge, the bugles sounded “the charge” for the main body; this was confounded with “the retreat,” the advanced line abandoned its cover, and fell back through an open space towards the reserve. While in this somewhat confused condition, the enemy advanced rapidly, pouring in upon us a steady and destructive fire. Our men replied with spirit, from such cover as could be obtained. Order was soon reestablished, and the rebels held in check for an hour or more. After the ineffectual efforts of Col Fenton and myself to form enough men to charge their line and drive them from the hedge, a portion of one company was carried to the right and under cover of the timber skirting that side, the left flank of the enemy was met and frustrated in an attempt to move in that direction; an advance on the left and along the whole line, dislodged the enemy and put him in full flight. He fell back rapidly, leaving several dead and wounded on the field, and was closely pressed for half or three-quarters of a mile. As it was now almost night, it was not deemed advisable to continue the pursuit further. Our skirmishers were gradually drawn in, strong advanced guards were posted well out on both roads, and two companies again posted on the line of the hedge, and the fence to the right. After having made, these admirable dispositions of his force to secure our position, Col. Fenton then directed the removal of our killed and wounded to the steamer; and after holding the ground for three hours, the entire form was quietly embarked without further accident — though it must be confessed had the enemy renewed his attack while we were embarking, we should have suffered great loss.

Our five small boats could not remove more than fifty men every thirty minutes, and the steamer lay in such a position that the six-pounder could not be brought to bear without jeopardizing the lives of our own people.

Our loss is ten killed and thirty-five wounded. Among the former is Lieut. and Adjt. Pratt, who fell while gallantly cheering on the men. Lieut. Badger, in command of the advanced guard, was dangerously, if not mortally wounded, and fell into the hands of the enemy; but in the hurry of their retreat he succeeded in effecting his escape.

The loss of the enemy cannot be ascertained; two of their dead were left in our hands. One, mortally wounded, died before we disembarked; the balance were carried off.

I am, Sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C.H. WILSON,

First Lieutenant T.E. and Chief T.E., Department of the South.

KILLED AT WILMINGTON POINT.

Co. A. — Minor Pratt, Adjutant; Levi Conden, left temple; Asa Atherton, through head.
Co. B. — George Sparbuck, right lung; Charles A. Balley, throat; A. Vandenstack, right lung and right arm; Dessa Kapple, back and heart.
Co. H. — James E. Barton, right cheek and head.
Co. I. — Edwin Ayers, left thigh.
Co. K. — Eli Myers, lungs and back; —– Pestye, left side.
Co. A . — Carlos Delong, left arm and hip; Henry W. Caldwell, right breast and back; Warren Cole, through both hips; Aylmer Jennings, left thigh; Fred. Shillinger, left thigh; Barney Collins, right hand.
Co. C — Lieut. Badger, wounded in body, (mortally;) Franklin Moore, left foot; Silas Lurner, through the body; Ezekiel Cramer, right hand; Constantine Schloppi, left leg; Amos C. Walker, right leg; Lyman A. Andrews, right hip; Lewis Piper, left thigh.
Co. D — P.H. Hankinson, left wrist: Walter D. Smith, Engineer corps, left arm and back: Nicholas Carlin, right thigh; Andrew J. Coborne, inferior maxillary; James Cooper, right thigh.
Co. I — Wm. B. Golf, right shoulder and bach 5 Walter S. Ryans, hypogastric region; John R. Bunting, left ankle; Thos. Plinstock, left hand.
Co. K — Second Lieut. George Jennings, left leg.

There being a want of suitable hospital accommodations at Tybee, the wounded, by direction of Brigade-Surgeon J.J. Craven, were brought down here this morning on the Honduras to the general hospital.

The fact that the enemy fled, leaving us the field, notwithstanding their superior force, is regarded as having given us the best of the affray.

The Atlantic is just in, with New-York dates of the 14th inst.

The Oriental goes North to-day, carrying the mails and rebel officers, and 150 rebel prisoners,

J.M.W.

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Colonel William M. Fenton, 8th Michigan Infantry also filed a report from the Honduras.

Colonel William M. Fenton, 8th Michigan Infantry, led skirmishes against Confederate troops from Causton's Bluff.

Colonel William M. Fenton, 8th Michigan Infantry, led skirmishes against Confederate troops from Causton’s Bluff.

Report of Col. William M. Fenton, Eighth Michigan Infantry. Headquarters Michigan Volunteers,

On Board Steamer Honduras,

Off Wilmington Island, Ga., April 16,1862—11 p. m. 

Sir: I have the honor to report, for the information of the general commanding, that, in compliance with Special Orders, No. 41, I embarked with seven companies of the Eighth Michigan Regiment as an escort to Lieut. J. H. Wilson,Topographical Engineers, on a reconnaissance of Wilmington Island. Two companies, under command of Captain Pratt, were landed at Screven’s plantation, with orders from Lieutenant Wilson to skirt Turner’s Creek; the other live companies were landed at Gibson’s plantation. Two of these companies were ordered to skirt Turner’s Creek; a third was to take the road to the right toward ferry at Carston’s Bluff to protect boat party up Oatland Creek, and the remainder to secure the landing. After one company of the five was landed Lieutenant Wilson proceeded in a boat up Turner’s Creek. Owing to the small number of boats and the distance from the steamer (which was grounded) some delay occurred in the disembarkation. I directed Lieutenant Colonel Graves to follow with the second company to skirt Turner’s Creek, but being misdirected he took the road to the right toward Carston’s Bluff, and on landing with the remaining companies I received information from him that the enemy were in force at Fleetwood’s plantation and to the left of the wood. This rendered the reconnaissance of Oatland Creek with boat unsafe, and I ordered the companies all in, and stationing the remaining companies to guard against an attack at our landing sent out strong pickets on both roads. I believe the advance of company to the right instead of along Turner’s Creek saved my command, as it sooner enabled me to post the men to advantage and take a position from which the enemy’s approach could be observed. The enemy proved to be the Thirteenth Georgia, about 800 strong, armed with Enfield rifles. As they approached (about 4 o’clock p. m.) with a strong body of skirmishers in the skirt of woods below the road the companies I had stationed to the right and left of the road, in accordance with my instructions, opened fire. I immediately sounded the charge for advance of companies in the rear of first line. The first line, mistaking the signal, fell back to the next cover. A constant and effective fire was kept up on both sides from cover of trees and bushes for an hour or more. Lieutenant Wilson, who had returned with boat party, here proved of great service to me. He took a party at my request to the left, and I ordered a company to the right to flank the enemy. Both operations were successful, and in a few moments the enemy retreated in confusion, leaving several dead on the field, followed by our men with loud cheers.

It being now about sunset I recalled our troops, and giving to Lieutenant Wilson the command of pickets stationed to guard against surprise, formed the companies in line as originally posted, sent the dead and wounded in boats to the ships, and gradually and very quietly under cover of night withdrawing the men sent them on board as fast as our limited transportation would allow. At the last trip of the boats I embarked, accompanied by Lieutenant Wilson, Lieutenant Colonel Graves, and the remainder of my command, at about 10 o’clock p. m., and immediately brought on board the two companies left at Screven’s plantation. After the enemy retreated we were unmolested. It is due to the officers and men of the command to say that generally they behaved with cool and intrepid courage. Adjutant Pratt fell dead near my side, gallantly fighting musket in hand and cheering on the men. Our loss, I regret to say, was comparatively heavy—10 killed and 35 wounded out of a command of 300 men. Among the wounded is Acting Lieutenant Badger, of Company C, who was in charge of the advanced picket, and exhibited undaunted courage. He with one of his men was made prisoner. Both escaped, and were brought in when the enemy retreated.

The captain of the Honduras is deserving of great credit for his kind attention to the wounded. Indeed he afforded us every facility for the comfort of officers and men in his power. I respectfully refer to Lieutenant Wilson’s report, which I have road, and contains some facts not embraced in this report, among others in relation to the men detailed in charge of the field piece on board ship, who were vigilant and attentive.

Herewith is transmitted a list of casualties.*

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. M. FENTON,
Colonel, Commanding.

Lieut. W. L. M. Burger,

Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Tybee Island.

Again, the engagement on Whitemash alerted all regiments manning the batteries around Savannah.  Private Isaiah Smith at Beaulieu Battery  was called out in the middle of the night.

Thursday April the 17th 1862
I got up at 4 Oclock in the morning. We was ordered to cook one days rashing to go to Whitmarsh Island as the enemy had made an attact on our men but we did [not] get to go. I went on Co Drill at 9 Oclock – Isaiah Smith

At Camp Tattnall, the 29th Georgia Regiment was dispatched to reinforce Causton’s Bluff.  Berrien Minute Men Company D, and the 29th Georgia Regiment would take up station at Causton’s Bluff  and do picket duty on Whitemarsh Island and at Caper’s Battery. At the same time, and unbeknownst to the Confederate command, the 8th Michigan Infantry embarked on the USS Ben Deford for transportation back to Beaufort, SC.

A soldier of the 29th Georgia Regiment, Lieutenant Thomas J. Perry, wrote  to the Rome Courier newspaper from Causton’s Bluff:

Our Savannah Correspondence.

Causton’s Bluff, near Savannah,
April 19, 1862.

Dear Courier: Our Regiment was sent down here Wednesday night [April 16], to reinforce the 13th Georgia Regiment who had a fight with the Federals the evening before, on Whitmarsh Island [Whitemarsh Island], an account of which you have doubtless seen in the city papers.

But as the Yankees left the Island we were put to work on the fortifications here, and our tents sent down, so we will have to remain. This is a beautiful place, but it is very, objectionable, on account of the sand flies and gnats, which are exceedingly troublesome. The bluff is on what is called St. Augustine Creek. It is about as wide as Coosa River at low tide, and is navigable for vessels drawing twelve feet water.

Thunderbolt Battery is just below us on the same creek, Oakland Island [Oatland] is just opposite us and Whitmarsh just back of it, a small creek dividing them; Wilmington Island is still lower down. The Federals are trying to get possession of Whitemarsh and Oakland Islands, to erect a battery in order to shell out the battery here, and then take our guns and shell out Fort Jackson, and the city would then of course fall into their hands.— This is believed to be their programme.

Our company came down here thro’ a mistake of Col. [William J.] Young’s. We were detailed to guard the Depot to prevent the six months troops from returning but as we are here we will probably remain. Some of the Boys are returning from Augusta, and report the others improving- W. H. Mitchell, J. C. Andrews and W. E. Payne have returned this morning. Sixty-six have re-enlisted for the war. It takes no Conscription bill to make them do their duty.

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