29th Georgia Regiment Soldier Killed by Fellow Soldier

29th Georgia Regiment Soldier Killed by Fellow Soldier over a game of marbles

In the summer of 1862,  the Berrien Minute Men mustered in as a company of the 29th Georgia Infantry Regiment near Savannah, GA, where the regiment trained and served picket duty on the Georgia coast.  They were stationed at a number of camps  on the coastal islands and marshes, first at Sapelo Battery, off the coast of Darien, GA, then defending Savannah in Chatham County, GA at Camp Tatnall, Camp Causton’s Bluff, Camp Debtford, Camp Mackey, and Camp Young.

At times the conditions in the Confederate camps of Chatham county were rough.  Disease, shortage of provisions,  weather, and frustration over being assigned to the literal backwaters of the war all took their toll on the men.   Difficulties sometimes arose between soldiers.  In one incident a soldier of the 29th Georgia Regiment was killed over a game of marbles. The fatal knifing occurred on September 16, 1862.

In a letter written September 20, 1862 and published September 26, 1862 in the Rome Weekly Courier a soldier of Company E, 29th Georgia Regiment reported the incident:

A serious difficulty occurred in the company on Tuesday last, between Privates Sam’l Fuller and John M. Reynolds.  They had been playing marbles, and a dispute arose, which resulted in an encounter, when Fuller drew his pocket knife and inflicted three wounds on the person of Reynolds, two in the back and in in the side. The two in the back were not considered serious, but the one in the side was, as it came very near going the hollow. Mr. Reynolds had been here but a few days having came in the the last squad of recruits. He is in the camp hospital and doing well. – Fuller did not wait to be placed under arrest, but went immediately to the guard Tents and gave himself up – He will be tried to day before the Regimental Court Martial

Letter from a Floyd County soldier reports deadly game of marbles at the camp of the 29th Georgia Regiment, Savannah, GA

Letter dated September 20, 1862from a Floyd County soldier reports deadly game of marbles at the camp of the 29th Georgia Regiment, Savannah, GA

The knife wounds sent John Reynolds to the camp hospital, which would have placed him under the care of William P. Clower, Surgeon of the 29th Regiment. William P. Clower initially served as company surgeon for the Berrien Minute Men, and was a brother of Dr. John T. Clower of Rays Mill, (now Ray City, GA)

Exerpt from a soldier’s letter written September 26, 1862 at the regimental headquarters, 29th Georgia Regiment, Savannah, GA and published in the Rome Tri-Weekly Courier :

John M. Reynolds is suffering intensely from the wounds inflicted by Fuller, and I fear it will be some time before he recovers, if ever.  He is still in the camp hospital, not in a condition to be moved.  Fuller’s case has been tried but the decision has not been made public, but doubtless will be in a few days. He is under arrest yet.

1862-rome-tri-wkly-john-m-reynolds

John M. Reynold did not recover. The Savannah Republican issue of October 1, 1862 reported his death:

Savannah Republican
October 1, 1862

INQUEST. – Coroner Eden held an inquest yesterday at the camp of the Twenty-ninth Georgia Regiment, over the body of Private John M. Reynolds, of Co. D., said regiment. The jury found that the deceased came to his death from wounds inflicted on his person by one Samuel Fuller, of the same regiment, in a quarrel which took place on the 16th ult., while playing at marbles. Upon the facts given in evidence, they found a charge of manslaughter against Fuller.

1862-oct-1-savannah-republican-john-m-reynoldsWriting from Camp Troup on October 1, 1862, a Floyd county soldier reported to the Rome Weekly Courier:

It becomes my painful duty to record the death of private John M. Reynolds,  who died on the morning of  the 30th ult., of Erysipelas, produced by the wounds inflicted by private Samuel Fuller. The particulars of the difficulty I gave you in a former letter. Mr. Fuller was court martialed and sentenced to fifteen days hard labor, and when not at work, with a ball and chain to his leg and confined to the guard tent, but as the Judge Advocate omitted to record the evidence and the names of the witnesses, the Colonel disapproved of the sentence and remanded him back to his company for duty.  This was on the 27th September, Reynolds died on the 30th. Fuller was then arrested again and placed under guard to be delivered over to the civil authorities, when demanded. A Coroner’s Inquest was ordered and held over the body of the deceased, and the jury found that he came to his death from wounds inflicted by Samuel Fuller, and upon the facts given in evidence they found a charge of manslaughter against Fuller.  He had not been sent for by the civil authorities when we left today.

Erysipelas was a streptococcus infection of the skin and was difficult to treat without antibiotics.

letter dated Oct 1, 1862

letter dated Oct 1, 1862

In a follow-up letter on October 2, 1862, the soldier reported

 Samuel Fuller was arrested and turned over to the civil authorities and placed in jail yesterday evening to await his trial. He made a good soldier, one who was always in his place, and did his full share of duty. If the Captain is here when he is tried, he will see that justice is done him.

letter dated October 2, 1862

letter dated October 2, 1862

Letter of October 5, 1862 from Camp Troup near Savannah, GA

Last Friday was appointed for Fuller’s committal trial, but as some of the witnesses were sick, the trial was postponed until Monday, and for the same reasons it was again postponed until last Tuesday two weeks, wo he will have to lie in jail at least that long.

1862-10-16-rome-tri-weekly-samuel-fuller-trial

October 29, 1862 letter from Camp Troup, near Savannah, GA reports:

Fuller’s committal trial has been indefinitely postponed on account of so many of the witnesses being sick.

Letter dated October 29,1862 reports delay in the trial of Samuel Fuller for the death of John M. Reynolds

Letter dated October 29,1862 reports delay in the trial of Samuel Fuller for the death of John M. Reynolds

Finally, in a letter written February 12, 1863, while the 29th GA Regiment was at Camp Young near Savannah, GA, the results of the trial are announced:

Samuel Fuller has had his trial at last; he was cleared and returned to duty.1863-feb-20-rome-wkly-courier-samuel-fuller-killed-29th-regt-ga-soldier

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Melvin Plair

Melvin Plair of Lois community near Ray City, a son of Effie Mozelle Moore and Eugene Plair. In the 1940s, the Plairs rented a farm on the Nashville and Valdosta Highway.

Melvin Plair, Senior at Berrien High School, 1955. In high school he played basketball and baseball, and was a senior superlative by his classmates.  He was on the Student Council and the Annual Staff, and a member of the “N” Club.

Melvin Plair, 1955, Senior

Melvin Plair, 1955, Senior

Melvin Plair played on the 1952-53 Nashville High Sschool boys basketball team. Image courtesy of www.berriencountyga.com

Melvin Plair played on the 1952-53 Nashville High Sschool boys basketball team. Image courtesy of http://www.berriencountyga.com

Melvin Plair, 1953 at Nashville High School

Melvin Plair, 1953 at Nashville High School

In 1955, Melvin Plair played baseball for the Alapaha.

The Nashville Herald, front page, June 23, 1955 Photo caption: ALAPAHA LIONS BASEBALL SQUAD – Berrien County’s representative in the Twin-Rivers Baseball League this year is the young and talented Alapaha Lions Club team pictured above. Players, front row, L-R, James Moore, Edwin Register, Charles Matthews, Billy Sanderson, Weyman Vickers; middle row L-R, Melvin Plair, Joe Dixon, Russell Nix, Garland McMillan, Joe Peach; back row L-R, Manager Buford Powell, Tommie Vickers, J.C. Rowe, Rufus Powell, Harvey Dorsey, Coach Julian Paulk. Squad members not present for picture include Don Haskins, Hubert Moore and Pete Williams. – Photo by Wink Rogers.

The Nashville Herald, front page, June 23, 1955 Photo caption: ALAPAHA LIONS BASEBALL SQUAD – Berrien County’s representative in the Twin-Rivers Baseball League this year is the young and talented Alapaha Lions Club team pictured above. Players, front row, L-R, James Moore, Edwin Register, Charles Matthews, Billy Sanderson, Weyman Vickers; middle row L-R, Melvin Plair, Joe Dixon, Russell Nix, Garland McMillan, Joe Peach; back row L-R, Manager Buford Powell, Tommie Vickers, J.C. Rowe, Rufus Powell, Harvey Dorsey, Coach Julian Paulk. Squad members not present for picture include Don Haskins, Hubert Moore and Pete Williams. – Photo by Wink Rogers. Image courtesy of http://www.berriencountyga.com

Senior Superlatives, BHS Class of 1955, Francis Gray and Melvin Plair

Senior Superlatives, BHS Class of 1955, Frances Gray and Melvin Plair

Melvin Plair and Frances Gray were later married.

James W. Talley, Milltown Doctor

The Talley family has a long history in Berrien County, GA. Reverend Nathan Talley came, from Greene County, GA to Berrien County  with his wife, Martha Travis some time in the 1850s.  The Methodist minister resided in the vicinity of Ray’s Mill.  He was a neighbor of  Keziah Knight, daughter of William Anderson Knight, and her husband Allen Jones.  Also residing with the Talleys was Dr. John W. Turner.

Two of Reverend Talley’s own sons were physicians.

Dr. Hamilton M. Talley practiced medicine in Nashville and Valdosta, and also called on residents of  Ray’s Mill (now Ray City), GA.  In the Civil War, Dr. H.M. Talley served as Captain of Company E, 54th Georgia Regiment, one of the infantry units raised in Berrien County.

Dr. James W. Talley, born  had a medical practice in Milltown (now Lakeland), GA.

Dr. James W. Talley, of Milltown (now Lakeland), GA

Dr. James W. Talley, of Milltown (now Lakeland), GA

The following biographical sketch of James W. Talley was written just before his death:

James W. Talley, M.D., was born February 22, 1826 in Henry county, GA, not far from Atlanta, and is of English ancestry.  His grandfather, with two brothers, came to this country, and the former, Caleb Talley, after serving during the revolutionary war, settled in Virginia. He was the father of seven sons, five of whom were Methodist ministers. One of these, Rev. Nathan Talley, of Green County, GA, was the father of James W. Talley. The later received a good academic education, and in 1850 began the study of medicine under Dr. William Blalock, of Fayetteville, GA.  In 1851, he entered the Medical College of Georgia, at Augusta, but took his degree from Savannah Medical College. 

Savannah Medical College, 1867.

Savannah Medical College, 1867.

He located in Milltown, Berrien, Co., where he has built up one of the most successful and extensive country practices in the state. During the war, Dr. Talley was exempted from military duty on account of his profession. Politically he is a democrat.  He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, of lodge No. 211, has been grand master, and is now past master.  One of Dr. Talley’s brothers, H. M. Talley, is also a physician at Valdosta.  Another, A.S. [Algernon] Talley, is a real estate agent in Atlanta.  For his first wife, Dr. Talley married Miss Mary Little, daughter of Zabot Little, of Henry county.  She died in 1867, and he afterward married Miss M. [Araminta Mississippi] Holzendorf, daughter of Alexander Holzendorf, of Cumberland Island, one of the best known planters in the state. [Her brother, Robert Stafford Holzendorf married Satira Lovejoy Lamb, widow of Major John C. Lamb who commanded the 29th Georgia Regiment during the War.]

Dr. Talley’s family consists of two sons and four daughters. His eldest son, Junius V., born May 8, 1872, graduated from the Louisville Medical college in June 1894; William T., born August 30, 1875, at home, attending school. The eldest daughter, born in 1854, is the wife of Huffman Harroll, a merchant of Valdosta; Mary I., born in 1864, married J.H. Bostwick [Bostic], a manufacturer of naval stores in Berrien county [and a trustee of Oaklawn Academy]; Effie C., born November 5, 1870; Lelia H., born September 6, 1873, is the wife of J.J. Knight, a merchant of Milltown.

Dr. J. W. Talley’s son, Dr. Junius V. “June” Talley, after graduating from Louisville Medical College returned to Milltown (now Lakeland), GA where he also took up practice.

In October 1894, Dr. J.W. Talley was elected to the executive committee of the short lived Berrien County Prohibition Association.

Dr. James W. Talley died November 25, 1895. An obituary was published in the Tifton Gazette.

Obituary of Dr. James W. Talley, Tifton Gazette, November 29, 1895

Obituary of Dr. James W. Talley, Tifton Gazette, November 29, 1895

Tifton Gazette
November 29, 1895

Dr. J. W. Talley Dead

Death has again visited our community, and claimed as its victim Dr. J. W. Talley.  Dr. Talley came to this country in the year 1856, and has been a practicing physician here ever since. He was an exemplary citizen and a Christian gentleman, having joined the Methodist church in early boyhood, and leaves a large circle of relatives, friends and acquaintances, who were present today at his burial. The funeral services were conducted by Rev. E. L. Padrick and Rev. Wm. Talley, who read a short history of the deceased’s life. The bereaved wife and children have the deepest sympathy of the entire community.   BUTTERFLY.

Grave of James W. Talley, died November 25, 1895. Old City Cemetery, Lakeland, GA. Image source: Ed Hightower

Grave of James W. Talley, died November 25, 1895. Old City Cemetery, Lakeland, GA. Image source: Ed Hightower

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Garner Brothers Played Berrien Football

Wendell Garner and brother Carlton Garner, lived on Garner Road north of Ray City. #44 Wendel, #38 Carlton

Wendell and Carlton Garner, sons of Asa Duggan Garner and Bessie Yopp, lived with their family first on Old Valdosta Road and later on Garner Road. Their father was a contractor who worked in heavy construction. Their sister, Marjorie Garner, attended the Ray City School where she performed with the Glee Club.  Brother A.D. “Al” Garner attended Berry College.  A.D. “Al” Garner attended Berry College and served in Navy during WWII.

Wendell Garner, #44, and Carlton Garner, #38, Berrien High School Football Team

Wendell Garner, #44, and Carlton Garner, #38, Berrien High School Football Team

1954 BHS Football Team The Nashville Herald, front page, September 16, 1954 Photo caption: BERRIEN HIGH FOOTBALL SQUAD – After dropping the opening game in Ocilla last Friday night, Berrien high opens the home schedule here Friday (tomorrow) night against Cook high of Adel. The squad, pictured above, reading front row, left to right, Coach Hal Leddy, S.B. Griner, Bobby Vickers, Dothan Bennett, Weyman Vickers, James Whidden, Max Gaskins, Emory Jenerette, Garland McMillan; Center row, left to right, Wendell Garner, Lamar Mathis, Jerry Shaw, Junior Futch, Jerry Eason, Fayne Outlaw, Owen Williams, Carlton Garner, Raymond Stone; back row, left to right, Coach Mitchell Kirkland, Thomas Pace, Gene Gaskins, DeWitt Osborne, Jerry Dryden, Sonny Nix, James Davis, Kenneth Dix, Bobby Joe Giddens. – Photo by Wink Rogers.

1954 BHS Football Team
The Nashville Herald, front page, September 16, 1954
Photo caption:
BERRIEN HIGH FOOTBALL SQUAD – After dropping the opening game in Ocilla last Friday night, Berrien high opens the home schedule here Friday (tomorrow) night against Cook high of Adel. The squad, pictured above, reading front row, left to right, Coach Hal Leddy, S.B. Griner, Bobby Vickers, Dothan Bennett, Weyman Vickers, James Whidden, Max Gaskins, Emory Jenerette, Garland McMillan; Center row, left to right, Wendell Garner, Lamar Mathis, Jerry Shaw, Junior Futch, Jerry Eason, Fayne Outlaw, Owen Williams, Carlton Garner, Raymond Stone; back row, left to right, Coach Mitchell Kirkland, Thomas Pace, Gene Gaskins, DeWitt Osborne, Jerry Dryden, Sonny Nix, James Davis, Kenneth Dix, Bobby Joe Giddens. – Photo by Wink Rogers. Image courtesy of http://www.berriencountyga.com

Wendell Garner, 1953, Nashville High School

Wendell Garner, 1953, Nashville High School. Image courtesy of http://www.berriencountyga.com

Carlton Garner, 1955, Berrien High School

Carlton Garner, 1955, Berrien High School

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Hyman Hardeman Sirmans of Ray City, GA

Memorial Day Remembrance of the Service and Sacrifice of Hubert Felton Comer

Ray City School 1934

Mamie Langford and John Sheffield Shaw

Mary Washington “Mamie” Langford, daughter of Mary Virginia Knight and William E. Langford, was born August 5, 1883. She married John Shaw  on November 18, 1917. The wedding ceremony was performed by primitive baptist pastor Aaron Anderson Knight.

Marriage certificate of Mary Washington "Mamie" Langford and John Sheffield Shaw.

Marriage certificate of Mary Washington “Mamie” Langford and John Sheffield Shaw.

John Sheffield Shaw was born October 6, 1885 in the Lois community just west of Ray City, GA, a son of William S. Shaw and Mary Parrish Shaw.  After his mother died in 1906 and father died in 1907 he lived with his divorced sister, Alice Shaw, helping her run her rented farm on the Hahira, Cecil and Milltown Road

John S. Shaw was in the Army during World War I. He enlisted at Ft Slocum NY on August 1, 1914.  Other Berrien county men who entered the service via Fort Slocum included Rossie O. Knight who enlisted at Fort Slocum, NY on August 31, 1913, and Carter H. Exum and Charlie Turner, both of Nashville, GA who enlisted June 22, 1914.

John S. Shaw was detailed to the Bakers and Cooks school at Ft Sam Houston, TX.

Wanted! 500 bakers for the U.S. Army, (also 100 cooks). If you can bake bread, Uncle Sam wants you - if you can't bake bread Uncle Sam will teach you how in a government school. [...] Recruiting office: Cor. 39th St. and 6th Ave. (south east corner). - WWI recruiting poster, 1917. Library of Congress

Wanted! 500 bakers for the U.S. Army, (also 100 cooks). If you can bake bread, Uncle Sam wants you – if you can’t bake bread Uncle Sam will teach you how in a government school. […] Recruiting office: Cor. 39th St. and 6th Ave. (south east corner). – WWI recruiting poster, 1917. Library of Congress

He attained the rank of Sergeant 1st Class on June 1, 1917, and Quartermaster Sergeant on August 3, 1917. On August 15, 1917 he was detailed to the School for Bakers and Cooks at Camp Jackson, SC.  where he became a senior instructor in cooking. He received an honorable discharge on October 19, 1918 to accept a commission.

He was appointed 2nd Lieutenant, Quartermasters Corps on October 20, 1918 and was stationed at Camp Sevier, Greenville, SC, apparently taking time off between assignments to come home to Ray City and get married.

John received an honorable discharge on January 7, 1919 and returned to Ray City, GA where he returned to farming. Mamie and John had a mortgaged farm on the Ray City – Milltown road. John worked the farm on his own account. Their neighbors included Paul Knight, and Mamie’s sister and brother-in-law, Thursday  and Albert Studstill. Mamie’s father resided with the Studstills.

Children of Mamie Langford and John Sheffield Shaw:

1. Johnnie Shaw, born December 15, 1918, died April 1, 1925
2. Infant, born and died September 1, 1925

Grave of Mary "Mamie" Langford Shaw, Beaver Dam Cemetery, Ray City, GA

Grave of Mary “Mamie” Langford Shaw, Beaver Dam Cemetery, Ray City, GA

Grave of John Sheffield Shaw, Beaver Dam Cemetery, Ray

Grave of John Sheffield Shaw, Beaver Dam Cemetery, Ray City, GA. Image source: Michael Dover.

Grave of Johnnie L. Shaw, Beaver Dam Cemetery, Ray City. GA

Grave of Johnnie L. Shaw, Beaver Dam Cemetery, Ray City. GA

Grave of infant son of John S. Shaw and Mamie Langford Shaw, Beaver Dam Cemetery, Ray City. GA

Grave of infant son of John S. Shaw and Mamie Langford Shaw, Beaver Dam Cemetery, Ray City. GA

Sizemores’ First Teaching Job

Joe and Diane Sizemore
School-year 1952-53

Joe and Diane Sizemore, long time residents of Ray City, GA attended teachers college at Statesboro, GA and spent their first teaching in Irwin County.

Joe Sizemore, 1952, Georgia Teachers College, Statesboro, GA

Joe Sizemore, 1952, Georgia Teachers College, Statesboro, GA

 ~

Diane Sizemore, 1952, Georgia Teachers College, Statesboro, GA

Diane Sizemore, 1952, Georgia Teachers College, Statesboro, GA

Their first year out of Georgia Teachers College Joe and Diane went to Ocilla, GA where they taught school for the 1952-53 school year.  They moved into  a small, four unit apartment building located at 108 South Irwin Avenue, called the Teachers’ Building.  It was in downtown Ocilla where they could walk to shop. The hardware store was across the alley from their apartment.  They bought their first refrigerator there.

Joe and Diane Sizemore lived in this Ocilla, GA apartment building during their first year of teaching 1952-53.

Joe and Diane Sizemore lived in this Ocilla, GA apartment building during their first year of teaching 1952-53.

Joe got a job in the Ocilla city high  school; Diane was hired to teach  in one of the county schools.  The Ocilla position was highly recommended by Joe’s math professor at Statesboro, W. B. Moye, who knew the Irwin County School Superintendent.   Joe’s degree was in Exact Science. That first year he taught math and algebra and two study halls.

Joe Sizemore taught high school math at the Ocilla Public School, 1952-53

Joe Sizemore taught high school math at the Ocilla Public School, 1952-53. Image By Michael Rivera [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons

Diane taught 4th grade at the public school at Mystic, GA five miles west of Ocilla.  She rode to work every day with one of the other teachers. The Principal was Mr. Peavy; he had previously been pastor of the Baptist Church at Ray City, GA.

Mystic Public School, constructed 1928

Mystic Public School, constructed 1928. Diane Sizemore taught 4th grade at Mystic in 1952-53.

Even with two incomes, teaching didn’t pay enough for Joe & Diane to live on.  Joe took an extra job working on Saturdays at a grocery store so they could afford to eat. Still, they  saved enough of that money in the first semester to buy their first car at the end of the first semester.  One of the Ocilla teachers sold them a black Plymouth sedan, used but it looked like brand new.  When they went home to Nashville and Ray City for Christmas, both of their families were shocked to see them drive up in their own car.

But at Christmas, the Irwin County superintendent lost his bid for re-election and a new superintendent was elected. After that, their positions in Ocilla were uncertain and they decided to pursue other jobs.   When school closed for the summer, they moved to Quitman, GA and took teaching positions there.

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Frances Cornelius

Frances Cornelius, born 1938,  lived with her family on Possum Creek Road just west of Ray City, GA.  Her father, Shellie Wade Cornelius, was a bus driver for the Ray City School and her mother, Pearl Williams Cornelius was a teacher.

Frances Cornelius, 1952-53 sophomore at Ray City School

Frances Cornelius, 1952-53 sophomore at Ray City School


Frances "Frankie" Cornelius, Senior, Class of 1955, Berrien High School, Nashville, GA

Frances “Frankie” Cornelius, Senior, Class of 1955, Berrien High School, Nashville, GA

At Berrien High School, Frances Cornelius was a member of 4-H, Glee Club, Tri-Hi-Y, and Future Homemakers of America. She also play on the Girls basketball team and was a cheerleader.

Georgia Prohibition – No Bottle in the House; No Soda at the Fount

Did Berrien’s own Jonathan P. Knight almost nix Coca Cola in Georgia? Knight grew up at Ray City, GA before moving to the Berrien county seat at Nashville. He was elected to Georgia Assembly first as state representative and later as state senator, and was known for his fiery activism against drinking. He was chairman of the Temperance Committee in the Georgia Senate and was outspoken about the prevalence of drinking in the very halls of the Georgia Assembly.

Jonathan Perry Knight, 1902.

Jonathan Perry Knight, 1902.

J. P. Knight, of Berrien was among the foremost champions for statewide prohibition on the sale of liquor, which was passed in Georgia in July 1907.  Knight didn’t think the law went far enough and was among the first to point out that the law contained very large loopholes, namely, that liquor could continue to be served in social clubs where members kept their own stock in private lockers.  Knight’s bill introduced July 17, 1907 was aimed at closing this loophole.

1907-jul-17-jp-knight-pushed-prohibition

Knight to Present Bill to Banish Club Lockers

Those of the clubmen of Georgia who boast a convivial liking for the cocktail, the highball, or the mint julep, as the particular taste may dictate, and have been consoling themselves with the fond belief that, after all, prohibition would not mean such a hardship forthem, as at the worst they would be able to keep their well-stocked lockers, where they would always be easy of access, have a rude jar coming to them, if Senator Knight of the sixth district, chairman of the temperance committee of the upper house, has his way.
     The former representative from Berrien has in his desk a bill the purpose of which is to declare that any place in which liquors are kept for sale or use, whether by individuals or corporations, is a tippling house, and consequently in violation of the prohibition bill which he expects to see entered on the statute books of Georgia.
     If this bill is passed, it will not only be illegal for clubs to supply their members with drinks, but it will be impossible for them to provide lockers in which members may keep their own liquors and mixing materials.  It will then be possible for a man to get a drink only within the confines of his own home.

But some thought the state prohibition laws were too tight – Prohibition could have ended the sales of soft drinks in Georgia as well as alcoholic beverages.

Ocala Star, July 17, 1907 reports J.P. Knight's bill for prohibition

Ocala Star, July 17, 1907 reports J.P. Knight’s bill for prohibition

Ocala Florida
Thursday July 18, 1907

GEORGIA WILL BE A GEM

———–

Of Purest Ray Serene in Prohibition’s Diadem

———-

No Bottle in the House; No Soda at the Fount – The People will be proper to Climb Zion’s Happy Mount

Atlanta, July 16. – Senator J. P. Knight, of the seventh, from Berrien county, chairman of the state temperance committee, says he will introduce a bill tomorrow, not only to prevent the sale of liquor in private clubs but to make it a misdemeanor for any member of any club to keep a bottle in his private locker.  He thinks there is no question about its going through along with state prohibition.


Soft Drinks Will be Scarce

Atlanta, July 16. – It is claimed if the state prohibition bill passes practically all the soft drinks manufactured Georgia will have to go out of business. A small quantity of alcohol is required for the purpose of preserving the syrups, which are the basis of them, and with state prohibition in effect it will be impossible to secure it. – Savannah News.

Georgia’s prohibition law went into effect in 1908, although Knight’s proposal to tighten the prohibition  was not adopted.  For a while at least, alcohol remained available in Georgia’s social clubs, and while the presence of alcohol in sodas became widely known, the demand for soft drinks soared under Prohibition and ever after.

1907-aug-1-bainbridge-dem-prohibition-and-soda

“SOFT DRINKS.”

     Apropos of prohibition, word comes from Washington that the Internal Revenue Bureau has discovered that in many of the so-called soft drinks dispensed from soda fountains there is present alcohol in larger percent than in the same sized drink of beer.
     If the man with the soft thirst could take a deep draught from the onyx covered receptables in which certain extracts and essences are concealed in soda fountains, he would consume a drink probably from 40 to 60 percent alcohol. With the addition of fizz and the other things that are artfully welded to make a soft drink the precentage is cut down considerably.
    Local druggists, it is said, may expect to hear that the internal revenue officers have determined that mixers of these extracts and essences with carbonated water shall pay taxes for the privilege of competing with the regular bars. The internal revenue laws says that before a man may mix a drink containing alcohol he must take out a rectifier’s license.
    Now the soda water man takes essences, extracts and syrups containing alcohol, and adds water to taste to produce a beverage, and is rumored that the internal revenue commissioners will be instructed to issue rules so worded to compel druggists who desire to use the alcoholic essences to become rectifiers and also retail dealers in spirits.
     It is claimed that in some soft drinks served from soda fountains there appears 4 percent of alcohol, while beer is claimed to contain less than 3 percent.  Most of the soda fountains in Bainbridge, however, use almost entirely the fruit juices, which contain not more than a fraction of 1 percent of alcohol.
     Druggists state, however, that some extracts are still used and that in some of them the “spike” is two-thirds of the entire fluid. A small drink of the pure extract would serve much the same purpose as several mint juleps and gin rickeys mixed in the regular bars.

The Georgia legislature turned its attention to taxing the “bring your own bottle” clubs,  thus preserving the revenue of the state, the privilege of the wealthy, the future of Coca Cola, and the appearance of temperance for the lower classes.

For a time the legislature offered the “wets” some loopholes—near-beer saloons serving low-alcohol drinks were permitted, as were alcoholic beverages in locker-clubs—but these were closed in 1915. Georgia ratified the Eighteenth Amendment for national prohibition three years later. It did not vote for repeal of national prohibition, but after that occurred, Georgia repealed its own statewide prohibition in 1935. –New Georgia Encyclopedia

Even after the passage of national Prohibition, the Demon Alcoholmoonshine liquor, the kind that simply makes a man forget himself and everything else – was widely available in south Georgia, and public drunkenness in Ray City led to “free fights and a good deal of threatening and a considerable amount of gun play.” It must have been a personal embarrassment to Jonathan Perry Knight that in his own home county of Berrien the consumption of alcohol remained so rampant.

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Ray City School, Eighth Grade 1960-61

Ray City School, Eighth Grade 1960-61

In 1954, Ray City High School and all other white high schools in the county were combined into Nashville High School.  The brick school building at Ray City continued to serve as an elementary and middle school until 1994, when all county schools were consolidated into facilities in Nashville.

Ray City Elementary School. Mrs. Taylor & Mrs. Patten's Eighth Grade, 1960-61.

Ray City Elementary School. Mrs. Taylor & Mrs. Patten’s Eighth Grade, 1960-61. Front Row, fourth from the left is Johnny Guthrie. Other Identifications needed.

Bayings from Green Bay, GA ~ 1896

Green Bay Community of Berrien County, GA

Green Bay, now long gone, was once a community in south Berrien County, near Ray City, GA.  In the late 1800s, Green Bay had its own newspaper, the Green Bay Herald,  and Green Bay School was attended by many students associated with the town of Ray City.

Tifton Gazette
March 13, 1896

Bayings

        GREEN BAY, March 10. – Mr. P. T. Knight, one of Green Bay’s students received a very interesting letter from one of Lowndes county’s Cahoosiers.  He puts a very fantastical name to his epistle.  The initials of so called name is J. R. F. He offers a reward for the one who will give the Cracker the right name.
Mr. Jasper Cook, had the misfortune to lose a five-year-old mule last Friday, apparently the mule was all right until a few hours before he died.
Well what are the people of Green Bay community going to have connected with their academy next? They have two or three societies running there, and Monday morning they rolled in a $125 organ. We know of nothing better to elevate the growing youths than good societies, and there is nothing like having their wants supplied.
This is the third school in which I’ve been instructed by Prof. J. M. Patten and I must say that this one is quite different from any of the others. Why? He has adopted the method of working all problems mentally. Some might say that students could not do that, but it is an evident fact that he has five in his school that have worked up to 167 page in Wentworth’s arithmetic.
The Green Bay Singing Society convenes next Sunday, and a large attendance is expected.
The Green Bay Literary Society will hold their meetings on Friday evening instead of Saturday.  We have made a division in our society. One for the larger members, known as the Advanced Class literary and the other as the Juvenile Society, as the time was too long between intervals, we have simmered down to semimonthly.  For the Advanced Society we elected J. A. Weaver, president; Miss Amanda Clements, secretary, Miss Lillie Clements and B. L. Wilkerson, Editors; J. M. Patten and P. T. Knight, critics, For Juvenile, W. P. Patten President; Miss Jennie Lee, Secretarys; Lucius Clements, critic.

Mr. Mathew Patten killed some more of those porkers this morning, and now for another fresh feast.

AJAX.

 

 

March 13, 1896 notes from the community of Green Bay, Berrien County, GA

March 13, 1896 notes from the community of Green Bay, Berrien County, GA

 

Notes:

Professor James Marcus Patten was running the Green Bay School. His wife was Ida Lou Hall Patten. Professor J.M. Patten was college educated, having completed the teacher education program at North Georgia Agricultural College. His lifelong career was teaching in the common schools of Berrien County. In 1911, he and his wife were teaching at the Ray City School.

James Alfred Weaver was a member of Union Primitive Baptist Church, and was elected in 1901 as its clerk.

Perry T. Knight attended Oaklawn Baptist Academy  and went on to became a teacher, lawyer, soldier, chaplain, railroad commissioner, legislator, and public service commissioner.

Lucius J. Clements, son of Levi J. Clements and Elizabeth Rowena Patten, later  attended the Georgia Normal College & Business Institute,  and managed the Clements Sawmill at Ray City until the Clements family sold the business.  He became a businessman, license inspector, and assistant tax collector.

Lillie Clements, sister of Lucius J. Clements, married Fisher H. Gaskins.

Benjamin L. Wilkerson became a dentist and later moved to Miami, FL.

Jennie L Lee (1882 – 1974), daughter of Moses C. Lee and Amanda Lee Clements,  married Sam I Watson, 1900.

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