Charles Bruner Shaw

Charles Bruner Shaw (1888-1950)

Special thanks to Bryan Shaw for sharing photos and content for this post. Portions reprinted from Shaw Family Newsletter: Charles Bruner Shaw

Born in 1888 in a corn crib on the John Allen farm just outside Ray City, GA, Bruner Shaw would later serve as a police officer for the town. He was a son of Francis Arthur Shaw and Victoria Giddens Knight.

Bruner Shaw in police uniform about 1926. Photographed in Florida.

Bruner Shaw in police uniform about 1926. Photographed in Florida. Image courtesy of Bryan Shaw.

After Bruner’s mother died of scarlet fever in 1889, he and his brother Brodie Shaw were raised by their grand parents, Francis Marion Shaw and Rachel Moore Allen Shaw.  The home place of  Francis Marion Shaw and Rachel Moore Allen Shaw was just west of Ray City, at Lois, GA just off Possum Branch Road.  Bruner attended school  through the eighth grade at the two-room Pine Grove School. The Pine Grove and Kings Chapel schools were filled at various times with the children, grandchildren, and great grandchildren of Rachel and Francis Marion Shaw. 

Bruner Shaw circa 1905

Bruner Shaw circa 1905

At a young age, Bruner Shaw married Mollie Register, daughter of William M. Register (1852-1926) and  Sarah Laura Parrish Register (1854-1933), and granddaughter of Elder Ancil Parrish the old Primitive Baptist preacher of Berrien County.  The Registers were a prominent family of Nashville, GA.  Bruner and Mollie were married on New Year’s Eve, December 31, 1905, in a ceremony performed by Bruner’s uncle  Aaron Anderson Knight,  of Ray City, GA. Reverend Knight was  then primitive baptist minister of  Pleasant Church, just west of Ray City, GA.  The bride was one month shy of her 20th birthday; the  groom had just turned 17.

Marriage certificate of Charles Bruner Shaw and Mollie Register, December 31, 1905.

Marriage certificate of Charles Bruner Shaw and Mollie Register, December 31, 1905.

 

 

Bruner farmed for a while at Ray City, GA near his brother, Brodie Shaw. The census of 1910 shows other neighbors included Mack SpeightsJoseph S. Clements, Bryant Fender, and Frank Gallagher.

A Year of Tragedy

In January, 1911, when his aunt and uncle, Eliza Allen and Sovin J. Knight, moved to Brooks County to a farm on the Little River near Barney, GA, Bruner went along, moving his young family to an adjacent farm. But shortly after their move to Barney, “on April 16, 1911, just 26 days after the purchase of the new farm, Sovin suffered a severe heart attack and died in his new home.

After this family loss  coupled with the death of his infant daughter, Pecola, Bruner Shaw sold his Brooks County farm and returned to Berrien County.  Just six weeks after the sale, his wife, Mollie Register Shaw, died of Scarlet Fever.  She was buried at Pleasant Cemetery, near Ray City, GA.

Bruner’s widowed aunt Eliza later moved  her daughters, Kathleen and Rachel, back to Berrien County to live in the farm home of her parents  (Bruner’s grandparents) , Rachel Moore Allen Shaw and Francis Marion Shaw, just outside of Ray City, GA.

Grave of Mollie Register Shaw (1886-1911), Pleasant Cemetery, near Ray City, GA. Image source: Cat

Grave of Mollie Register Shaw (1886-1911), Pleasant Cemetery, near Ray City, GA. Image source: Cat

The young widower soon enlisted the help of a teen-age girl to help take care of his children. Fifteen-year-old Charlie Ruth Griffin was the youngest child of William Harrison “Hass” Griffin and Rebecca Jane Parrish, born June 25, 1897 in her family’s cabin on South Old Coffee Road in Berrien County.  Her siblings were Sarah Rebecca, Georgia Lavinia, Mary Ellen, Margaret Frances “Fannie”, Willie Henrietta, William Franklin, and Robert Bruce Griffin.

Charlie Ruth Griffin while a student at White Pond School. Original image detail courtesy of www.berriencountyga.com

Charlie Ruth Griffin while a student at White Pond School. Original image detail courtesy of http://www.berriencountyga.com

As Charlie took care of Bruner’s children they grew very close to their nursemaid. After a very brief courtship, Bruner and Charlie were  married November 23, 1913 at the home of the Reverend Aaron Anderson Knight in Ray City.  Reverend Knight was then serving as the first pastor of the newly organized New Ramah Primitive Baptist Church at Ray City.

 

Marriage certificate of Charles Bruner Shaw and Charlie Ruth Griffin, November 24, 1913, Ray City, GA

Marriage certificate of Charles Bruner Shaw and Charlie Ruth Griffin, November 24, 1913, Ray City, GA

 

Charlie gave Bruner three more children,  Francis Marion Shaw, Lynette Narcissis Shaw, and Charles Bruner Shaw, Jr.,  and raised Bruner’s two children, Juanita and William Arthur, as if they were her own.

Bruner and Charlie Shaw were a part of society and leisure at Ray City, GA and Berrien County.  In February, 1914 Bruner was among the people from Ray City attending the carnival at Nashville.  Others from Ray City included  Annie Mae Carter, Margie Dasher, Pearl Hardie Knight, Mr. and Mrs. G. V. Harvie, W. H. Luckie, George Norton, J. J. and J. S. Clements.

In 1914, Charlie Ruth and her husband, Bruner Shaw, and daughter, Juanita Shaw, were also seen at the Mayhaw Lake Resort on Park Street near Ray City. Mayhaw Lake was “The Place” in Berrien County for more than a decade. It was built in 1914 by Elias Moore “Hun”  Knight, of Ray City. The amusement park was such a popular spot that the Georgia & Florida Railroad gave special rates for picnic parties from all points on their line. People from all over the area would journey to Mayhaw Lake, especially on holidays such as the 4th of July and Labor Day. A boarding house [later the home of Effie Guthrie Knight] up the road towards Ray City was opened up by the Paul Knight family   specifically to provide lodging for the Mayhaw crowd. 

Posing in front of the roller skating rink at Mayhaw Lake in 1914, left to right: Burton Moore; Tom Parrish; Manson Johnson; unidentified lady; Charlie Ruth Shaw with her husband, Bruner Shaw, and daughter, Juanita Shaw; lady; Viola Smith Davis; lady; Mrs. Burton Moore and daughters, Kate Hazen, Thelma Register; Lonnie Smith; boy; man; Shellie Ziegler; and Jessie Ziegler Touchton. Members of the band in the background include: Rossie Swindle, Glenn Johnson, Lonnie Swindle, and J. H. Swindle.

Posing in front of the roller skating rink at Mayhaw Lake in 1914, left to right: Burton Moore; Tom Parrish; Manson Johnson; unidentified lady; Charlie Ruth Shaw with her husband, Bruner Shaw, and daughter, Juanita Shaw; lady; Viola Smith Davis; lady; Mrs. Burton Moore and daughters, Kate Hazen, Thelma Register; Lonnie Smith; boy; man; Shellie Ziegler; and Jessie Ziegler Touchton. Members of the band in the background include: Rossie Swindle, Glenn Johnson, Lonnie Swindle, and J. H. Swindle.

It was about this time that Bruner began his life-long pursuit of the law enforcement profession.  Bruner entered police work through occasional employment as a deputy at Ray City.  At that time the Police Chief at Ray City was Bruner’s cousin, Cauley Shaw.

An incident report in the Nashville Herald, October 9, 1914:

Considerable excitement was occasioned here Monday by a report that Cauley and Bruner Shaw and two other young men of Ray’s Mill had been shot about twelve miles down the Valdosta Road. Several gentlemen from here [Nashville, GA] went in an automobile. But when they reached the scene, they found that the wounds were not serious. A negro for whom they had a warrant, shot at them with a shotgun loaded with bird shot.

The Tifton Gazette also reported the incident:

Tifton Gazette reports Bruner shot while serving an arrest warrant, October 6, 1914

Tifton Gazette reports Bruner shot while serving an arrest warrant, October 6, 1914

Tifton Gazette
October 16, 1914

C. B. Shaw, C.H. Jones and Charley Thomas were shot by a negro named John Williams, near Rays Mill Oct. 6, says the Milltown Advocate. Thomas has some trouble with the negro about hauling some cotton and the negro fired at him. He went to Rays Mill, secured a warrant and returned for the negro. The negro opened fire and slightly wounded three of the party who returned from Rays Mill with Thomas. The negro escaped.

Over the next few years, Bruner did stints in the police departments of Milltown (now Lakeland), GA and at Willacoochee.  By early 1919, Bruner had been hired by Berrien County Sheriff J. V. Nix as a deputy at Nashville, GA.

Until 1919, most of the activities of a peace officer involved chasing down petty thieves, and raiding an occasional “skins” (gambling) game…

Production and consumption of moonshine – illegal liquor – was also a problem for law officers. State-wide prohibition in Georgia had passed in 1907, with Ray City’s own representative Jonathan Perry Knight among those leading the charge.

However, with the passage of the 18th amendment to the Constitution (prohibition), a whole new illicit business was the target of he county sheriff and his deputies. “Blind tigers”, as they were commonly referred, brewed alcohol in what was known as a “lard can” still, using syrup and meal processed through a copper worm. The product was a high explosive liquor with enough alcohol in it to burn like gasoline. Drinking of such had been known to cause blindness, if not death. Thus the name “blind tiger.”

By 1919,  reports of drunkenness and lawlessness in Ray City were making newspapers throughout the section. There were plenty of “blind tigers” running stills and selling bootleg liquor in Berrien County and Ray City, and gambling, too, despite the efforts of lawmen like Bruner Shaw, Cauley Shaw,  Gus Clements, Frank Allen, Marcus Allen, Jim Griner, Wesley Griner, and W.W. Griner.

In April, 1919, part-time deputy Bruner Shaw was again shot by an assailant.

1919 Tifton Gazette reports Bruner Shaw shot by John Harris

1919 Tifton Gazette reports Bruner Shaw shot by John Harris

Tifton Gazette
May 2, 1919

Shaw Shot by Negro

Nashville, Ga., April 23- Bruner Shaw, a well known young farmer who has served as special deputy sheriff a numbWer of times, was shot from ambush Saturday at the home of Will McSwain, a negro farmer living near Lois, this county. Shaw recognized his assailant as John Harris, a young negro whom he had arrested at Adel several months ago on a misdemeanor charge. The wouldbe murderer used a 23-calibre Winchester rifle, and the bullet entered the left side of Shaw’s head. He was able to come to Nashville today and swear out warrants against the negro, who is in jail here, having been captured by Sheriff Nix.

 

While pursuing his law enforcement career in other towns, Bruner Shaw maintained his Ray City connections. In 1920 Census records show Bruner and Charlie were residing in Ray City. According to Bryan Shaw,  Bruner’s last child, Charles Bruner, Jr., was born on February 6, 1920, in a home on Trixie Street behind the Marion Shaw home in Ray City. Bruner and Charlie resided in the home for three more years, participating regularly in the events of the community, especially dances and song fests.

Nashville Herald
March 15, 1923

News from Ray City—Everybody that wants to laugh as they haven’t since the war, come out on “Dad’s Night” . . . Last but not least will be some very fine singing by several of our gentlemen singers. They alone will be worth your time, should we have no other attraction. Mr. Bruner Shaw has promised us they will give at least four selections.

Later that year, Bruner Shaw was present at the startup of Ray City’s first power plant.

Sometime that fall Bruner, Charlie Ruth, and their five children moved to Polk County, Florida, where Bruner was hired as a deputy.  There was steady work tracking down bootleggers and their moonshine stills. Details of  big raids appeared in the papers:

The Polk County Recorder
March 2, 1924

“With drawn guns and expecting a battle to the death, sixteen deputies from Sheriff Logan’s force [and two federal agents] surrounded an abandoned sawmill camp in Eastern Polk County. Deputies Hatcher and Shaw volunteered to be a party to call for the surrender of the men sought.”

•∏•

Tampa Tribune
March 31, 1924

Lakeland Deputies Catch Moonshiners

Still of 100-Gallon Capacity Is Haul; Several Arrests Are Made

(Special to the Tribune)
Lakeland, March 30. – Lying in the woods near Bowling Green, Deputies [Newt] Hatcher and Shaw of the sheriff’s office Friday night watched a suspected bootlegger uncover two gallons of moonshie near the hiding place. Floyd Douglas, it is alleged, was getting the liquor to sell to Federal Officer Standau, unaware of the officer’s identity. Five gallons more were found in a search, and Douglas and the liquor were taken into custody. This is said to be Douglas’ second offense.
Just before the Bowling Green visit, the three officials made a big haul at Mulberry, here a 100-gallon copper still, 18 barrels of mash and six gallons of ‘shine were found in a swamp a mile from town. A negro man and woman were arrested as operators of the still.

•∏•

The Tampa Times
April 19, 1924

Raids Discourage Makers of ‘Shine

(Special to The Times.)
Bartow, April 19. – When the home of a Mrs. Beaumont, just over the Polk county line in Hillsborough county, was raided Wednesday the officers making the raid captured 244 bottles of 4 1/2 percent beer and three half pint bottles of shine. The arrest was made by Polk county Deputy Sheriffs Hatcher and Shaw with Federal prohibition Officers Standau and Dugan, who took the prisoner and evident to Tampa.
The recent series of captures of “shine” outfits conducted by Sheriff Logan and his deputies seems to have discouraged the moonshining industry in Polk county, according to reports from the sheriff’s office and judging from the record of convictions of violators of the prohibition laws in the criminal court combined with the sentences imposed by Judge Olliphant it seems highly probably that bootleggers of Polk county will decided that business isn’t so good in these parts.

In July, 1924 Bruner served as Night Police Chief in Haines City, FL. His friend and colleague, Newt Hatcher, was the Day Police Chief.

Bruner Shaw in front of his squad car at Haines City Florida. Image detail courtesy of Bryan Shaw

Bruner Shaw in front of his squad car at Haines City Florida. Image detail courtesy of Bryan Shaw

The exploits of Officer Shaw were occasionally reported in the Tampa Tribune.  On December 21, 1925, the paper reported C. B. Shaw was involved in a gun battle with a murder suspect.

December 21, 1925 C. B. Shaw in gun battle with Odom Dunlap, alleged murderer of Owen Higgins.

December 21, 1925 C. B. Shaw in gun battle with Odom Dunlap, alleged murderer of Owen Higgins.

Later, Bruner Shaw served as chief of police at Frostproof, FL.  A high profile case while Bruner Shaw as chief of police at Frostproof Florida was the kidnapping of  E. L. Mercer, well-to-do citrus grower.

June 6, 1928 Tampa Tribune reports Frostproof, FL police chief Bruner Shaw investigating kidnapping of E.L. Mercer

June 6, 1928 Tampa Tribune reports Frostproof, FL police chief Bruner Shaw investigating kidnapping of E.L. Mercer

In the fall of 1929, the Shaw family returned to Berrien County, GA where Bruner sharecropped the John Strickland property on the old Valdosta highway. While the family went about bringing in crops of corn, tobacco and cotton, and the children [Marion, Lynette, and Charles, Jr.] were attending school at Kings Chapel, Bruner found temporary employment with the Berrien County Sheriff and the Ray City Police.

By November, 1930 Bruner Shaw was named Chief of Police in Alapaha, GA and moved the family there. He was once again again in pursuit of “blind tigers.”

Nashville Herald,
December 18 , 1930

Last Wednesday afternoon Chief C. B. Shaw and Deputy Sheriff Wesley Griner and W. W. Griner went over near Glory and went down in the river swamp about one mile west of Glory and found 180 gallons of corn mash. There was no still found with this buck. The officers poured out the contents and busted up the barrels. The people of Alapaha are pleased with the work of Mr. C. B. Shaw since he has been Chief of Police. We all hope that Mr. Shaw will stay on here as he is doing such good work and helping to clean up the community by catching blind tigers.

Moonshine still bust about 1930 near Glory, GA on the Alapaha River . Chief of Police, Bruner Shaw, 2nd from the right. Other identified is Brooker Shaw, brother of Chief Shaw, 2nd from the left.

Moonshine still bust about 1930 near Glory, GA on the Alapaha River. Chief of Police, Bruner Shaw, 2nd from the right. Other identified is Brooker Shaw, brother of Chief Shaw, 2nd from the left.

It was the midst of the Great Depression, and though his work was appreciated, the pay was meager.  In the summer of 1931,  Bruner removed his family from Berrien County for last time and the Shaw family moved back to Frostproof.

The Shaw Family Newsletter: CHARLES BRUNER SHAW, SR: Have Badge, Will Travel, by Bryan Shaw, relates the story of Bruner Shaw’s life, law, business, and family.

Related Posts:

Ora Kathleen Knight Swindle

Ora Kathleen Knight Swindle, of Ray City, GA.  She was a daughter of Eliza Allen and Sullivan Jordan Knight, and wife of Henry Alexander Swindle.

Ora Kathleen Knight Swindle, of Ray City, GA. She was a daughter of Eliza Allen and Sullivan Jordan Knight, and wife of Henry Alexander Swindle.  Image courtesy of Bryan Shaw.

Ora Kathleen Knight was born May 16, 1904 in Berrien County, GA, youngest daughter of Eliza Allen and Sullivan Jordan Knight. She was a sister of Rossie Knight.

As a young child Ora Kathleen Knight moved with her parents in 1911  to Brooks County, near Barney, GA. But her father died almost immediately after the move to Brooks County. Kathleen and her sister, Rachel, returned with their widowed mother to Berrien County. They moved into the farm home of Kathleen’s grandparents, Rachel Moore Allen Shaw and Francis Marion Shaw, just outside of Ray City, GA.

The Shaw farm remained their home until Kathleen married Henry Alexander Swindle on November 24, 1920.

Henry Alexander Swindle,   Ray City, GA.  Image courtesy of www.berriencountyga.com

Henry Alexander Swindle, Ray City, GA. Image courtesy of http://www.berriencountyga.com

 

The newlyweds made their home in Ray City, GA where Kathleen’s mother, Eliza Allen Knight, came to live with them for the next 25 years.

♥ ♥ ♥

Obituary of Kathleen Swindle


RAY CITY — Kathleen Swindle, 99, of Ray City, died Monday, June 2, 2003, at Savannah Square in Savannah.

She was born on May 16, 1904, in Berrien County to the late Sullivan J. and Anne Eliza Allen Knight. She was a homemaker, member of Ray City United Methodist Church and was active in United Methodist Women and Eastern Star. She was the widow of Henry Alexander Swindle who died in 1974.

She is survived by two daughters, Carolyn Monroe, Greenville, S.C., Barbara Wood, Savannah; three grandchildren, Kathi Wood, Carol Ann Self, both of Savannah, Alex Monroe, Anderson, S.C.; and two great-grandchildren, Lindsay Brock Monroe, Jordon Alexander Monroe, both of Anderson, S.C.

Funeral service will be held at 11 a.m., Thursday, June 5, 2003, at Ray City United Methodist Church with the Rev. Wayne Mitchell officiating. Burial will be in New Ramah Cemetery. Visitation will be held from 7-9 p.m. today. — Lovein Funeral Home, Nashville, a member by invitation of Selected Independent Funeral Homes

Graves of Ora Kathleen Knight and Henry Alexander Swindle,  New Ramah Cemetery, Ray City, GA.

Graves of Ora Kathleen Knight and Henry Alexander Swindle, New Ramah Cemetery, Ray City, GA.

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Portrait of Rossie O. Knight

Rossie O. Knight as a young Soldier. Born August 28, 1892, Rossie O. Knight grew up in Ray City, GA.

Rossie O. Knight as a young Soldier. Born August 28, 1892, Rossie O. Knight grew up in Ray City, GA. Image courtesy of Bryan Shaw and the Berrien Historical Foundation http://www.berriencountyga.com

Rossie O. Knight

Rossie O. Knight, a son of Sovin J. Knight and Ann Eliza Allen,  and grew up on his parents’ farm near Rays Mill (now Ray City), GA.   He was one of many young men of Berrien County who served in WWI.  Rossie served in  France with the U.S. 1st Division, where he was engaged in major campaigns at Montdidier, Marne, St. Mihiel and Argonne. After the Armistice he served in occupation of Germany at Ehrenbreitstein Fortress.

Family member Bryan Shaw shares the following:

“Rossie Knight returned home after the war but was plagued with the effects of multiple gas exposures he received while fighting in France. Rossie remained single the rest of his life. He died November 16, 1963 at the age of 71.

“These photos of Rossie O. Knight are very revealing. First of all there is the young Rossie with tousled hair standing tall and almost innocent in his demeanor and facial features.

In the next photo, chest up and three-quarters, he is firm and self confident, ready for any challenge he is faced with, slightly older and more mature looking than the  first photo.

Then, almost a tragic contrast are the last two photos, one standing alone with hat in hand, the other with his two brothers, Mansfield in the center and Leland on the right. Rossie is on the left.

After all he had seen and endured throughout the war, the obvious effects on his mental well being is poignantly captured. He appears almost timid and withdrawn. He had emotional and health problems throughout the remainder of his life. A handsome young man, he came back from the war broken, and he never married.”

He is buried at the Pleasant Cemetery in the Lois community.”

Bryan Shaw

Rossie O. Knight, soldier. Image courtesy of Bryan Shaw and the Berrien Historical Foundation www.berriencountyga.com

Rossie O. Knight, soldier. Image courtesy of Bryan Shaw and the Berrien Historical Foundation http://www.berriencountyga.com

Rossie O. KnightImage courtesy of Bryan Shaw and the Berrien Historical Foundation www.berriencountyga.com

Rossie O. Knight. Image courtesy of Bryan Shaw and the Berrien Historical Foundation http://www.berriencountyga.com

 

Rossie O. Knight returned to Berrien County after WWI, but never fully recovered from his wartime experiences.

Rossie O. Knight returned to Berrien County after WWI, but never fully recovered from his wartime experiences. Image courtesy of Bryan Shaw and the Berrien Historical Foundation http://www.berriencountyga.com

Three Knight brothers, left to right: Rossie O. Knight, Marion Mansfield Knight, and Leland Thomas Knight. Image courtesy of Bryan Shaw and the Berrien Historical Foundation www.berriencountyga.com

Three Knight brothers, left to right: Rossie O. Knight, Marion Mansfield Knight, and Leland Thomas Knight. Image courtesy of Bryan Shaw and the Berrien Historical Foundation http://www.berriencountyga.com

 

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Rossie O. Knight and Ehrenbreitstein Fortress

Rossie O. Knight. Image courtesy of Bryan Shaw and the Berrien Historical Foundation www.berriencountyga.com

Rossie O. Knight. Image courtesy of Bryan Shaw and the Berrien Historical Foundation http://www.berriencountyga.com

Rossie O. Knight

Rossie O. Knight was a son of Sovin J. Knight and Ann Eliza Allen of Ray City, GA.

In the years from 1913 to 1917, Rossie was engaged in America’s preparation for the coming conflict, in military service with the Coast Artillery Corps at Fort Hancock, NJ, and working to produce war matériel at the Nixon Nitration Works.

On April 6, 1917, the United States Congress formally declared war on Germany and its allies. By  August 7, 1917 he was serving overseas with the U.S. First Division . He received the Victory Medal with five battle clasps for his service with the 1st Division Ammunition Train in France during WWI.

After the Armistice was declared on November 11, 1918  Knight served in Germany as part of the Army of Occupation. On August 6, 1919 he was transferred from the 1st Division Ammunition Train to Company B, 7th Machine Gun Battalion, and on September 17, 1919 he finally got his sergeant’s stripes back.   For the next 18 months, Sergeant Knight was stationed with his company at Ehrenbreitstein Fortress, Koblenz, Germany.

ehrenbreitstein-wwi

First American flag to fly over a German Fort across the Rhine, Ehrenbreitstein Fortress

 

Ehrenbreitstein Fortress (German: Festung Ehrenbreitstein) is a fortress on the mountain of the same name on the east bank of the Rhine opposite the town of Koblenz in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate.

Ehrenbreitstein was built as part of a strong ring of fortifications around Koblenz, the largest military fortress in Europe after Gibraltar. When the Koblenz fortifications west of the Rhine were dismantled in 1890-1903, Ehrenbreitstein Fortress remained as the main defense of the Rhine crossing.  After WWI it was occupied by the US Army as their headquarters during the Occupation of the Rhineland.

American Flag over Fortress Ehrenbreitstein, Koblenz, Germany, circa 1919

American Flag over Fortress Ehrenbreitstein, Koblenz, Germany, circa 1919

 

In the 1920 census, Rossie O. Knight was enumerated at Fortress Ehrenbreitstein, Koblenz, Germany with Company B, 7th Machine Gun Battalion.

1920 census enumeration of Rossie O. Knight while stationed in Germany

1920 census enumeration of Rossie O. Knight while stationed in Germany at Fortress Ehrenbreitstein, Koblenz, Germany

https://archive.org/stream/14thcensusofpopu2040unit#page/n463/mode/1up

 

Review of the American Forces in Germany
On February 14, 1921, the 7th Machine Gun Battalion ceased to exist pursuant to War Department orders.

According to family historian, Bryan Shaw,  “Rossie Knight returned home after the war and was plagued with the effects of multiple gas exposures.  Rossie remained single the rest of his life. He died November 16, 1963 at the age of 71. He is buried at the Pleasant Cemetery in the Lois community.”

Related posts:

Eliza Allen and Sovin Knight

Eliza Allen (1862-1945),  wife of Sullivan J. “Sovin” Knight

Eliza Allen Knight. Image courtesy of www.berriencountyga.com

Eliza Allen Knight. Image courtesy of http://www.berriencountyga.com

Bryan Shaw has written about the life and family of Eliza Allen in the Shaw Family Newsletters.  She was a daughter of Barzilla Allen and Rachel Moore Allen and sister of John Levi Allen and William Barzilla Allen.  “She was born October 31, 1862, four months after the death of her father, Barzilla Allen, who had died of measles while serving with the Confederate Army in Charlottesville, Virginia.”

Her mother remarried in 1866 to Francis Marion Shaw,  a veteran of the Civil War who had lost his right arm in a skirmish near Cedar Key, FL in 1864, and who raised Eliza and her brothers as his own children. Eliza grew to womanhood on her step-father’s farm at the community of Lois near Ray City, GA.  “She was educated in the rural schools of the Lois, Georgia community, and attended the Pleasant Primitive Baptist Church with her mother and siblings…. At the age of 17, on June 6, 1880, she married Sullivan Jordan “Sovin” Knight, son of John W. Knight and Candacy Leaptrot.” Sovin’s brother was Primitive Baptist minister, Aaron Anderson Knight, of Ray City. The marriage was performed in Berrien County by William H. Snead, Justice of the Peace.

1880-sullivan-j-knight-marr-cert

In 1878, Sovin Knight was a young farmer who owned 50 acres of land in section 375 of the 10th district, on the northeast bank of Cat Creek,  about four miles north of  Rays Mill (now Ray City), GA.  This was probably part of his father’s holdings. The land was valued at $250 and he had livestock valued at $100. Bryan Shaw describes the land dealings of Sovin Knight in detail in his Shaw Family Newsletters.

Sullivan Jordan

Sullivan Jordan “Sovin” Knight. Image courtesy of berriencountyga.com

After marriage Eliza and Sovin moved just southeast across Cat Creek to the adjacent land lot 408, to a 113 acre farm situated on Indian Camp Branch.  Within a few years Sovin was farming 412 acres slightly farther to the northeast on lots 364 and 365 on the north side of Indian Camp Bay, about six miles northeast of Ray City.  Sovin worked this farm on Indian Camp Bay for the next twenty years on his own account or on behalf of his father, John W. Knight.  Nearby were the farms of Levi J. Gaskins, John A. Kirkland, and Joe S. Clements.

Children of  Eliza Allen and Sullivan Jordan Knight

  1. Marion Mansfield Knight – born  May 9, 1881, Berrien County, GA; married November, 1906 to Mollie Gaskins, daughter of Levi J. Gaskins ; died March 20, 1940
  2. Effie J. “Sissy” Knight – born  August 15, 1882, Berrien County, GA; married Eldrid “Dred” Guthrie on October 17, 1900; died September 25, 1935
  3. Lillie C. Knight, – born February 2, 1885, Berrien County, GA; died March 12, 1885.
  4. Infant son Knight – Born and died about 1887
  5. Leland Thomas Knight – born  July 17, 1888, Berrien County, GA; married Lillie Sirmans on September 23, 1909; died May 8, 1949
  6. Ada Virginia Knight  – born  January 31, 1889 Berrien County, GA; married Joseph Redding “Buddy” Gaskins  September 1, 1907;  died March 5, 1964
  7. Fannie E. Knight – born  November 14, 1890, Berrien County, GA; married Sanford Gideon Gaskins about 1908; died May 16, 1969
  8. Rossie O. Knight – born  August 28, 1892 Nashville, GA; Never married; Served in France during WWI and with the Army of Occupation in Germany;  died November 16, 1963; buried Pleasant Cemetery,  near Ray City, GA
  9. Ida Lena Knight – born  October 22, 1898, Berrien County, GA married Edgar Ezekiel Hickman June, 1914; died February 17, 1977
  10. Rachel Knight – born May 1, 1901, Berrien County, GA; married Robert Talmage Chism about 1916; died January 7, 1985
  11. Ora Kathleen Knight – born May 16, 1904, Berrien County, GA; married Henry Alexander Swindle November 24, 1920; died June 2, 2003, at Savannah, GA.

Eliza and Sovin suffered a serious setback when the Knight house burned down in January 1909 while they were attending the funeral of  Sovin’s aunt Rhoda Futch Knight.

In January, 1911 Sovin J. Knight sold the remaining farm property in Berrien county to  Dr. Pleasant H. Askew,  prominent physician, businessman and landowner of Nashville, GA,  and moved Eliza and their four youngest children to Brooks county, near Barney, GA.

Eliza Allen and Sovin J. Knight lived in this home at Barney, GA in 1911.  Photographed in 1998.  Image courtesy of Bryan Shaw and the Berrien Historical Foundation www.berriencountyga.com

Eliza Allen and Sovin J. Knight lived in this home at Barney, GA in 1911. Photographed in 1998. Image courtesy of Bryan Shaw and the Berrien Historical Foundation http://www.berriencountyga.com

Shortly after their move to Barney, “on April 16, 1911, just 26 days after the purchase of the new farm, Sovin suffered a severe heart attack and died in his new home. He left his wife of 31 years, a widow with three children, a survivor once again.” Sullivan Jordan Knight was buried at Pleasant Cemetery, near Ray City, GA.

After settling the estate of her husband about 1914, “Eliza and her two daughters returned to Berrien county, where she moved into her parents’ farm home just outside of Ray City.  She joined the newly constituted New Ramah Primitive Baptist Church at Ray City by letter of transmission.

About 1917,  she moved with her aging parents into town to a new home located on the north side of Jones Street and just  east of Ward Street.

Home built circa 1917 for Francis Marion and Rachel Horne Shaw was later the residence of Gordon V. Hardie and wife, Addie Hodges Hardie.

Home built circa 1917 for Francis Marion and Rachel Horne Shaw was later the residence of Gordon V. Hardie and wife, Addie Hodges Hardie.

Eliza lived with her parents in their  Ray City home, raising her last two children, until November, 1920, when her youngest daughter, Kathleen was married to Ray City merchant Henry A. Swindle.

Henry and Kathleen took Eliza into their home on Main Street, Ray City, GA, where she resided for the following 25 years… She spent most of those years involved in the social and religious functions of the New Ramah Primitive Baptist Church in Ray City,  an association which she dearly loved.”

Eliza Allen Knight with her granddaughter, Carolyn Swindle, daughter of Henry and Kathleen Knight Swindle.  Image courtesy of Bryan Shaw and the Berrien Historical Foundation www.berriencountyga.com

Eliza Allen Knight with her granddaughter, Carolyn Swindle, daughter of Henry and Kathleen Knight Swindle. Image courtesy of Bryan Shaw and the Berrien Historical Foundation http://www.berriencountyga.com

Ann Eliza Allen Knight,  passed away on November 4, 1945, at the age of 83.  She was buried next to her husband at Pleasant Cemetery, near Ray City, GA.

Grave of Sullivan Jordan Knight and Eliza Allen

Grave of Sullivan Jordan Knight and Eliza Allen

Special thanks to Bryan Shaw for research, content and images contributed to this article.

Rossie O. Knight and the WWI Victory Medal

Rossie O. Knight (1892-1963)

Rossie O. Knight as a young Soldier. Born August 28, 1892, Rossie O. Knight grew up in Ray City, GA.

Rossie O. Knight as a young Soldier. Born August 28, 1892, Rossie O. Knight grew up in Ray City, GA. Image courtesy of Bryan Shaw and the Berrien Historical Foundation, http://www.berriencountyga.com

Rossie O. Knight was a son of Sovin J. Knight and Ann Eliza Allen,  and grew up on his parents’ farm near Rays Mill (now Ray City), GA.  He moved with his parents to the area of Barney, GA in 1911. His father, Sovin J. Knight, died April 16, 1911 shortly after the move.

Rossie joined the Army in 1913. He was stationed at Fort Hancock, NJ until August 1917 when he shipped out to France with the 1st Division.

WW1 Victory Medal US 1st Div of the type awarded to Rossie O. Knight.

WW1 Victory Medal US 1st Div of the type awarded to Rossie O. Knight.  Image source: http://www.usmilitariaforum.com/forums/index.php?/topic/169740-ww1-5-bar-victory-medal/

Rossie O. Knight’s service records show he participated in four major 1918 offensives of World War I: Montdidier-Noyon, Ainse-Marne, Saint Mihiel, and Meuse-Argonne.  He also served in the Toul Defensive Sector. In recognition of this service he received the WWI Victory Medal with five clasps.

Wikipedia provides the following description of the Victory Medal:

 “The front of the bronze medal features a winged Victory holding a shield and sword on the front. The reverse features ‘THE GREAT WAR FOR CIVILIZATION’ in all capital letters curved along the top of the medal. Curved along the bottom of the back of the medal are six stars, three on either side of the center column of seven staffs wrapped in a cord. The top of the staff has a round ball on top and is winged on the side. The staff is on top of a shield that says “U” on the left side of the staff and “S” on the right side of the staff. On left side of the staff it lists one World War I Allied country per line: France, Italy, Serbia, Japan, Montenegro, Russia, and Greece. On the right side of the staff the Allied country names read: Great Britain (at the time the common term for the United Kingdom), Belgium, Brazil, Portugal, Rumania (spelled with a U instead of an O as it is spelled now), and China.  Battle clasps, inscribed with a battle’s name, were worn on the medal to denote participation in major ground conflicts.  For general defense service, not involving a specific battle, the “Defensive Sector” Battle Clasp was authorized. The Defensive Sector clasp was also awarded for any battle which was not already recognized by its own battle clasp.”

The Victory Medals were awarded after the end of World War I.  Veterans completed an “Application for Victory Medal” and the medals were mailed to the servicemen instead of awarded in person. For example, the boxes containing the Victory Medals for United States Army World War I veterans were mailed out by the depot officer at the General Supply Depot, U.S. Army, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in April 1921. An outer light brown box with an address label glued to it and its postage area marked “OFFICIAL BUSINESS, Penalty for private use $300” contained an inner white box stamped with the bars the serviceman was supposed to receive on his medal. The inner white box contained the medal, which was wrapped in tissue paper.

 

Rossie O. Knight Application for Victory Medal, WWI

Rossie O. Knight Application for Victory Medal, WWI

Rossie O. Knight WWI service record

Rossie O. Knight WWI service record

Rossie O. Knight arrived with the 1st Division in Europe on August 7, 1917.  According to the First Division Museum at Cantigny:

The 1st Infantry Division was literally America’s first division. When the United States entered World War I in April 1917, it had no divisions. President Woodrow Wilson promised the Allies he would send “a division” to France immediately. Four infantry regiments (16th, 18th, 26th and 28th) and three artillery regiments (5th, 6th and 7th) were ordered from the Mexican border in Texas to Hoboken, NJ, to board transports for France. On June 8, 1917, Brigadier General William Sibert assumed command of them as the “First Expeditionary Division.” Organized as a “square” division of more than 28,000 men, the First Division was twice the size of either the Allied or German divisions on the Western Front.

From September 21, 1917 to August 6, 1919 Rossie O. Knight served with Company C, 1st Division Ammunition Train (1 Div Am Tn on his service record).  Fellow Berrien countian John Bullock Gaskins was also serving in Company B, of the 1st Division Ammunition Train. The Ammunition Train was a convoy of trucks and wagons:  “For a Division, the ammunition train consists normally of four wagon companies and four truck companies.  This very important unit carries rifle ammunition to the Infantry, and shells to the Artillery.  Usually, the moving of ammunition is accomplished under cover of darkness, but in the big offensives the ammunition trucks are kept going day and night.”

WWI Soldiers loading ammunition for transportation

WWI Soldiers loading ammunition for transportation

The First Division won the first American victory in World War I at the Battle of Cantigny. Cantigny is a small village north of Paris, in the Picardy region of France. Held by the German Army, Cantigny formed a dangerous salient in the Allied lines. On May 28, 1918, the First Division attacked and defeated the German forces in the village and held it against repeated German counterattacks, despite suffering more than 1,000 casualties. The success raised the Allies’ morale, convinced the British and French that the Americans were capable of operating in independent fighting units, and disproved German propaganda about American incapacity.

From  August 22 to October 18, 1917 the 1st Division Ammunition Train and Rossie O. Knight were attached to the Scottish 15th Division at Le Valdahon, France.  According to the U.S. Army Handbook of Ordnance Data, Valdahon was a Field Artillery training camp, where troops were issued 75-mm guns and 155-mm howitzers, and received technical instruction in their operation.

campvaldahon12

Camp Valdahon, France

 

 

MONTDIDIER-NOYON (June 9-13,1918)

Sergeant Rossie O. Knight and the U.S. 1st Division were assigned to the Montdidier-Noyon sector when the Germans made an offensive  there on June 9-13, 1918.  Service in this sector proved to be typical active trench warfare, and the companies of the Ammunition Train were occupied ferrying small arms munitions and artillery rounds to the front lines.

The German infantry launched an attack on the night of June 8-9, 1918.  Twenty-one German divisions attacked the French on a twenty-three mile front extending from Montdidier, France to the Oise River at Noyon.

Effects of artillery shelling, Montdidier, France, WWI

Effects of British artillery shelling, Montdidier, France, WWI

The main assault was against the left of the French division which was on the right of the U.S. 1st Division; In this action the U.S. 1st Division took artillery fire and repelled diversionary raids. The battle was opened by an intense German artillery bombardment, which began at midnight…there was an extensive use of gas, both chlorine and mustard.  The Germans attempted to neutralize the Allied artillery batteries by firing on them with phosgene and mustard gas. Along the roads shrapnel was used and the front positions were shelled with gas and high explosives. The assault continued during the next five days. Though the U.S. 1st Division was not directly engaged, it was subjected to intense artillery fire and its units participated both defensively and offensively in several raids.  The Germans advanced from 2 to 5 km. (1.2 to 3.1 miles) and came close to breaking the Allied lines. But the French had anticipated the assault, and the counterattack was successful in holding the Germans.  This was the first repulse of a German offensive in 1918, and is regarded by some authorities as the true turning point of the war. Activities then diminished rapidly, relatively speaking, but from the time that the 1st Division captured Cantigny until it turned that sector over to the French, there was continuous heavy shell fire, with gas attacks and many raids, though all of the last mentioned were repulsed successfully.   The fighting was over by June 12, 1918. The fighting capacity of  the  German army was critically damaged with little to show for the heavy losses incurred.  For Rossie O. Knight personally, the Montdidier-Noyon Offensive was up and down. He started out the battle as a Sergeant, but on June 11, 1918 he was busted down to the rank of Private for some unknown infraction.

The Ainse-Marne Offensive (15 July – 6 August 1918)

By the end of June, Rossie O. Knight had at least regained his status as PFC. He continued to serve with the 1st Division Ammunition Train,  keeping the front lines supplied with ammunition through the Allied counter-offensive known as the Aisne-Marne Campaign.  The Ainse-Marne action also known as the Second Battle of the Marne,  began on July 15, 1918 when 23 German divisions attacked the French Fourth Army east of the city of Reims, France.  Just days earlier on July 10th, fellow Berrien countian Lawrence Ryan Judge, a sergeant with the 1st Division’s 26th infantry, was killed in action.

In the Ainse-Marne Offensive, British, French and American troops,  including the U.S. 1st Division, held the Germans back for three days at the Marne River.  Even before the German offensive on the Marne, the Allies had been planning a massive counterattack in the area.

July 1918, men of the US 1st Division waiting to enter the Ainse-Marne Offensive.

July 1918, men of the US 1st Division waiting to enter the Ainse-Marne Offensive.

After three days of fighting at the Marne, it became evident the German offensive was weakening.  The German attack failed when an Allied counterattack led by French forces and including several hundred tanks overwhelmed the Germans on their right flank, inflicting severe casualties.  The Allied counterattack was launched on July 18, with fourteen divisions including the U.S. 1st Division.

 

WWI Ammunition Train, July 18, 1918

WWI Ammunition Train, July 18, 1918

According to J. Rickard,  “All around the line the Allies advanced between two and five miles. That night the Germans were forced to retreat back across the Marne river. The rapid Allied advance threatened German communications within the salient and even offered the chance of trapping the German troops around Château Thierry.”   One Berrien county solider who fought at Château Thierry was Private John Lory McCranie, of Adel, GA.  McCranie was fighting with the 42nd Division and also later saw service at Saint Mihiel, Argonne Forest and Sedan. He died shortly after the war as a result of having been gassed.

1918-7-25-moving-up-to-marne-salient

July 25, 1918. Trains moving up to the Marne salient.

Faced with this massive Allied counterattack the Germans dropped back to form a new defensive line along the line of the Aisne and Velse rivers.  As the Germans fell back and the 1st Division moved up,  Rossie O. Knight also advanced, moving to the rank of Corporal on August 1, 1918.

The new German line began to form up around August 3. On  August 6, the Americans probed the new line and were repulsed, ending the offensive, but the German defeat marked the start of the relentless Allied advance.

Saint Mihiel Offensive (September 12-16, 1918)

Since the fall of 1914, the Germans had occupied the Saint-Mihiel salient, a triangular wedge of land between Verdun and Nancy, in northeastern France. By heavily fortifying the area, the Germans had effectively blocked all rail transport between Paris and the Eastern Front. This position had constantly threatened Paris and forced the Allies to maintain defensive positions. It was at a forward listening post at the front lines of Saint Mihiel that Lorton W. Register, of Ray City, had been killed by artillery shelling in March, 1918.

After the Ainse-Marne Offensive in July, General John J. Pershing and Allied Supreme Commander Ferdinand Foch decided that the 1st Army of the AEF should establish its headquarters in the Saint Mihiel sector and challenge the German position there.  The attack at the St. Mihiel Salient was part of a plan by Pershing in which he hoped that the American forces would break through the German lines and capture the fortified city of Metz.  Thus, on September 12, 1918, the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) launched its first major WWI offensive operation as an independent army.

The attack began with the advance of Allied tanks across the trenches at Saint Mihiel, followed closely by the American infantry troops. Foul weather plagued the offensive as much as the enemy troops, as the trenches filled with water and the fields turned to mud, bogging down many of the tanks.

st-mihiel2

Stalled ammunition wagon holding up an advancing column on the second day of the Saint Mihiel Offensive, September 13, 1918

 

The ammunition convoys to which Corp. Rossie O. Knight was assigned worked around the clock for 80 hours to  keep the advancing American troops supplied.  Also present  during the Saint Mihiel Offensive were Lieutenant Asbury Joe Hall, Jr. and Private John Bryan Thomas, both of Adel, GA, and Private Carlie Lawson of Ray City.   Lieutenant Hall was attached to Company “H,” 3rd Infantry and had been in France since January 1918.  During that time he had been gassed once and wounded twice;  Hall’s luck ran out on the second day of the Saint Mihiel Offensive, September 13, 1918 when he was struck and killed by an artillery shell fragment. John Bryan Thomas served on the Ammunition Train for the 5th Division. Thomas contracted Influenza which resulted in his death on August 15, 1918.  Private First Class Carlie Lawson fought at Saint Mihiel with Company G, 11th Infantry.

Supply trains during the St. Mihiel Offensive, September 1918

Supply trains during the St. Mihiel Offensive, September 1918

Despite the conditions, the American attack proved successful—in part because the German command made the decision to abandon the salient—and greatly lifted the morale and confidence of Pershing’s young army. By September 16, 1918, Saint Mihiel and the surrounding area were free of German occupation.

Machine gunners and supply trains at St. Mihiel

Machine gunners and supply trains at St. Mihiel

But the U.S. offensive at St. Mihiel faltered as artillery and food supplies were left behind on the muddy roads. Plans for the attack on Metz had to be given up. As the Germans fell back to new positions the American forces immediately shifted further south where they combined with British and French forces in a new offensive near the Argonne Forest and the Meuse River.

Meuse-Argonne Offensive

In the wake of the U.S.-run attack at Saint Mihiel, some 400,000 U.S. troops were assigned to the region to participate in what was to be the final operation of the war, the Meuse-Argonne offensive, also known as the Battle of the Argonne Forest.  Under the command of  General Pershing, the American-led attack began at 11:30 pm on September 25, 1918  with a six-hour-long  artillery barrage against the German positions. The preliminary bombardment, using some 800 mustard gas and phosgene shells, killed 278 German soldiers and incapacitated more than 10,000.  The infantry assault, carried out by 37 French and American divisions, began at 5:30 the next morning with the support of more than 700 Allied tanks and some 500 aircraft from the U.S. Air Service.  Led by the advancing tanks, the infantry troops advanced against German positions in the Argonne Forest and along the Meuse River aiming to cut off the entire German 2nd Army. By the morning of the following day, the Allies had captured more than 23,000 German prisoners; by nightfall, they had taken 10,000 more and advanced up to six miles in some areas. The Germans continued to fight, however, putting up a stiff resistance.

On September 30, Pershing called a halt to the Meuse-Argonne offensive, but operations were resumed October 4.

The Germans were exhausted, demoralized and plagued by the spreading influenza epidemic, whereas arriving U.S. reinforcements where strengthening the Allied advance.  American reinforcements in transit to Europe included hundreds of Georgia soldiers, dozens from Berrien County, who went down with the ill-fated troopship HMS Otranto off the coast of Islay, Scotland on October 6, 1918. Among the Otranto dead were Rossie’s cousin, Ralph Knight,  and fellow Ray City resident Shellie Lloyd Webb.  About that same time Sammie Mixon of Allenville, GA, who was fighting in the Meuse-Argonne with Company “H”, 18th Regiment, First Division, was wounded in action and died from pneumonia a few days later. In the early morning hours of October 8, 1918 Isaac R. Boyett, of Adel, GA was fighting with Company C, 328th Infantry  in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive near the the French town of La Forge when he was severely wounded by machine gun fire.  Later that same day, Boyett’s regimental mate, Alvin C. York, earned the Medal of Honor for his actions in capturing 132 German soldiers at the village of Châtel-Chéhéry.  Boyett died  of his wounds two days later. Carlie Lawson also fought in the Battle of the Argonne Forest with Company G, 11th Infantry; he returned from the war and lived to be 100 years old.

The German troops stubbornly held on in the Argonne Forest for another month before beginning their final retreat. William Wiley Tison, of  Ray City, was with the 51st Infantry, 6th Division, which participated in the Meuse-Argonne operation from November 1-8, 1918. With arriving U.S. reinforcements the Allies had time to advance some 32 kilometers before the general armistice was announced on November 11, bringing the First World War to a close.

The Meuse-Argonne Offensive was a part of the final Allied offensive of World War I that stretched along the entire Western Front. It was fought from September 26, 1918, until the Armistice on November 11, a total of 47 days. The battle was the largest in United States military history, involving 1.2 million American soldiers, and was one of a series of Allied attacks which brought the war to an end. The Meuse-Argonne was the principal engagement of the American Expeditionary Forces during the First World War and was “probably the bloodiest single battle in U.S. history”.

1918 Meuse Argonne

1918 Meuse Argonne

~

From May 1918 to the Armistice on November 11, 1918, the First Division suffered more than 20,000 casualties, including killed, wounded and missing. With commanders such as MG William Sibert, MG Robert L. Bullard and MG Charles P. Summerall, the First Division established a reputation for excellence and esprit de corps.

Post Armistice  Activities  November 12, 1918-August 14, 1919
On November 12, the 1st Division moved into Bois de Romagne.  On Nov 13,  the Division moved via Malancourt and Verdun-sur-Meuse into billets near Domremyla-Canne and Gondrecourt, and prepared for the advance into Germany as a part of the Army of Occupation.

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Bessie Griffin Bazemore

Bessie Griffin (1883-1983)

Bessie Griffin Bazemore. Image source: P.C. Griffin

Bessie Griffin Bazemore. Image source: P.C. Griffin

 

Bessie was a daughter of Noah Webster Griffin and Lillian Melissa Knight,  a granddaughter of William Washington Knight, and a great granddaughter of Levi J. Knight, and of Jesse Carroll, both pioneer settlers of the Ray City, GA area.  Her parents grew up in the 1144 Georgia Militia District (Rays Mill District).

Bessie was born  August 11, 1883.  Tax records at that time show her father owned 175 acres on Lot #371, 10th Land District, Berrien County, GA, increased to 245 acres in 1884. The Griffin farm was in the Connells Mill district (Georgia Militia District 1329), just west of  the Rays Mill community  (now Ray City, GA), although at that time,  the community of Ray’s Mill consisted of little more than the grist mill built by Thomas M. Ray and Levi J. Knight, and the store owned by Henry H. Knight.

Bessie’s early childhood, from 1883  through 1890,  was spent on her father’s farm on the same Lot #371.    Tax records of 1890 show  Guilford I. Parrish, Molcie Parrish – wife of Elder Ansel Parrish, James W. Parrish, John S. Carter, Joel J. Carter, James P. Devane, Millard F. Devane, Georgia R. Devane, William E. Fountain Jr, John Webb, Thomas W. Ray, William W. Knight, Sovin J. Knight, and Matthew H. Albritton were among their neighbors.

Apparently, the Griffin’s moved to the Lower Fork district  of Lowndes county (Georgia Militia District 658) before the birth  of Bessie’s brother, Lester Griffin, in 1890.

Bessie Griffin married Joseph S. Bazemore   on December 20, 1899, in Lowndes County, GA.  The bride was sixteen; the groom was a 29-year-old farmer.  Joseph Salem Bazemore was born March 10, 1870 at Hazlehurst, GA. He was a son of James J. Bazemore (1853-1893)  and Mary Elizabeth McIntyre (1848-1924).

Marriage Certificate of Joseph S. Bazemore and Bessie Griffin, December 20, 1899, Lowndes County, GA.

Marriage Certificate of Joseph S. Bazemore and Bessie Griffin, December 20, 1899, Lowndes County, GA.

Image source: http://cdm.sos.state.ga.us/u?/countyfilm,123494

Bessie and Joseph were married by William W. Wilkinson, Justice of the Peace.  In the 1850s, Wilkinson had been a neighbor of  Jesse Carroll and of William J. Lamb  (see (Bazemore-Griffin Wedding 1899.

Bazemore-Griffin Wedding, Dec 20, 1899, Lowndes County, GA. Image courtesy of Jim Griffin.

Bazemore-Griffin Wedding, Dec 20, 1899, Lowndes County, GA. Image courtesy of Jim Griffin.

In 1900, the newlyweds were renting a farm in Lowndes County, in the Lower Fork District No. 658, next to the farm of Bessie’s widowed mother. Boarding with them and working as a farm laborer was William J. Lamb, and his wife Mary Carrol Knight Lamb. Among the neighbors were David and Rachel Passmore and their children.

1900 census enumeration of Joseph S. Bazemore and Bessie Griffin, Lower Fork District, Lowndes County, GA.

1900 census enumeration of Joseph S. Bazemore and Bessie Griffin, Lower Fork District, Lowndes County, GA.

http://archive.org/stream/12thcensusofpopu209unit#page/n440/mode/1up

By the census of 1910, Bessie and Joe Bazemore had moved to the Hazlehurst, GA area, Georgia Militia District #1364.  Their place was on “Rural Route Road #1”  near where it intersected with Graham & Smith Landing Road. Joe’s brother, Captain Bazemore, and his wife Ida were living next door.

1910 census enumeration of Joseph S. Bazemore and Bessie Griffin, Hazlehurst, Jeff Davis County, GA.

1910 census enumeration of Joseph S. Bazemore and Bessie Griffin, Hazlehurst, Jeff Davis County, GA.

http://archive.org/stream/13thcensus1910po198unit#page/n463/mode/1up

Joe and Bessie, as well as Cap and Ida, remained in Hazlehurst through the 1920 census.

1920 census enumeration og Joseph S. Bazemore and Bessie Griffin, Hazlehurst, Jeff Davis County, GA.

1920 census enumeration of Joseph S. Bazemore and Bessie Griffin, Hazlehurst, Jeff Davis County, GA.

http://archive.org/stream/14thcensusofpopu263unit#page/n466/mode/1up

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Mary “Polly” Futch and John Webb

Mary “Polly” Futch and John Webb were the parents of John Thomas Webb, and the grandparents of previous subjects, Shellie Lloyd Webb and William Crawford Webb. Mary Futch was a sister of Rhoda Futch.

John Webb and Mary Polly Futch.  Image courtesy of Jimmie Webb.

John Webb and Mary Polly Futch. Image courtesy of Jimmie Webb.

Mary “Polly” Futch was born October 14, 1842 in Lowndes County (now Berrien) Georgia.  She was a daughter of daughter of John M. Futch and Phoebe Mathis.  On April  21, 1859 in Berrien County, Georgia she married John Webb,  a landowner and planter of Berrien County, GA.  John Webb, a son of Dawson Webb and Frances Beall, was  born January 22, 1834 in Wilkinson County, Georgia.

Marriage Certificate of John Webb and Mary Futch, April 21, 1859, Berrien County, GA. Image courtesy of Jimmie Webb.

Marriage Certificate of John Webb and Mary Futch, April 21, 1859, Berrien County, GA. Image courtesy of Jimmie Webb.

To any ordained Minister of of Gospel, Judge of the Superior Court, Justice of the Inferior Court, Justice of the Peace or any person by the laws of this state authorized to celebrate:  These are to authorize permit you to join in the Honorable State of Matrimony Mr. John Webb of the one part and Mifs Mary Futch of the other part according to the constitution and laws of this State and according to the Rites of your church; Provided there be no lawful cause to obstruct the same and this shall be your authority for so doing. 

Given under my and Seal this 20th day of April, 1859

John L. Lindsey, Ordinary

I hereby Certify that Mr. John Webb and Mary Futch were duly joined in matrimony by me this 21st day of April, 1859
Reubin Futch, J. I. C.

Recorded May 4th 1860     E. C. Morgan, Ordinary

The census of 1860 enumerates 26-year-old John Webb and 17-year-old Mary in Berrien County.  John was a farmer with $1200 dollars worth of real estate and $450 worth of personal property to his name.  According to the census neither John nor Mary could read or write, but later records would show he could at least sign his name.  Enumerated near the Webbs were John & Elizabeth Baker, and Isham Clyatt.

The following spring,1861, Georgia plunged into the Civil War. By November 1861, Federal troops made their first invasion of Georgia, occupying Tybee Island with designs on Fort Pulaski and Savannah. That winter, John Webb joined the Primitive Baptist congregation at Pleasant church, located a few miles west of his farm. According to church minutes,  John was baptized at Pleasant Church on January 1, 1862.

During the War, John Webb enlisted in Company E, 54th Georgia Regiment, along with his brother Jordan and other men of Berrien County.  John  went off to fight leaving Mary on the farm with a baby on her hip and another on the way. He fought with the 54th Regiment  throughout the war, although he was on furlough home at the time of their surrender in April of 1865.

That October, perhaps in observance of John’s safely reaching the conclusion of the war, Mary Webb joined with Pleasant Primitive Baptist Church. Church minutes show she was baptized October 14, 1865.

Like other men of Berrien County, after the war John Webb swore an oath of allegiance to the United States and to faithfully support the Constitution, and returned to his farming. According to 1867 Berrien County tax records, John Webb owned all 490 acre of land lot 410, 10th Land District.  His brother, Jordan Webb, owned 245 acres on the adjacent lot, 419. To the north, William Walters owned 612 acres on lots 373 and 374. Also on Lot 373 were John Ray, with 122 1/2 acres and David S Robinson with 60 acres. Parts of lot 418 were owned by Mary DeVane and Benjamin M. DeVane owned additional 525 acres of land on lots 418 and 419. John Baker was on 122 acres of lot 419.

The census of 1870, indicates the Webbs were getting by in the post-war period. Their land had a aggregate value of $2800, they had $754 in personal property, and now four young children.

By 1876 John Webb had acquired 1560 acres in lots 372, 409, and 410 in the 10th Land District.  He owned $200 in household  furniture, $454 in livestock,and $90 in plantation and mechanical tools.

The following year, 1877 John Webb had acquired all of lots 372, 409, and 410, 1470 acres in all.  He had $150 in furniture, $335 in livestock, and $80 in tools. His wife, Mary Futch Webb had 180 acres in her own name in Lot 373, with $265 in livestock.  To the south of the Webb place, on half of lot 419, was William Henry Outlaw, a Webb descendant on his mother’s side and a fellow veteran of Company E, 54th Georgia Regiment. Among the Webb’s other neighbors were  David M. Roberson with 212 acres of lot 365 and David S. Roberson with 550 acres on parts of 373 and 364.  William Walters  was on Lot 374 and  David J. McGee had 395 acres on lots 408 and 411. Miller F. DeVane  and George M. DeVane with 165 acres each on 411 and 412. Mary DeVane had 7 acres on 418, Michael B. DeVane with 500 acres on 418 and 419,  William DeVane on parts of 418,  John Baker on 172 acres of 419.

The 1880 census shows the Webb family continuing to grow.  The Webb sons, John Thomas and James, at least,  were “at school”.

In 1890 John Webb  had 1000 acres total on lots 372, 373, and 410 valued at $1500. From 1883 to 1890, a neighbor to the north was Noah Webster Griffin and his family on lot 371.  John Webb’s son, John Thomas Webb was on 200 acres of the neighboring lots, 408 and 409. Son-in-law Malachi W. Jones was on 490 acres that included parts of 409 and 420, and son-in-law Joel J. Carter had 140 acres of lot 372. Elizabeth J. Carter had 240 acres on lots 365 and 366.  George W. Carter had 40 acres straddling 364 and 365.  Isaac S. Weaver was on 375 acres that included parts of 418, 419, and 411. John Ray was on 245 acres of 373, and Thomas W. Ray was on 125 acres of lot 364. Aaron A. Knight  had 155 acres that included part of lot 374.  Sovin J. Knight  was on 365 acres of 364 and 365.    The Devane land to the south was now in the possession of Georgia R. DeVane.  George M. DeVane and Millard F. DeVane had the land to the west o Lots 411 and 412. William E. Fountain Jr. was on Lot 365 with 147 acres.  H.H. Green had a piece of 364.

According to Shaw Family Newsletters, on November 5, 1898, Mary and John Webb deeded 350 acres in section 412 of land district 9 (presently under water at the southwest end of Boyette’s Pond in Cook County) to daughter Luannie Webb as a wedding gift.  She had married Chester D. Shaw earlier that year.

John Webb died December 15, 1900 in Rays Mill, GA (now Ray City).  He was buried in Futch Cemetery in present day Cook County, GA.

Children of Mary “Polly” Futch and John Webb:

  1. Martha Mary Webb, b. April 10, 1861, Berrien County, GA; d. January 30, 1929, Berrien County, GA buried in Pleasant Church Cemetery; m. (1) Joel J. Carter, January 27, 1878, Berrien County GA; m. (2) William W. Parrish, August 10, 1899, Berrien County GA.
  2. John Thomas Webb, b. January 15, 1863, Berrien County, GA; d. March 16, 1924, Ray City, GA buried in Pleasant Cemetery; m.  Mary Jane “Mollie” Patten, November 2, 1882, Berrien County, GA.
  3.  Frances “Fannie” A. Webb, b. May 6, 1866, Berrien County, GA; d. October 3, 1909, Adel, GA buried in Woodlawn Cemetery, Cook County, GA; m. Malachi “Mallie” W. Jones, December 24, 1885, Berrien County, GA.
  4. Phoebe Jane Webb,  b. May 23, 1869; d. October 10, 1870.
  5. James Alfred Webb, b. July 03, 1871, Berrien County GA; d. September 30, 1938, Berrien County GA; m. Pearl “Pearlie” Register, January 18, 1894, Berrien County, GA from Marriage Certificate.
  6. Mary Delann Webb,  b. November 1, 1873; d. February 13, 1879.
  7. Luther Americus Webb, b. October 5, 1875, Berrien County, GA; d. April 30, 1909, Berrien County, GA, buried in Pleasant Cemetery, Berrien County GA; m. Mary Jane Albritton, January 24, 1897, Berrien County, GA from Marriage Certificate.
  8. Leona Webb, b. 1877, Berrien County, GA.
  9. Louannie T. Webb, b. August 7, 1880; d. June 8, 1902, Lenox, GA from Typhoid Fever, buried in Pleasant Cemetery; m. Chester D. Shaw, March 16, 1898, Berrien County Georgia from Marriage Certificate.

The Valdosta Daily Times 
March 11, 1926

Mrs. Webb Died at Ray City

Mrs. Mary Webb, widow of the late John Webb, died Wednesday evening at 7 o’clock at the home of her daughter, Mrs. Martha Carter, Ray City, after a short illness.
      Mrs. Webb was eighty-three years of age and until she suffered from an attack of flu, four or five days ago, had been in her usual good health. However, owing to her advanced age, she was unable to withstand the attack.
      Her husband preceded her to the grave twenty-six years ago and she has since made her home with her daughter, Mrs. Carter. Besides Mrs. Carter, she is survived by one son, Mr. J.A. Webb, of Ray City. The deceased was one of the pioneers of her section, and the family is well and favorably known throughout all of this section. 
      Mrs. Webb was for more than 60 years a consistent member of the Pleasant Primitive Baptist church, near Ray City, and during her days of activity, was famed for her kindly acts and generous disposition, and her death brings great sorrow to her friends and those of the family. In addition to the surviving son and daughter, Mrs. Webb leaves thirty-five grand children. The funeral services were conducted this afternoon at 3:30 by Rev. Mr. McCranie at the Futch cemetery, near Ray City.

Transcript courtesy of Skeeter Parker

Special thanks to Jimmie Webb for contribution images and portions of the content for this article.

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Sullivan Jordan Knight ~ Obituary 1911

Sullivan Jordan "Sovin" Knight. Image courtesy of  the Berrien Historical Foundation www.berriencountyga.com

Sullivan Jordan “Sovin” Knight. Image courtesy of the Berrien Historical Foundation http://www.berriencountyga.com

Sovin J. Knight lived in the Ray City area for many years before moving to the Barney area in 1911. Sullivan Jordan “Sovin” Knight   died April 16, 1911 shortly after the move.

His obituary was found in the Atlanta Georgian and News, Tuesday, Apr. 18, 1911 — page 9

S. J. Knight.
Nashville, Ga., April 18. – S. J. Knight, formerly of Berrien county, but now of Brooks, dropped dead Sunday. Mr. Knight had a case in the city court Saturday afternoon and had just returned to his home in Brooks county when he expired. Heart failure is said to have been the cause.

 Sovin J. Knight died in this home at Barney, GA, April 16, 1911.  Image courtesy of Bryan Shaw and the Berrien Historical Foundation www.berriencountyga.com

Sovin J. Knight died in this home at Barney, GA, April 16, 1911. Image courtesy of Bryan Shaw and the Berrien Historical Foundation http://www.berriencountyga.com

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Sullivan Jordan “Sovin” Knight (1858 – 1911)

Sullivan Jordan Knight (1858 – 1911)

Sullivan Jordan “Sovin” Knight. Image courtesy of berriencountyga.com

Continuing research on  Aaron Anderson Knight: his brother, Sullivan Jordan “Sovin” Knight, was a farmer at Ray’s Mill, GA.   The following is transcribed from the Valdosta Daily Times, January 6, 1909

Valdosta Daily Times
January 6, 1909
Rays Mill Home Burned
Residence Of S. J. Knight Consumed While He was At Funeral

Milltown, Ga., Jan. 6. — Tuesday morning while Mr. S.J. Knight and family of the Rays Mill district were at the burial of Mrs. Geo. W. Knight, his home and smokehouse burned down. One of the two sons, who did not go to the burial, was at work in a back field and saw the flames coming from the direction of his home. He was quickly on the scene and with the assistance of the neighbors, who joined him, and succeeded in saving a portion of the furniture, and most of the meat from the smokehouse. It is not known what started the fire, unless it was rats, as the fire seemed to have started in the upper part of the house. It is not known whether Mr. Knight carried any insurance.