A Passage to Cuba

In the Spanish-American War, a number of Berrien County men were serving with the 3rd Georgia Regiment, U.S. Volunteer Infantry when the regiment embarked for Cuba on Friday the 13th of January, 1899.

The Third Georgia Regiment sailed for Cuba aboard the steamer Roumanian, which had been acquired by the US Army Quartermaster's Department in 1898. In March, 1899, the Roumanian was renamed US Army Transport Crook, photographed here clearing Savannah in June, 1899.

The Third Georgia Regiment sailed for Cuba aboard the steamer Roumanian, which had been acquired by the US Army Quartermaster’s Department in 1898. In March, 1899, the Roumanian was renamed US Army Transport Crook, photographed here clearing Savannah in June, 1899.

Among Berrien County, GA men of  Company D, 3rd Georgia Regiment were Walter A. Griner, Carl R. O’Quinn, Pythias D. Yapp, Zachary T. Hester, W. Dutchman Stephens, Samuel Z.T. Lipham, James M. Bridges, Charles A. Courson, Love Culbreath, George C. Flowers, James L. Jordan and George A. Martin.  Aaron Cook served as a private in Company E, Third Regiment, U.S. Volunteer Infantry. Other Berrien countians serving in the Third Regiment were Luther Lawrence Hallman and William F. Patten, both in Company B.

The Third Regiment had been organized at Camp Northen, Griffin, GA over the summer of 1898 and mustered into the service of the United States on August 24, 1898 with 43 officers and 1,243 enlisted men.  Assigned to Second Brigade, Third Division, Second Army Corps on October 7, 1898, the Third Regiment left Camp Northen on November 21 and arrived at Savannah, GA on November 22, 1898. There, the Third Regiment  encamped at Camp Onward, awaiting embarkation.  There were numerous delays in arranging transport passage for the regiment.  The original transport was to be the S.S. Chester, but the ship broke her propeller on the return from delivering the 15th US Infantry to Nuevitas, Cuba and had to be put in dry dock for repairs.

SS Roumanian being loaded with supplies for the trip to Cuba.

SS Roumanian being loaded with supplies for the trip to Cuba.

 

Former SS Roumanian (USAT Crook) photographed dockside in 1918.

The Roumanian had been purchased by the U.S. Government for $240,000 from Austin, Baldwin & Co. on July 12, 1898 and assigned to the U.S. Army Transport Service for duty as a troop transport.   The ship had a capacity of 1100 men, 45 officers, and 50 horses.

In spite of the efforts of the Quartermaster Department, the US Army Transports were less than excellent. The crowding, the heat, insufficient sanitary facilities, and the resulting stench made the transports anything but pleasant.  It was very uncomfortable as the vessels sat in the hot sun with inadequate sewage control and a build up of animal wastes.

A soldier who shipped aboard the Roumanian to Puerto Rico in 1898 was not in the least complimentary of the vessel:

“The sleeping quarters were at the bottom of the “black hole”, reached by a crude ladder that ran down through the port hatches, past two decks of houses, into the darkness. Hammocks were hung at night in double tiers between rows of upright posts, and so close together that elbows touched. The air was hot and stifling and the sight of the mass of legs and arms protruding in all directions, in the dismal half gloom from the lantern, recalled Dore’s pictures of the Inferno. The ship having been used for years as a cattle boat, the reminiscent odor combined with the smell of bilge water and stale provisions can convey no adequate appreciation by mere description. From the cracks in the boards that covered temporarily the rough bottom a dark slime oozed and made the footing insecure. One could hardly stay there without feeling giddy, but that is where the men were expected to sleep and eat. A soldier found on deck after taps had sounded was summarily ordered below, on penalty of arrest . . . Only the guard relief and the sick men were allowed to sleep on deck . . . The ship being shorthanded, soldiers were asked to volunteer for stoker duty. The reward was food: three portions of sailor’s stew a day. The temptation to get something beside weevily hard-tack, spoiled canned beef and rotten tomatoes, drew many a sturdy lad to the fire-room . . . Few of the soldiers could stand the test for more than one shift, although the promise of food was hard to resist . . . The water supply provided for the men was warm and polluted. The steward of the boat made a nice profit selling ice water at ten cents a glass and warm beer at half a dollar a bottle, till stopped by the commanding officer . . . The sanitary arrangements or disarrangements of the ship transcend all description. Let it be said in short that the “Roumanian” was considered the very worst transport that ever went out, and its faults were added to by the incompetence of the captain-quartermaster in charge, who it is a pleasure to say afterward went to jail, and by the indifference, to put it mildly, of a regular army martinet, who confessed no love for volunteers, but might have, if he chose, somewhat ameliorated their condition…”

Former SS Roumanian (USAT Crook) photographed dockside in 1918.

Former SS Roumanian (USAT Crook) photographed dockside in 1918.

There was certainly a feud aboard the SS Roumanian, between the Steward and the Captain. The Atlanta Constitution, Dec. 21, 1898 reported the dispute:

Savannah, Ga., December 20 [1898] Steward lHugh] McClain, of the transport Roumania, was discharge by Quartermaster Wrigley upon the arrival of that vessel a day or two ago. McClain at one began circulating reports against Captain Wrigley, who is a former citizen of Rome, Ga. and a volunteer in the army service.
McClain’s charge was that Captain Wrigley had been feeding the men on the transport a very small amount, though allowed 75 cents a day, and that he had been pocketing the difference. Captain Wrigley says he has been feeding them on less than 75 cents, and so reported to the quartermaster general.
On account of the circulation of these reports Captain Wrigley will have a warrant sworn out in the United States court charging McClain with larceny of government property, it being alleged that he took certain silverware and that he made away with commissary stores by selling them to soldiers. McClain’s attorney does not object to this course being taken he said tonight and he threatened to swear out a warrant charging Captain Wrigley with embezzlement under the charge referred to above.
McClain had Captain Wrigley arrested this afternoon by a state officer on a warrant charging him with pointing a pistol at him.
Wrigley denied the constable’s right to arrest an army officer, and refused to submit. He went, however, to the justice court and entered a protest. The Justice let him go for the present and now has the matter under consideration.
The Roumania will leave the city in the morning with eight companies of the Sixth Missouri regiment under Colonel Letcher Hardeman and will return the early part of next week, at which time it is now anticipated that these cases will get into the United States court, as both parties declared their intentions today of swearing out warrants.

Steward Hugh McNair alledged that he and Captain Charles Wrighley had a deal to sell liquor to the troops on the ship.

◊ ◊ ◊ ◊ ◊

Atlanta Constitution
Sunday, January 16, 1899

The Third Georgia Leaves.

Transport Starts with the Boys for Cuba.

Thick Fog Detains Vessel at Mouth of River and She Anchors Over Night.

Savannah, Ga., January 14 -(Special.)- There will probably be a number of court-martials of the Third Georgia men when they are caught and carried to Nuevitas. Some fifteen or twenty members of Colonel R. L. Berner’s regiment who were on hand the day before failed to respond to their names when the roll was called on board the transport Roumanian this morning, and the vessel left shortly after 7 o’clock a. m. without them. Those who can be found in the city will be taken in charge by the provost guard here and sent to Cuba on the next available transport. A few of the boys were discharged before the regiment left and others were waiting for discharges in vain, so they decided to remain behind anyhow. On account of the early hour and the fact that the Roumanian was at the extreme eastern end of the docks, there was no crowd on hand to tell the Georgia boys goodby.

The embarkation point at Savannah was under the direction of Depot Quartermaster Ballinger, who gave “Time from Tybee Roads to Havanna of a ship making twelve knots, two days and two hours; ten knots, two and a half days.  Thus the Roumanian with the Third Georgia Regiment arrived at Nuevitas about January 19, 1899.  There being no wharf at Nuevitas the regiment had to be brought into port on lighters, the entire process consuming nine or ten days time.

In a letter written January 24, 1899 from Nuevitas, J. A. Morrow related the Third Georgia Regiment’s passage to Cuba. Conditions on the vessel seemed much improved.

Much could be said of the voyage from the shores of home to this Cuban port. Despite the sadness of departure, the Georgians soon became interested in the novelty of a sea trip and their faces brightened and their hearts grew light. But later there were many brave soldiers who fell as martyrs to their patriotic desire for service – as victims to that indescribable malady which surely deserves a harsher characterization than that brimstone laden definition of war by General Sherman. Scores of the men went right up against it. They did contortion acts, they tossed and tumbled but still the nausea pursued them and forced them repeatedly to the rail. It seemed that every rare and precious tribute was offered up, but the demon of seasickness was inexorable and heaped upon them tortures infinitely worse when they were bankrupt. Chaplain Warren and Lieutenant Brock, above all others, now know the effects of a tussle with Neptune. But at last Chaos ceased to rein in the stomach, the dismal brown taste left the month, the muscles responded to the will and life became more worthy of consideration. After this trip was one of complete pleasure.
     The United States transport Roumanian which brought the regiment over, is not noted as one of the finest transports, but its record in the service shows that it has been one of the most efficient. It has handled thirteen organization of troops without an accident. While in the service the ship is under the command of Captain Wrigley, of the quartermaster’s department who certainly proved himself a capable and faithful officer and a courteous and cultured gentleman. His thoughtful kindness, his unfailing consideration and his affable personality won the highest admiration of every man under his care on the voyage. And in return he was most highly pleased with the regiment and asserted that it excelled any of the regiments transported by the Roumanian in the courteous and soldierly bearing of its officers, the willingness and efficiency in giving assistance to the ship’s officers, as well as in the high character, patience and obedience of the men. It is no small tribute to the Georgians and they appreciate it highly. No ship ever had a more worthy and capable set of offices than the Roumanian, and every man of them won the esteem and gratitude of the Georgians.        To show their appreciation a detail of soldiers under the command of that popular and efficient officer, Lieutenant Chester Elliot of Company G, were immediately upon unloading put to the task of cleaning ship and the officers say it could not possibly have been done more completely, Lieutenant Elliot did not go ashore for four days in order to perform this work.

Soldiers on deck of former SS Roumanian (USAT Crook) photographed in Alaska in 1929

Soldiers on deck of former SS Roumanian (USAT Crook) photographed in Alaska in 1929

Following her service in the war, in 1899, Roumanian was used by the government to return the bodies of men who had died in Cuba and Puerto Rico during the war and afterwards. She arrived in late March in New York with the remains of  554 soldiers who were killed or died in Cuba, and 120 from Puerto Rico.

Former SS Roumanian (USAT Crook) at sea, date unknown.

Former SS Roumanian (USAT Crook) at sea, date unknown.

Former SS Roumanian (USAT Crook) at sea.

Former SS Roumanian (USAT Crook) at sea.

Former SS Roumanian (USAT Crook) photographed in 1929

Former SS Roumanian (USAT Crook) photographed in 1929

Thanksgiving Reverie 1898

Thanksgiving During the Spanish-American War

During the Spanish-American War, the people of Georgia were anxious to show the valor of the southern soldier, and their patriotic commitment to the defense of the Union. Many commanders in the southern corps of the U.S. Army corps were reconstructed Confederate officers.  General officers from the south had honor guards of Confederate veterans.  Very few African-Americans were accepted to serve in the U.S. Army, and where they were allowed they were organized into segregated regiments.

On Thanksgiving Day, November 24, 1898, Berrien County men Walter A. Griner, Carl R. O’Quinn, Pythias D. Yapp, Zachary T. Hester, W. Dutchman Stephens, Samuel Z.T. Lipham, James M. Bridges, Charles A. Courson, Love Culbreath, George C. Flowers, James L. Jordan, George A. Martin, Aaron Cook , Luther Lawrence Hallman and William F. Patten were with the Third Georgia Regiment, U.S. Volunteer Infantry, encamped at Savannah, GA. The Third Georgia Regiment was awaiting passage to Cuba, where they would serve in the occupation force following the Spanish-American War.

Thanksgiving Day, November 24, 1898 was a beautiful Autumn day in the south. That morning, sermons were preached by local pastors in the assembly tents of the regiments. At noon,  in recognition of service to their country and courtesy of the ladies of Savannah, a Thanksgiving Dinner was to be provided to all U.S. regiments encamped at Savannah. At least for all the southern regiments. For the northern regiments, the cost of the meal was paid by the troops.  The Savannah ladies did offer to do the preparation and serving, but some northern regiments declined the courtesy.  Although some offense was taken by the ladies, the Colonel,”with the feeling that the money, once raised the serving would be a comparatively easy and pleasant task… made the preparation and the serving of the dinner a strictly regimental affair.”

Somehow, through an oversight or miscalculation, the ladies of Savannah were unable to obtain an adequate number of turkeys for the celebration and on the day of feast the Third Georgia Regiment had to make do with other fare.  There was provided, however, an abundance of fruit and cakes for the Third Georgia Regiment, for which the men were most thankful to the ladies of Savannah.

Meanwhile, the Savannah camps of the northern regiments feasted. At the encampment of the 161st Indiana Regiment, William Edward Biederwolf reported

“The boys did not have the ladies but they had warm turkey instead and plenty of it. One thousand one hundred pounds of turkey were furnished by Armour & Co., to be accounted for in surplus meat. There were ninety gallons of oysters that day; there were cranberries and celery and mince pies and other delicacies which appeal to the inner man and which go hand in hand with the day thus observed. An enlisted man, who having disposed of nine pounds of turkey, a quart of cranberries, two mince pies and other edibles in proportion kicked because his capacity for consumption went back on him at time so inopportune. Some of the officers dined with “the boys” at the noon meal then had dinner in the officers mess, “during which service the table fairly groaned under its load of good things.”

After the Thanksgiving dinner,

The afternoon was given over to a diversity of amusements upon which the boys were privileged to attend; many cheered the picked baseball nine of our regiment while it secured a victory over a similarly chosen nine from the First North Carolina on the parade ground of our regiment; others attended the shooting match between picked teams of the best shots from the Seventh Army Corps and the Savannah Gun Club at the rifle range of the latter east of the camp; still others witness the football game in which an eleven from the Second Louisianas contested for supremacy with the First Texas Knights of the Gridiron at the City ball park; not a few attended the matinee at the Savannah Theater or saw the Rough Riders in their exhibition at Thunderbolt. 

The Rough Riders

On Tybee Island the  hosted a free oyster roast; in

The day ended most auspiciously in the evening when some of the ladies of Savannah gave an elocutionary and musical entertainment in the assembly tent at which some of the best talent in the city appeared in the various numbers, a favor highly commendable and thoroughly appreciated; and thus the entire day was one joyous occasion that will long be remembered by every man in the regiment.

The aforesaid festivities were followed on November 25th by a sham battle between the two brigades of the Second Division; the First Brigade was assigned to a position behind the huge earthworks thrown up east of Savannah for the protection of the city at the time of Sherman’s famous march to the sea; the works in question remain intact although overgrown to a considerable extent by forest trees and shrubbery and are a grim reminder of the fruits of war in the terrible strife of ’61 to ’65.

 

Thanksgiving Dinner was not always a southern tradition. During the Civil War by both Jefferson Davis and Abraham Lincoln issued proclamations calling for “a day of thanksgiving. ”  In the south it was “a day of national humiliation and prayer“; In the north it was a day to be observed “with humble penitence for our national perverseness and disobedience.”  But in New England, the day of thanksgiving had also been a feast celebration of the bountiful harvest.

The article below, published while the Berrien men were in the field in the Spanish American War, explains how Thanksgiving became accepted in the New South, and a truly national holiday in the United States.

The Jackson Argus
December 2, 1898

Thanksgiving Reverie
WALLACE P. REED

        Thanksgiving Day for nearly 250 years was a sectional holiday. It was observed in New England, and in some of the middle and western states, where New England ideas and customs prevailed.
The old south had no use for the day. Why should the people take a holiday in the latter part of November, when their festive Christmas followed only a month later?
       Prejudice had something to do with this view of the matter. The descendants of the Cavaliers and Huguenots would not tolerate anything that smacked of Puritanism. and it was enough for them to know that Thanksgiving day started with Governor Bradford and the Plymouth colony in 1621.
      So the old-time southerners jogged along in their own way, giving up Christmas week to good cheer, and devoting their days and nights to pleasure. They had their family reunions, social functions, hunting parties and other recreations, and in many things they closely followed the customs of their ancestors in Merrie England.

      Forty or fifty years ago a Thanksgiving proclamation from a southern governor would have been received with jeers, ridicule and severe criticism.
       The people living south of the Potomac were not willing to recognize the great religious and festal day of the Puritans. They did not believe that any custom or institution having its origin in the shadow of Plymouth rock was suited to the civilization which claimed Jamestown as its starting point.
       The two sections seemed to be for ever divided in sentiment in regard to this matter. Down south Christmas was the royal festival of the year, while in the north it passed with slight recognition, the Yankees preferring to enjoy themselves on the holiday instituted by their old Puritan governor.
       With the growing antagonism between the sections, the southern people become more determined than ever to hold fast to their mode of living, their customs, institutions, manners, dress and their principles and prejudices of a political and social nature.
      The tremendous shock of the civil war shattered systems and wrecked many time-honored theories and fondly cherished beliefs. It was no time between battles, when thousands of families were in mourning, for such a mockery as an official day of Thanksgiving in the sorely afflicted south, but as early as 1862 the people became familiar with days of fasting and prayer.
      The loss of Fort Pulaski in the spring of that year was so disheartening that Governor Brown issued a proclamation setting apart a certain day for “fasting, humiliation and prayer.” Here in Atlanta and in other cities and towns throughout the state, the citizens assembled in the churches to hear sermons suited to the occasion. All business was suspended and the day was solemnly observed.
        The southerners of that generation were old-fashioned in their religious beliefs and many who sneered at the New England Thanksgiving accepted very readily the idea of a day of fasting and prayer. Other governors followed Brown’s example and President Davis more than once issued a similar proclamation for the confederate states.
       It is quite likely that this wartime custom prepared our people for the acceptance of Thanksgiving Day, after the restoration of peace.

     After new state governments had been organized in the south the republican governors issued Thanksgiving proclamations, and in short time the new holiday grew in public favor to such an extent that when the democrats returned to power they followed the precedent established by their predecessors of the opposing party.
        The young people liked the change and their elders soon came to the conclusion that one more holiday was a good thing, and they were, readier to accept it when they found that the northern people had borrowed the southern Christmas and were celebrating it more generally every year. Many very old people now living remember that in then young days Christmas was almost ignored in New England, but in the course of a few years after the war for some mysterious reason, it leaped to the front as the most popular festive season of the year.
        The war worked many radical changes in the social, political, moral and industrial conditions which had prevailed in this region for many generations, the new south differed materially from the old south in many respects. In some directions there is a distinct improvement—a step forward—but in others the old timers say that there has been a retrograde movement.
       The millions of angry people who refused for more than two centuries to adopt the Thanksgiving holiday, and then accepted it, did not stop there. Having overcome the prejudices against this custom, they found it easy to allow other yankee ideas, methods and institutions to obtain a foothold in Dixie.
       The older readers of this article will agree with me that great changes have occurred in the southern mode of living m the past thirty years.
       There was a time when a man might have visited every restaurant and boarding house in a southern town without being able to find such articles as baked beans, Boston brown bread, doughnuts and codfish balls. These things followed the invading federal armies, and they came to stay. They are now recognized articles of diet among native southerners, as well as north settlers.
        We have adopted different foods, fashions and methods. Nearly every successful northern idea has been adopted here or is on trial in an experimental way.
       Many New England isms are making headway in the south. Once there were no Spiritualists here; now there are thousands. The female suffrage idea is spreading, and hundreds of callings are open to women in the south which were closed to them before the war.  A generation ago it was a rare thing to find Unitarian, Unaversalist and Congregational churches in this section, but now they are growing in every state.
       We also have Christian Science, the faith cure, divine healers, etc.
       We have become so tolerant that Mormon missionaries come and go, and preach among us without being molested.

      What has all this to do with Thanksgiving Day?
      A great deal. Any one who is familiar with our history can see at a glance the great revolution which has taken place in the south. Perhaps half unconsciously the new south has taken New England as a model, and is gradually shaping herself accordingly.
      In many ways the change is beneficial, but in others it is to our disadvantage. We can learn many valuable lessons from the north in finance, industry, economy, and in such matters as public schools, municipal ownership and commercial progress, but it would be wise to hold on to all that is best of the old south until we are absolutely certain that it will be to our interest in every way to embrace a new civilization.
       But Thanksgiving Day is all right, no matter when or where it originated, and our people will observe it in the proper spirit for all time to come. If we never borrow anything worse from New England we are not likely to suffer.

Roster of Company D, 3rd Regiment Georgia Infantry U.S. Volunteers

In  1898, nowhere was there greater fervor for the Spanish-American War than in Georgia.  “When the United States became involved in war with Spain, Georgia furnished according to population more volunteers than any other State of the Union.”

A number of Berrien County, GA men volunteered for service in the U.S. Army.

Walter A. Griner, Carl R. O’QuinnPythias D. Yapp,, Zachary T. Hester, W. Dutchman Stephens, Samuel Z.T. Lipham, James M. Bridges, Charles A. Courson, Love Culbreath, George C. Flowers, James L. Jordan and George A. Martin all enlisted in Company D, 3rd Georgia Regiment, U.S. Volunteers. Aaron Cook served as a private in Company E, Third Regiment, U.S. Volunteer Infantry. Other Berrien countians serving in the Third Regiment were Luther Lawrence Hallman and William F. Patten, both in Company B.

Company D, 3rd Georgia Infantry, US Volunteers, Spanish-American War. Image source: http://www.spanamwar.com/3rdGeorgia.htm

The Third Regiment was organized at Camp Northen, Griffin, GA over the summer of 1898 and mustered into the service of the United States on August 24, 1898 with 43 officers and 1,243 enlisted men. The Third Regiment was assigned to Second Brigade, Third Division, Second Army Corps on October 7, 1898. The regiment left Griffin November 21 and arrived at Savannah November 22, 1898. It appears the Third Regiment  encamped at Camp Onward, awaiting embarkation. They sailed from Savannah on S.S. Roumania on Friday the 13th of January, 1899; arrived at Nuevitas, Cuba, January 18; changed station to Minas, Cuba January 30 and February 1. The regiment sailed from Nuevitas March 25, 1899 and arrived at Augusta, GA, March 29, 1899. The Third Regiment Mustered out of the service of the United States at Augusta, GA, April 22, 1899, with 46 officers and 945 enlisted men. Casualties while in the service: Officers – died of disease, 1; Enlisted men -died of disease, 24; killed by accident, 1; deserted, 50. – Correspondence Relating to the War With Spain

 

Company D, 3rd Georgia Infantry, US Volunteers
Muster Roll

  1. Stewart, Henry J. Captain. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 28; born, Rome, GA; occupation, Clerk; enlisted, Rome, GA, 1898-06-25; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 9, 1898 (later captain of Co. K, 43 Georgia Infantry US Vols); buried Myrtle Hill Cemetery, Rome, GA
  2. Brock, Benj. T. 1st Lieut. Residence, Trenton, GA; age, 32; born, Trenton, GA; occupation, Lawyer; enlisted, Trenton, GA, 1898-06-25; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 9, 1898; buried Brock Cemetery, Trenton, GA
  3. Land, Max E. 2nd Lieut.. Residence, Abbeville, GA; age, 26; born, Bullard, GA; occupation, Lawyer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, 1898-06-25; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 9, 1898; buried Sunnyside Cemetery, Cordele, GA
  4. Omberg, Frank Cleveland 1st Sgt.. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 21; born, Rome, GA; occupation, Bk-Keeper; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898; buried Rosemont Cemetery, Newberry, SC
  5. Culver, William H. Sgt. Residence, Atlanta, GA; age, 30; born, Greenville, GA; occupation, Mgr. Compress; enlisted, Atlanta, GA, July 13, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 16, 1898
  6. Baumgartner, Fred C. QM Sgt.; Residence, Rome, GA; age, 22; born, Knoxville, TN; occupation, Cabinet Maker; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; Mustered in Camp Northern, July 8, 1898; buried Myrtle Hill Cemetery, Rome, GA
  7. George, LaFayette F. Sgt. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 21; born, Rome, GA; occupation, Molder; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898; buried West Lawn Cemetery, Henryetta, OK.
  8. Logan, Eugene P. Sgt.. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 24; born, Rome, GA; occupation, Motorman; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  9. Gunn, Donald G. Sgt.. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 19; born, Rome, GA; occupation, Stone Cutter; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  10. Lipham, Samuel Z.T. Corporal. Residence, Sparks, GA; age, 21; born, Berrien County, GA; occupation, Lawyer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 16, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898; buried Dade City Cemetery, Dade City, FL
  11. Logan, Ernest J. Corporal. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 22; born, Rome, GA; occupation, Candy Maker; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  12. Porter, Bernard L. Corporal. Residence, Trenton, GA; age, 22; born, Trenton, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Trenton, GA, July 7, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  13. Mardell, William V. Corporal. Residence, Cordele, GA; age, 24; born, Bainbridge, GA; occupation, Bk-Keeper; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 30, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 2, 1898
  14. George, Rugar E. Corporal. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 18; born, Rome, GA; occupation, Machinist; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 23, 1898
  15. Gwinns, Payton. Corporal. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 19; born, Winchester County, VA; occupation, Clerk; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; Mustered in Camp Northern Griffin, July 18, 1898
  16. Bell, DeWitt. Corporal. Residence, Farrill, AL; age, 24; born, Casandra, GA; occupation, Fireman; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  17. Brock, William H. Corporal. Residence, Trenton, GA; age, 18; born, Trenton, GA; occupation, Student; enlisted, Trenton, GA, July 7, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  18. Byrd, Phil L. Corporal. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 18; born, Rome, GA; occupation, Clerk; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  19. Ellis, Flisha F. Corporal. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 19; born, Kingston; occupation, Wood Worker; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  20. Howell, William M. Corporal. Residence, Abbeville, GA; age, 25; born, Lumberton, NC; occupation, Merchant; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  21. King, Spencer B. Corporal. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 18; born, Rome, GA; occupation, Clerk; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  22. Allums, John J. Private. Residence, Douglasville, GA; age, 37; born, Henry Co., GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 30, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 3, 1898
  23. Arnold, John H. Private. Residence, Dallas, GA; age, 23; born, Dallas, GA; occupation, Farmer ; enlisted, Camp Northern GA, August 6, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 6, 1898
  24. Atkins, Tom. Private. Residence, Reasling, Floyd County, GA; age, 20; born, Floyd County, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Rome, GA, August 13, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 19, 1898
  25. Baumgartner, Schubert. Artificer. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 18; born, Knoxville, TN; occupation, Cabinet Maker; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 21, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 23, 1898
  26. Baxter, Homer E. Private. Residence, Vans Valley, GA; age, 18; born, Vans Valley, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  27. Baxter, John R. Private. Residence, Vans Valley, GA; age, 23; born, Vans Valley, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Rome, GA, August 3, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 5, 1898
  28. Baxter, William A. Residence, Six Mile Sta., GA; age, 28; born, Floyd County, GA; occupation, Six Mile Sta., GA; enlisted, Rome, GA, August 1, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 3, 1898
  29. Black, Fain B. Residence, Calhoun, GA; age, 26; born, Dalton, GA; occupation, Milling; enlisted, Trenton, GA, July 29, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 30, 1898
  30. Brannan, James F. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 25; born, Cumming, GA; occupation, Mill Operator; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  31. Bridges, James M. Private. Residence, Adel, GA; age, 21; born, Yorksville, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Adel, GA, July 21, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 27, 1898; buried Sparks City Cemetery, Sparks, GA
  32. Bunn, Chas. C., Jr. Private. Residence, Cedartown, GA; age, 18; born, Cedartown, GA; occupation, Clerk; enlisted, Rome, GA, August 3, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 8, 1898
  33. Chasewood, Richard A. Private. Residence, Atlanta, GA; age, 40; born, Newton County, GA; occupation, Shoe Maker; enlisted, Atlanta, GA, July 29, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 31, 1898
  34. Cliett, Hugh A. Private. Residence, Powersville, GA; age, 21; born, Bowersville, GA; occupation, Druggist; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  35. Collier, William. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 24; born, Peeks Hill, AL; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  36. Courson, Chas. A. Private. Residence, Hahira, GA; age, 21; born, Dupont, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Sparks, GA, July 23, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 27, 1898; died of typhoid fever at 1st Division Hospital, Savannah, GA, December 23, 1898; buried Friendship Cemetery, Hahira, GA
  37. Culbreath, Love. Private. Residence, Hahira, GA; age, 18; born, Troutman, NC; occupation, Mill Hand; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 28, 1898
  38. Culpepper, Morris P. Private. Residence, Mingo, GA; age, 23; born, Mingo, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; Mustered in Camp Northern, Griffin, July 15, 1898
  39. Davis, Chas. T. Private. Residence, Benn, GA; age, 21; born, Benn, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  40. Davis, Robert L. Wagoner. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 25; born, Spg Garden, AL; occupation, Clerk; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  41. Dorminy, Andrew J. Private. Residence, Dorminy Mills, GA; Record ID age, 20; born, Dorminy Mills, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 11, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  42. Dunford, John. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 27; born, Rockmart, GA; occupation, Clerk; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  43. Dunwoody, Chas. A. Private. Residence, Cedartown, GA; age, 35; born, Roswell, GA; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  44. Earle, Marcus B. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 28; born, Everett Springs; occupation, Railroader; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  45. Earp, Will G. Private. Residence, Sulphur Springs, GA; age, 18; born, Jasper, TN; occupation, Saw Milling;  enlisted, Trenton, GA, August 2, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 3, 1898
  46. Eustice, Hilliard. Musician. Residence, Rising Faun, GA; age, 18; born, Silver Plunk, CA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Trenton, GA, July 14, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  47. Flowers, George C. Private. Residence, Sparks, GA; age, 34; born, Avery, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Sparks, GA, July 22, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 27, 1898
  48. Fountain, John T. Private. Residence, Tippettsville, GA; age, 21; born, Hawkinsville, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898.  Died, disease, December 8, 1898 at Savannah, GA
  49. Fowler, Columbus S. Private. Residence, Likeme, AL; age, 21; born, Melton, FL; occupation, Brickmason; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  50. Gillwater, Chas. E. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 39; born, Eufaula, AL; occupation, Brick Mason; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 23, 1898
  51. Graham, William F. Private. Residence, Fitzgerald, GA; age, 23; born, Independence, KS; occupation, Carpenter; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 25, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 30, 1898
  52. Griner, Walter A. Private. Residence, Nashville, GA; age, 19; born, Nashville, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  53. Haholzer, Mike. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 21; born, Pittsburg, PA; occupation, Tinner; enlisted, Rome, GA, 1898-08-01; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 3, 1898
  54. Hall, Burress. Musician,; Residence, Rising Fawn, GA; age, 21; born, Rising Fawn, GA; occupation, Musician; enlisted, July 18, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  55. Hawk, Mitchell. Private. Residence, Rising Fawn, GA; age, 21; born, Rising Fawn, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Trenton, GA, July 14, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  56. Herring, Eugene. Private. Residence, Lindale, GA; age, 23; born, Marshall County, MS; occupation, Mill Operator; enlisted, Rome, GA, 1898-08-02; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 4, 1898
  57. Hester, Zachary T., Jr. Private. Residence, Sparks, GA; age, 18; born, Glenville, MS; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 27, 1898
  58. Hoffman, Frederick. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 18; born, Jacksonville, AL; occupation, Shoe Maker; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 23, 1898
  59. Jackson, Central Z. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 21 8/12; born, Rome, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  60. Jobe, Henry W. B. Private. Residence, New England City, GA ; age, 21 3/12; born, Trenton, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Trenton, GA, July 7, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  61. Johnson, Earl L. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 21 2/12; born, Elberton, GA; occupation, Clerk; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 16, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 23, 1898
  62. Jones, George H. Private. Residence, Goldsboro, N.C.; age, 28 7/12; born, Goldsboro, NC; occupation, Sawyer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  63. Jones, James A. Private. Residence, Tippettsville, GA; age, 27 2/12; born, Tippetsville, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  64. Jordan, James L. Private. Residence, Adel, GA; age, 25 7/12; born, Valdosta, GA; occupation, Mechanic; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  65. Keith, Ben. Private. Residence, Rising Fawn, GA; age, 21 3/12; born, Valley Head, AL; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Trenton, GA, July 15, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 3, 1898
  66. Keith, Thomas M. Private. Residence, Rising Fawn, GA; age, 25 11/12; born, Valley Head, AL; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Trenton, GA, July 14, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  67. Kersey, Ike T. Residence, Cole City, GA; age, 29 5/12; born, Long Island, AL; occupation, Brakeman; enlisted, Trenton, GA; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA
  68. King, Robert N. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 21 11/12; born, Curryville, GA; occupation, Motorman; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  69. Langham, Nash. Private. Residence, Namnie, GA; age, 25 1/12; born, Dykes, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  70. Lawham, Virgil. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 23 8/12; born, Rome, GA; occupation, Oiler; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 16, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 23, 1898
  71. Martin, George A. Private. Residence, Hahira, GA; age, 21 5/12; born, Quitman; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Sparks, GA, July 23, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 27, 1898
  72. McGiboney, Chas. W. Private. Residence, Siney, GA; age, 21 9/12; born, Cave Springs, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Rome, GA, August 1, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 3, 1898
  73. Murray, Elmore E. Private. Residence, Savannah, GA; age, 21 1/12; born, Barton, Vt.; occupation, Teacher; enlisted, Sparks, GA, July 21, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 27, 1898
  74. O’Quinn, Carl R. Private. Residence, Nashville, GA; age, 18; born, Dupont, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  75. Porter, Aleck. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 18; born, Cave Springs, GA; occupation, Clerk; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  76. Porter, F. Private. Residence, Cole City, GA; age, 21; born, Long Island, GA; occupation, Guard; enlisted, Trenton, GA, July 18, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  77. Posey, Thomas. Private. Residence, Margie, GA; age, 18; born, “Don’t Know” AK; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Rome, GA, August 2, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 5, 1898
  78. Rawlins, Marvin M. Private. Residence, Stockbridge, GA; age, 21; born, Snearsville, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Sparks, GA, July 21, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 27, 1898
  79. Reid, Ed. Private. Residence, Rome; age, 20; born, Rome, GA; occupation, Laborer; enlisted, Rome, GA, 1898-08-01; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 3, 1898
  80. Richardson, Wm. H. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 21; born, Coaco, GA ; occupation, Farmer;  enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  81. Rouse, Allen G. Private. Residence, Hahira, GA; age, 22; born, Fayetteville, N.C.; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Sparks, GA, July 23, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 27, 1898
  82. Rustin, David L. Private. Residence, Reidsville, GA; age, 31 1/2; born, Reidsville, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  83. Sanford, Rowan G. Private. Residence, Graham, GA; age, 23 2/12; born, Graham; occupation, Mechanic; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  84. Shannon, Oscar. Private. Residence, Etwah, GA; age, 20 7/12; born, Cleveland, TN; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Cleveland, TN, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 30, 1898
  85. Shelly, Lewis. Private. Residence, Cedar Bluff, AL; age, 19 3/12; born, Cedar Bluff, AL; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Rome, GA, August 4, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 6, 1898
  86. Sisk, Elijah W. Private. Residence, Everett, GA; age, 19 3/12; born, Plainsville, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Rome, GA, 1898-08-02; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 5, 1898
  87. Slaton, Purcelle. Private. Residence, Rising Fawn, GA; age,21 3/12; born, Rising Fawn, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Trenton, GA, July 15, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  88. Smith, F H. Private. Residence, Atlanta, GA; age, 23 3/12; born, Gadsden, AL; occupation, Candy Maker; enlisted, Atlanta, GA, July 28, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 30, 1898
  89. Snider, George W. Private. Residence, Morristown, TN; age, 27 4/12; born, Maryville, TN; occupation, Med. Student; enlisted, Trenton, GA, July 7, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  90. Snow, Henry O. Jr. Private. Residence, Abbeville, GA; age, 22 2/12; born, Brookville, Fla.; occupation, Med. Student; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 16, 1898
  91. Stappins, Wofford. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 22 10/12; born, Cartersville, GA ; occupation, Mill Operator; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; Mustered in AtCamp Northern Griffin, July 18, 1898
  92. Stephens, W. Dutchman. Private. Residence, Sparks, GA; age, 20 5/12; born, Wadley, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 27, 1898
  93. Swift, Mathews T. Private. Residence, Fitzgerald, GA; age, 21 11/12; born, Wrens, GA; occupation, Engineer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 25, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 30, 1898
  94. Tidwell, Williams. Private. Residence, Rising Fawn, GA; age, 18 1/12; born, Rising Fawn, GA; occupation, Painter; enlisted, Rising Fawn, GA, July 7, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  95. Walden, William H. Private. Residence, Cason, GA; age, 22 3/12; born, Cason, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  96. Walker, John S. Private. Residence, Rising Fawn, GA; age, 26 6/12; born, Cedar Grove, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Trenton, GA, August 2, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 3, 1898
  97. Webb, Wiley. Private. Residence, Long Island, AL; age, 34 8/12; born, Cole City; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Trenton, GA, July 18, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  98. Wheeler, Floyd T. Private. Residence, Trenton, GA; age, 21 4/12; born, Trenton, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Griffin, GA, July 10, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 20, 1898
  99. Wilder, Robert T. Private. Residence, Lindale, GA; age, 22 7/12; born, Cherokee Co., AL; occupation, Mill Hand; enlisted, Rome, GA, August 2, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, August 3, 1898
  100. Wilkinson, Ernest C. Private. Residence,Atlanta, GA; age, 19 11/12; born, Wilmington, N.C.; occupation, Electrician; enlisted, Atlanta, GA, July 13, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898
  101. Williams, Arthur E. Private. Residence, Jacksonville, GA; age, 19 3/12; born, McRae, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 11, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 15, 1898
  102. Yapp, Pythias D. Private. Residence, Nashville, GA; age, 19 5/12; born, Dublin, GA; occupation, Mill Hand; enlisted, Abbeville, GA, July 9, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 28, 1898
  103. Young, Joseph. Private. Residence, Rome, GA; age, 23 6/12; born, Canton, GA; occupation, Farmer; enlisted, Rome, GA, July 8, 1898; mustered in, Camp Northern, Griffin, GA, July 18, 1898

Berrien Men Prepared for Spanish-American War at Camp Northen, GA

In the Spanish-American War, nowhere was there greater fervor than in Georgia.  “When the United States became involved in war with Spain, Georgia furnished according to population more volunteers than any other State of the Union.”

Among Berrien County, GA men who volunteered for service in the U.S. Army were Walter A. Griner, Carl R. O’Quinn, Pythias D. Yapp,, Zachary T. Hester, W. Dutchman Stephens, Samuel Z.T. Lipham, James M. Bridges, Charles A. Courson, Love Culbreath, George C. Flowers, James L. Jordan and George A. Martin.  All enlisted in Company D, 3rd Georgia Regiment, U.S. Volunteers.

Spanish-American War enlistment record of Walter A. Griner, Nashville, GA

Spanish-American War enlistment record of Walter A. Griner, Nashville, GA

The enlistments came as Georgia responded to the destruction of the battleship USS Maine in the harbor at Havana, Cuba.

“The federal government requested that Georgia supply 3,000 troops in the form of two regiments of infantry and two batteries of light artillery for the upcoming military campaigns in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. Five days later Governor William Y. Atkinson issued a call for men by setting various quotas for Georgia’s major cities. The first state induction camp [Camp Northen] was established at Griffin (the seat of Spalding County, GA) on May 4. Volunteer enlistments from the state were slow in coming, but Governor Atkinson eventually mobilized three infantry regiments and two light artillery batteries of the state militia…Only the Third Georgia Infantry would see any overseas duty and that was as an occupation force in Cuba during the first three months of 1899.” -New Georgia Encyclopedia

Want ad dated July 12, 1898 advertising for recruits for the 3rd Georgia Regiment US Volunteers

Want ad dated July 12, 1898 advertising for recruits for the 3rd Georgia Regiment US Volunteers

The 3rd Georgia Regiment U.S. Volunteers mustered in at Camp Northen (frequently and incorrectly called Camp Northern).  The camp was named for William J. Northen, two-term governor of Georgia from 1890-1894. The assembly of the Third Georgia Regiment, U.S. Volunteers was under the command of Colonel John Slaughter Candler.

Colonel John Slaughter Candler, commanding, 3rd Georgia Regiment, U. S. Volunteers, Camp Northen, Griffin, GA

Colonel John Slaughter Candler, commanding, 3rd Georgia Regiment, U. S. Volunteers, Camp Northen, Griffin, GA

 

The men of Company D, 3rd GA Regt, US Vols began arriving at Camp Northen in July 1898.

1898 sketch of soldiers at Camp Northen, near Griffin, GA

1898 sketch of soldiers at Camp Northen, near Griffin, GA

A visitor at Camp Northen observed,

“The men in camp here are a queer lot – a composite collection from all walks of life. Social, educational, commercial lines have been obliterated by a common unity, the foundation of which is patriotism. Patrician lies in the same tent, on the same straw bed, with plebeian without a thought of the distinction. There are lawyers, bankers, doctors, preachers, clerks, carpenters, farmers and blacksmiths in one company. Some of the very best and some of the humblest families in the state are represented in the ranks. A finer lot of fellows has never been got together, however, and they long for the day when they may splice Spanish hides with American bullets. There is fight in the old land yet.”

Camp Northen had been established about 1892 as the location of the annual encampment of the Georgia National Guard, the land being contributed by the people of Griffin. Prior to the assembly of the 3rd Georgia Regiment at Camp Northen, the camp had been occupied by the 1st Georgia Regiment U.S. Volunteers (Rays Immunes). The First Regiment moved to Chickamauga Park by mid-June 1898.

A street car line ran from Griffin to Camp Northen.  The Atlanta Constitution reported,

“Camp Northen is acknowledged by army officials to be one of the best sites for an encampment in the United States. It is situated on the side of a gently sloping hill in a dense grove of oaks. On top of the hill commanding a view of the entire camp is the Colonel’s tent with the tents of the adjutant, quartermaster, commissary and surgeons near by.

Just over the brow of the hill is a spring, the water of which is as pure as crystal and almost as cold as ice. The Grounds are lighted with electricity from the Griffin power house and ever company street is supplied with a water hydrant and shower bathhouse from Griffin’s waterworks system. All the company’s quarters are supplied with kitchens, mess halls, bath-houses, tents for privates and officers, the latter being situated at the head of the streets. “

Assistant Surgeon Joseph G. Jarrell, 1st Georgia Volunteer Infantry, said of the camp, in 1898 “every convenience in the way of bath houses, kitchens, and privies were at the disposal of the troops.

The camp facilities also included a hospital, Y.M.C.A. tent, an armory, rifle range and stables. The Atlanta Constitution observed, “Some of the prettiest horses ever seen in this part of the state belong to the officers stationed here. The colonels and their staffs and the majors ride, and all have purchased fine animals for use during the war.

There was a post office on the grounds and mail was delivered to the camp several times a day. As in all wars and times, the soldiers looked forward to mail call with great anticipation. The Southern Bell Telephone Company placed a phone booth near the colonel’s quarters with a long-distance telephone. Soldiers could telephone to and be telephoned from any part of the state. A large bulletin board near the telephone booth displayed the latest war bulletins from the office of the Atlanta Constitution.

In the summer of 1898, the 3rd Georgia Regiment was ill equipped.  There weren’t enough guns for all the men, and the guns they did have were older equipment from the state guard. It would be late September 1898 before “the long-looked-for new guns, canteens, knapsacks, etc arrived and were issued to the troops. They were the latest patent Springfield rifles, and each company was furnished with a gun for every man.”  The Krag-Jorgensen was the same rifle that would be used to kill a rampaging elephant in Valdosta, GA in 1902.

U.S. Model 1898 Springfield Krag-Jorgensen rifle

U.S. Model 1898 Springfield Krag-Jorgensen rifle

Guns or no guns, the men drilled. The daily routine of the camp was:

        At 5 a.m. one gun and a bugle call summoned the soldiers from their slumbers; fifteen minutes were allowed for dressing, followed by a cup of coffee and hardtack in the mess halls; one hour was then devoted to drilling on the parade grounds, after which the men marched back to their quarters for breakfast at 7 o’clock.
       Guard mount took place soon after breakfast, when the guard for the day was selected and the colonel chose the man making the best appearance from the ranks to be his orderly during the subsequent twelve hours.
       This was followed by regimental or company drills, after which the camps were policed and the streets cleaned up.  -Atlanta Constitution, May 9, 1898

1898 sketch of soldiers' life at Camp Northen, Georgia preparing for deployment in the Spanish-American War

1898 sketch of soldiers’ life at Camp Northen, Georgia preparing for deployment in the Spanish-American War

      “….the location of the tents and ..the tented homes of the soldiers are laid off in the same way as a town is laid off, except that it is more regular. Between the tents are streets and these streets need cleaning every day, just as the streets of Atlanta are cleaned by a hired force at night. The parade grounds, too, are known as the prettiest in the south, and it is known, too, that from that same large spacious lawn trash which accumulates every day must be removed.
       But, unlike a city, the work of cleaning the streets or walks in the camp and of removing the debris from the drill ground is not done by hired men. It is done by the boys of Georgia, the pride and bone of the state…To see some of the pets of Atlanta’s society, to say nothing about the society boys of other cities of the state sweeping the street, clouds of dust coming around them, while others handled wheelbarrows into which the dirt was thrown by still others, and over all an officer standing, whose social position was away down in the grade, comparatively speaking, would convince even the loving mothers of the boys that, in the army at least, there was no distinction. -Atlanta Constitution, June, 1894

By order of the camp commander company streets, ground about tents, the kitchens, bathrooms and sinks were placed in thorough police every morning at police call under the supervision of company commanders. The regimental camp was inspected daily by the colonel or field officers.

1898 sketch of soldier on detail cleaning company streets at Camp Northen, near Griffin, GA

1898 sketch of soldier on detail cleaning company streets at Camp Northen, near Griffin, GA

Dinner occurred at 12 o’clock, after which the men were given a rest, while the officers held a conference on matters of moment, usually at the colonel’s headquarters, during which an officer usually delivered a dissertation on the matter up for discussion; another drill occurred at 4 o’clock, and dress parade and review at 6 o’clock; supper was served at about 7 o’clock and the men are given another rest until 10 o’clock, when the bugle ordered them to retire.

Beds were made out of clean straw covered with a blanket, of which each man had two. The ground inside the tents was covered with a low wooden platform and a small ditch was dug on the outside to prevent the water from coming in contact with the sleeper.

For the recruits at Camp Northen the arrival of the paymaster was a joyous occasion.  By noon on payday every man had received the months pay and that evening a large number of them were in the city parting with it.  An unfortunate fifty men, under the command of a company captain, were detailed to the city in the afternoon to keep down the disturbances among the men. Perhaps only second in significance to payday were the days that young lady visitors were entertained at the camp, under appropriate escort, of course.  On these days, the men confined to the hospital were cheered by the visitors. “The young ladies were entertained at lunch by the officers of the regiment. In the afternoon occurred the review and drill, which at the hour of sunset presented a most picturesque appearance. The men were splendidly drilled...”

A camp inspection by Lieutenant Colonel Peter J. A. Cleary, Deputy Surgeon General of the Department of the Gulf, reported in the October 31, 1898 Atlanta Constitution, that there was a shortage of bedsacks and straw at the camp. Some of the men had mattresses, but they were their own private property.

The Hospital

Lt Col. Cleary also inspected the hospital:

The hospital consists of a number of tents and one frame building, used partly as a hospital and partly as a dispensary. The sick were all provided with cots, with wire springs and mattresses. They seemed to have plenty of blankets. There were no serious cases in the hospital, though there were several convalescing from typhoid and other fevers. The men appear to be contented and the surgeon stated that he had ample supplies on hand in the way of food and medicines. I found, however, that the cots they used were rented and directed him to make requisition for any number of cots he needed, which will be supplied him at once. A large portion of the blankets in the hospital belong to the men. This also will be remedied, as he will be supplied with enough blankets without having to use those belonging to the men. He will need stoves for his tents, and was directed to make a request on the quartermaster for as many as he required, which, I presume, will be supplied him without delay. On the whole I find that the men were properly cared for and really were not suffering from anything.

Hospital Volunteers

1898 engraving of Mrs. DeForest Allgood, of Griffin GA

1898 engraving of Mrs. DeForest Allgood, of Griffin GA. Mrs. Allgood was a leading supporter of the hospital at Camp Northen during the Spanish-American War

Atlanta Constitution
November 20, 1898

Atlanta, Savannah, Macon, Augusta, Americus, Albany and Rome have all given to patriotic work representative women, and probably no city in the state proportional to its size has done more than Griffin, the little city that has for so long been the scene of the state encampments and near which is the present encampment of the Third Georgia Regiment.
The women of Griffin were among the first in the state to organize a relief association, and they have in their treasury at present over $1,200, which has been raised through their individual efforts in various ways.
Among the women of this association – which is like the Atlanta Relief Association, individual and distinctive – who have distinguished themselves for noble and unselfish work is Mrs. de Forrest Algood, the vice president.
Not only has she given money in generous contributions, but she has gone into the hospital and administered to the soldier as only a noble woman can. She has soothed many a suffering soldier into a quiet sleep by the tenderness of her solicitude and attentions; she has prepared with her own hand delicious delicacies that have been relished by the convalescing, and no soldier of the Third regiment who has known the discomfitures of a camp hospital will fail to murmur a blessing when the name of queenly and womanly Mrs. Algood is mentioned.
All the time when the hospital was crowded with men during September and early in October and when the practical assistance of the relief associations was given Mrs. Algood saw further necessity of trained assistance and offered to send two male nurses at her own expense, but the offer was refused.
An incident relative to her womanly consideration is told by a young officer who witnessed her devotion to an aged mother who had come to the deathbed of her son in the camp hospital.
When she reached there she was informed that he was dying. The anguish seemed insupportable till the strong arm of Mrs. Allgood came to her assistance, and with consoling, sympathetic words, she accompanied her to the camp. There lay the young soldier apparently cold in death, only a gasping breath now and then to tell the story of a struggling atom of life. But sobs from a mother’s aching heart, the warmth of the mother love and the tender words of the woman with her seemed to quiet the struggling life into more peacefulness. Warmth returned to the body and continued ministrations restored a consciousness that enabled the young soldier to once more recognize his mother.
Then for three days and three nights there was the agony of suspense, each hour seeming to be the one that would separate the young soldier forever from his mother. She sat patiently with him during this dreary period, but not alone, for by her side, whispering words of comfort, was Mrs. Algood. She had known sorrow and the sorrow of losing a child, and for every sigh that the elder mother drew the younger was in sympathy with her, and when the last did come and the young soldier sank back cold in death, the head of his grief-stricken mother was pillowed upon the shoulder of the beautiful and sympathetic young mother, who had watched with her, and not until the body of the soldier, borne by six comrades, was placed upon the train did Mrs. Algood return to her home from the camp where she had performed her work of womanly sympathy and comfort.

The Regimental Band

As was the typical practice, the Third Georgia Regiment had a regimental band. But unlike the national guard regiments, which usually hired musicians to form the band, the regular US Army refused to hire bands unless they were enlisted. At Camp Northen, a regimental band was one of the attractions of the camp. Prof. C. O. Pollard was the chief musician, H. P. Dane principal musician, and Edward Griggs of Dawson was appointed second principal musician. Josephus N. Slater was drum major. Other musicians included Eustice Hilliard, Burress Hall, Morris Stein, Arnold Stovall, Joseph J. Thompson, Walter C. Wilkerson, Frank H. Wilkie, and Ralph E. Wright.

Regimental Band of the 3rd Georgia Regiment U.S. Volunteers, Spanish American War. Image source: http://www.spanamwar.com/3rdGeorgiaband.htm

Regimental Band of the 3rd Georgia Regiment U.S. Volunteers, Spanish American War. Image source: http://www.spanamwar.com/3rdGeorgiaband.htm

The US flag was raised early every morning at Camp Northen, and the state flag was displayed in front of the Colonel’s headquarters. Every man was required to remove his hat when passing the flag.  The ceremony of lowering of the flag  which occurred every afternoon while the regimental band played the Star Spangled Banner attracted many visitors from Griffin.

YMCA

A Y.M.C.A. tent was established at Camp Northen prior to the assembly of the Third Georgia Regiment, which was to accompany the regiment wherever it was sent. The YMCA tent was opened under the direction of Frank K. Boland, of Atlanta, a graduate of the University of Georgia and a student in the Southern Medical College. The staff were issued army passes to travel with the troops and receive the same salary and rations apportioned to enlisted men.

“In the hardships of camp life through which the Georgia volunteers [experienced] while waiting for the order to march on Cuba they [were] cheered and strengthened, physically and spiritually, by the branch associations of the state Young Men’s Christian Association…” The Atlanta Constitution reported, “The army tent is circular in shape and forty feet in diameter, offering ample room for all the men of the regiment who desire to attend meetings. Papers and magazines will be kept on file in the tent and games, such as crokinole and checkers will be kept for those who care for the pastime. Hymn books and bibles have been furnished… and religious services will be held regularly in the tent.” Reading materials and writing facilities were provided. The men of the camp who were so inclined attended prayer meetings, Bible classes and other religious activities at the Y.M.C.A. tent.

1898 sketch of YMCA tent at Camp Northen near Griffin, GA.

The YMCA also added a commissary department to the army tent “used to furnish those of the Georgia troops who are indisposed and not sick enough to be sent to the hospital with nourishing food and careful treatment.” The YMCA anticipated, “Many of the experienced soldiers will be subject to despondency and home sickness, to whom the Young Men’s Christian Association will reach out a helping hand.” Former Governor W. J. Northen was chairman of the fundraising to support the YMCA tents at Camp Northen and other Georgia encampments.

The 3rd Georgia Regiment, under the command of Colonel John S. Candler, completed its organization August 24, 1898 at Camp Northen, where the regiment remained until November 21, when it boarded the train to Savannah, GA in preparation for embarkation to Cuba. In 1899 the 3rd Georgia Regiment returned to Georgia and was mustered out at Augusta, GA.

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