Richard Ault, Blacksmith for the Berrien Minute Men

Richard Ault, Blacksmith for the Berrien Minute Men

Richard H. Ault born in New York in 1820.  He came  to Lowndes County, GA some time before 1860 to make his home in the 1200 Georgia Militia District. In the 1860 census, R. H. Ault was single, living in the household of William Bradford and  taking his mail at the Troupville post office. His  trade was blacksmith.

With the onset of the Civil War, Richard H. Ault enlisted with Levi J. Knight’s company of Berrien Minute Men on August 1, 1861 at Savannah, GA.  The Berrien Minute Men had arrived in Savannah on July 30, 1861 as a company of the 13th Georgia Regiment.

About this time, the 29th Georgia Regiment was stationed at Lawton Battery on Smith’s Island, with the Savannah River Batteries, Col. Edward. C. Anderson, commanding.  With the reorganization of the 13th Regiment, the Berrien Minute Men were assigned to the 29th. This company was designated at various times as Capt. Knight’s Company, Capt. Wylly’s Company, (Old) Company C, and (New) Company G, 29th Regiment Georgia Infantry.

Battery Lawton was said to be armed with “one thirty-two pounder rifle gun,one forty-two-pounder smooth-bore, two eight-inch, and two ten-inch columbiads” which, along with the guns at Battery Cheves, and Battery Lee, thoroughly commanded the river.

Military records notate that Richard H. Ault was discharged by civil authority at Savannah on August 19, 1862, but on September 7 he was recalled by order of the Adjutant General.

In October, it appears there was a request that Pvt. Ault be detailed first to the Washington Artillery, SC, and second to Macon Arsenal.  The Rebel Archives in the Record Division of the War Department show that Col. E. C. Anderson, commander of  at Savannah requested that the detail of R. H. Ault be reconsidered.  At Battery Lawton, Company C had only three blacksmiths, Thomas J. Palin, Samuel Palin and Richard H. Ault.   The two Palin men had already been pulled from the Berrien Minute Men and detailed as blacksmiths for other units. The relationship between these two men is not known; both men deserted Confederate service in 1864,  swore allegiance to the United States and were released north of the Ohio River.  Thomas J. Palin was a Canadian who came to Berrien County before the War. In the 1860 census T. J. Palin was  a fellow boarder along with Levi J. Knight, Jr.  (nephew of Captain Levi J. Knight) in  the household of William Y. Hill.  In 1861, Hill was Ensign in Captain L. J. Knight’s company of Berrien Minute Men.

On October 17, 1863 Col. E. C. Anderson wrote to the Assistant Adjutant General, Captain William W. Gordon

Letter dated October 17, 1863 protesting reassignment of Private R. H. Ault to work at the Macon Arsenal.

Letter dated October 17, 1863 protesting reassignment of Private R. H. Ault to work at the Macon Arsenal.

Savannah River Batteries  Oct 17, 1863

Capt W W Gordon
A. A. G.

Captain
 The enclosed papers were handed me by Capt Carroll  having been received by him under cover direct from Charleston.

  I would respectfully represent that private R H Ault is the only Blacksmith left me in the Company, private T Palin having already been detailed to Lt Col Cuyler at Macon and more recently private Saml Palin transferred to the Engineer troops here.  Capt Carrolls Company is posted on Smith’s Island, Lawton Battery.  There is a constant use for a Blacksmith at this post & I respectfully ask that private Ault may not be taken from me.

Very Respectfully
Yours
Edward Anderson
Col. Cmdy

October 10, 1863 detailing Private Ault to work at the Macon Arsenal.

October 10, 1863 detailing Private Ault to work at the Macon Arsenal.

Head Quarters
Department of South Carolina, Ga. & Fla.
Charleston, S.C.   Oct. 10th  1863

Special Orders,
No. 206

I.  The following named men are detailed to report as follows:

Pvt A. H. Ault Co “G” 29th Ga. Vols until 31st Dec. prox. without pay or allowances to report to Lt. Col. R. M. Cuyler, Macon Arsenal.

By command of General Beauregard

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Mary Theresa Tyler and Charles Oscar Carter

Mary Theresa Tyler and Charles Oscar Carter were married in Ray City, GA on December 26, 1922.  The Bainbridge Post – Search Light ran the story:

1922 marriage of Mary Theresa Tyler and Charles Oscar Carter.

1922 marriage of Mary Theresa Tyler and Charles Oscar Carter.

The Bainbridge Post – Search Light
December 26, 1922

TYLER _ CARTER

    A quiet wedding of Tuesday afternoon at 4 o’clock was that of Miss Mary Theresa Tyler and Mr. Charles O. Carter, of Climax, in the home of the bride’s parents, Mr. and Mrs. J. M. Tyler of Ray City.     This marriage will be of very cordial interest to the many firends of both parties in and around Bainbridge. Mrs. Carter, as Miss Mary Tyler, was a lovely and popular girl here [Bainbridge], where she spent most of her time in the home of Mr. and Mrs. Tonge. Mrs. Carter was also a member of the faculty of the public schools.     The groom is a member of a mercantile firm in Climax, and belongs to one of the old prominent families of the county.

The wedding announcement made the Atlanta papers, too!

The Atlanta Constitution
January 2, 1923

Miss Tyler is Bride of Mr. Carter

Milltown, Ga. December 28 – Miss Mary Tressa Tyler, of Ray City, and Charles Oscar Carter, of Climax, were married by Rev J. Frank Snell, of Milltown, at the home of the bride in Ray City Tuesday afternoon at 4 o’clock in the presence of a few relatives and friends.

 Mrs. J.T. Phillips played the wedding march. Miss Pauline Dugger, of Hazelhurst, sang “I Love You.”

Immediately after the ceremony the young couple left for Valdosta. They will make their home in Climax.

Miss Tyler is the youngest daughter of Mr. and Mrs. J.M. Tyler of Ray City. She is a beautiful and popular young lady. She has been teaching school in Bainbridge for the past two years.  Mr. Carter is a popular young business man of Climax., being engaged in the mercantile business there with his brother.

The Bride

The bride, Mary Theresa Tyler, was born in Quitman, GA, a daughter of Mary L Knight and John M. Tyler.  She was a granddaughter of Levi J. Knight, Jr.,  and a great granddaughter of John Knight.  Mary Theresa Tyler came with her parents to Rays Mill (now Ray City), GA from Quitman, GA sometime before 1917.  The family home was on Jones Street, next door to the residence of business owner J. Fred Hinely.   Her father, John M. Tyler, was employed as a salesman in one of the general merchantile stores of Ray’s Mill.  He was a founding member of the Ray City Methodist Church, and helped to draw the plans and construct the original wooden church building, along with Lucious Clements, W.M. Creech, Will Terry, and Mr. Patterson.

Mary T. Tyler attended  high school, at least in part, in Bainbridge while living with her sister and brother-in-law  Mr. & Mrs. Tonge.

Mary Theresa Tyler, of Ray City, GA attended high school in Bainbridge, 1918.

Mary Theresa Tyler, of Ray City, GA attended high school in Bainbridge, 1918.

After graduating high school,  Mary  herself became a teacher at age 19 and taught in the Bainbridge, GA schools.

The Groom

The Groom, Charles Oscar Carter, was a son of Lucy Callie Carter and William Carter, a prominent merchant of Climax, GA.  Charles O. Carter was born July 27,1893 in Matthews, AL and had come to Climax with his parents as a young boy. As a young man, he was described as medium height, stout build, with blue eyes and light colored hair. He was employed with his father, as a clerk in the family mercantile business  in Climax, GA.

After marriage, the couple made their home in Climax, GA. By the time of the 1930 census, Charles and Mary had two children; Charles Oscar Carter, Jr., age 6, and Carolyn Carter, age 2. Their house was valued at $2500 dollars,  making it among the grander homes of Climax. The census noted that they owned a radio, one of only a dozen such sets in the entire town. Mary’s widowed mother Mary L. Tyler, was also living in the Carter household in Climax; her father had died of pneumonia and heart problems on February 26, 1930 and was buried at Beaver Dam Cemetery, Ray City, GA. Mary’s mother, Mary L. Tyler, died September 13, 1934 and was buried next to her husband in Ray City.

The 1940 census found the Carters, Charles, Mary and the children,  still residing in Climax, GA. They owned a home on Lee Street valued at $1800 dollars. Charles “Charlie” Carter was operating his grocery store, while Mary was a homemaker. Their son, Charles, Jr., was a freshman in high school, and daughter Carolyn was in 6th grade.

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Green Bullard

Green Bullard

William “Green” Bullard was born February 1, 1829 in Georgia,  son of Amos Bullard and Cynthia Lastinger.   He came with his parents from Waynesboro, Burke County, GA to Lowndes County, GA some time in the 1840s.

Enumeration of Green Bullard in the Census of 1850, Lowndes County, GA

Enumeration of Green Bullard in the Census of 1850, Lowndes County, GA

Green Bullard, age 21, was enumerated in 1850 in Lowndes County, GA in the household of his father, Amos Bullard, along with his minor siblings, Martha and Mary.  Also in the Bullard home was 14-year-old Candis Leaptrot.  Next door was John Knight, his wife Sarah, and children William J. Knight, Levi J. Knight (known as Jr. to avoid confusion with his uncle General Levi J. Knight), James A. Knight, Mary Ann Knight, Henry Harrison Knight, Sarah A. L. Knight, and Kiziah A. L. Knight.

According to Census agriculture schedules, Amos Bullard’s farm was valued in 1850 at $400, consisting of 490 acres of which 30 acres were improved. The Bullard farm inventory included $20 of farming implements and machinery, one horse, 15 hogs, 100 bushels of Indian corn, one 400 lb. bale of cotton, 60 bushels of peas and beans, 10 bushels of sweet potatoes, 200 pounds of butter, and $50 worth of butchered meat.

By 1860, Green Bullard had established a household of his own, a home that he shared with Milley Gardell and her daughter Elizabeth D. Gardell.  Milley, born Amelia Jones, was the widow of John Gardelle

1860 census record of Green Bullard in Berrien County, GA

1860 census record of Green Bullard in Berrien County, GA

http://archive.org/stream/populationschedu111unit#page/n401/mode/1up

Green’s dwelling was next door to the farm of his brother, James Bullard, who owned 490 acres with 32 under cultivation. Green had a personal estate of $500, but apparently no land as yet, for he does not appear in the  1850 Census non-population schedule for agriculture. It seems probable that he was helping his brother with farm labor.

After the Civil War commenced Green Bullard went to Nashville, GA  with his nephew Alfred Anderson and signed up on March 4, 1862 with the Berrien Light Infantry, which was being formed at that time.  Bullard  fought dysentery and Typhoid pneumonia while in the army (see Green Bullard Fought Sickness in the Civil War), but was also present with his unit for significant battles at The Wilderness (May 5–6, 1864), Spotsylvania Court House (May 8–21, 1864), North Anna (May 23–26, 1864), Cold Harbor (June 1–3, 1864, Petersburg Siege (June 1864-April 1865, and Cedar Creek (October 19, 1864.) By January, 1865 Bullard was too weak to continue fighting. He was sent to the hospital with dysentery and was furloughed. Less than a month later the War ended.

With the end of the Civil War, Green Bullard returned to home and farm. Within a year, he married Mary Ann Knight in Berrien County, Georgia.  Mary Ann Knight was “the girl next door” from Green Bullard’s younger days.  As mentioned above, Mary Ann Knight was the daughter of John Knight and Sarah Sally Moore,  who were the neighbors of Amos Bullard, Green’s father. She was born  July 1, 1838 in Rays Mill, Lowndes (nka Berrien) County, Georgia.  She was also the widow of William A. Jones. Her husband served in the Berrien Minute Men in the war, and was among those who succumbed to ravaging illnesses of camp life;  he died of measles in Berrien County on January 18, 1862.  Mary had two children by William A. Jones, the youngest, Adam, apparently born after his father’s death.  Adam Jones was deaf and dumb, birth defects with a high probability for a baby whose mother is infected with measles in the early weeks of pregnancy.

Green Bullard and Mary Ann Knight were joined on March 25, 1866 in Berrien County, GA.  The ceremony was performed by William Patten, Justice of the Peace.

Marriage certificate of Green Bullard and Mary A. E. Knight, March 25, 1866, Berrien County, GA.

Marriage certificate of Green Bullard and Mary A. E. Knight, March 25, 1866, Berrien County, GA.

In 1867 Green Bullard signed the standard loyalty oath required to restore voting rights of southerners during Reconstruction.

Loyalty Oath of Green Bullard,  signed July 23, 1867, Berrien County, GA

Loyalty Oath of Green Bullard, signed July 23, 1867, Berrien County, GA

The census of 1870 enumerated Green Bullard’s blended family in the 1144 Georgia Militia District of Berrien County, GA, the Rays Mill District.  The Bullard household included Green and Mary, their three year old daughter, Sarah Bullard, Mary’s sons William Malachi Jones and Adam Jones, and Green’s widowed sister, Celia Bullard.  Mary and Celia kept house while Green and William worked the farm.

1870-enumeration-of-green-bullard

1870 census enumeration of Green Bullard

http://archive.org/stream/populationschedu0135unit#page/n443/mode/1up

The records of appointments of U.S. Postmasters show that Green Bullard  was appointed postmaster of Knight’s Mill (later known as Rays Mill) on August 3, 1868. Bullard held the position until June 29, 1871 when the Knight’s Mill post office was discontinued.

Berrien County Property Tax records of 1872 show Green Bullard owned 980 acres including all of lots 420 and 469 in the 10th land district.   The land was valued at $1300 total. The records show he owned “other property” valued at $379, for an aggregate estate of $1679. Green Bullard employed one “hand” to help with the work.

By the following year, Green Bullard had expanded his operation to 10 hands. The tax records also noted a ten year old   male in his household was deaf and dumb. He had $270 cash or liquid assets, and his total property was valued at $2742. By 1878 his personal estate also included $742 worth of livestock.

1880 census enumeration of Green Bullard, Berrien County, GA

1880 census enumeration of Green Bullard, Berrien County, GA

http://archive.org/stream/10thcensusl0134unit#page/n381/mode/1up

The Census of 1880 found Green Bullard still employing his step-son Malachi Jones to work on the farm.  Step-son Adam Jones was not enumerated in the Bullard household at this time but would appear in later census records.   The Census enumeration noted that three daughters of Green Bullard and Mary Ann Knight,  Sally (13), Susan (9), and Fannie (5) were all at school.  They attended the King’s Chapel School, located just across the county line, in Lowndes County.  Among the other students at King’s Chapel was Jesse Shelby “Dock” Shaw, who would later marry Susie Bullard.

The 1880 Census – Agricultural Production Schedule shows the Green Bullard farm consisted of 125 acres of land tilled, fallow, or grass (pasture or meadow), and 850 acres of unimproved woodland and forest. In 1879 Bullard had planted 17 acres in Indian corn which produced 200 bushels, 28 acres of oats produced 330 bushels, and 22 acres of cotton which produced about 8 or 9 bales. He had another 2 or 3 acres planted in sugar cane. Bullard owned one horse, one mule, and one ox. He had 16 milk cows and 54 other cattle. His stock dropped 13 calves and he purchased another 29. He sold 7 calves and two died. He had 45 sheep on hand and had 11 lambs dropped. Ten sheep died of disease. He sheared 36 fleeces for 100 pounds of wool. His other livestock included swine and poultry. The farm, land, fences and buildings were valued at $1,400, farming equipment and machinery at $15, and live stock at $694. In the previous year, Bullard had purchased about $350 dollars worth of fertilizer. His total farm production value was estimated at $600.

By 1881, the property tax appraisal of Bullard’s livestock grew to $1008 , and he was holding $500 of crops, probably cotton, for sale. His total estate was valued at $4368. Green Bullard continued to prosper through the 1880s, farming his land on lots 420 and 469:

1895-feb-15 Tifton Gazette green bullard

1895-feb-15 Tifton Gazette green bullard

Tifton Gazette
February 15, 1895

Mr. Green Bullard, of Berrien county, has thirty odd bales of Sea Island cotton stored away and has not sold a bale in four years, despite the fact that he raises some every year.  Mr. Bullard raises his provisions at home and sells other product necessary for expenses.  He makes money by making cotton entirely a surplus crop. — Valdosta Times.

Enumeration of Green Bullard in the Census of 1900,  Rays Mill District, Berrien County, GA

Enumeration of Green Bullard in the Census of 1900, Rays Mill District, Berrien County, GA

http://archive.org/stream/12thcensusofpopu179unit#page/n776/mode/1up

According to Bryan Shaw,  in December of 1901 Green Bullard deeded 132 acres of his property in Lots 500 and 501 of the 10th Land district near Cat Creek to his daughter [Susie] and son-in-law [Dock Shaw].  The farm home of Dock and Susie Shaw was located about 2 1/2 miles south west of Ray City, Georgia on the east side of Possum Branch Road, just south of the crossing over Possum Branch (See JESSE SHELBY “DOCK”
SHAW FARM HOME NEAR RAY CITY, GEORGIA)

By the fall of 1907, Green Bullard was in his 78th year and the health of the old veteran was failing.

November 2, 1907 Valdosta Times reports Green Bullard is very ill.

November 2, 1907 Valdosta Times reports Green Bullard is very ill.

Valdosta Times
November 2, 1907

Mr. Green Bullard of this section [Cat Creek] is very ill.  He has many friends who wish him an early recovery.

Green Bullard died on Friday, November 15, 1907.  He was buried at Beaver Dam Cemetery, Ray City, Berrien County, GA.

Grave of Green Bullard, Beaver Dam Cemetery, Ray City, GA.

Grave of Green Bullard, Beaver Dam Cemetery, Ray City, GA.

Children of Mary A. Knight and William A. Jones (1835-1866)

  1. William Malachi Jones (1861-1925)
  2. Adam Allen Jones (1863-1922)

Children of Green Bullard and Mary A. Knight

  1. Sally Louise Bullard  1866 – 1919
  2. Susan Bullard 1871 – 1950
  3. Fannie Bullard 1874 – 1941
  4. Henry Needham Bullard 1878 – 1938  (married Mary Johnson, 26 May 1901 – Berrien Co., GA,  a daughter of Richard Seward Johnson and Ida Isabelle Shaw)
  5. Louis Malone Bullard 1881 – 1945

Related Posts:

Levi J. Knight ~ Wayne County Beginnings

  1. Wayne County Beginnings 1803-1827
  2. Settling Lowndes County 1827-1836
  3. Seminole Wars 1836 – 1842
  4. Antebellum Wiregrass 1843 -1860
  5. Civil War 1861-1865
  6. Wiregrass Reconstruction 1866-1870

In November of 1827 Levi J. Knight  became the original settler at Beaverdam Creek, Lowndes County, GA (now Berrien county). At the age of 24, he was already a leader,  experienced in military matters and in civil service. He was a man of action, an Indian fighter, and he was among the earliest pioneers to settle in the Wiregrass area of southern Georgia.    To this newly opened land he brought his new bride, Ann D. Herrin Knight. The couple had married just a few days earlier, on Nov 14, 1827 in an area of Wayne County that is now Brantley County, Georgia.

Levi’s parents, Sarah and William Anderson Knight, brothers Aaron Knight, William C. Knight, Jonathan Knight and others of the family connection had preceded them, having settled in Lowndes County two years earlier.  Levi J. Knight’s homestead became the nucleus of a community first known simply as Knight,  that later grew into present day Ray City, GA.

Wayne County Beginnings

Levi was born on the first of September, 1803 in Wayne County, Georgia.  His mother was Sarah Cone Knight; his father, Elder William Anderson Knight.  Levi grew up in Wayne County at the southern frontier of the young American nation. Wayne county had only been officially created by the Georgia General Assembly just three months before he was born. This land had been the ancestral home of the Creek Indians, and there was continuing conflict between the Native Americans and encroaching settlers. Despite efforts of the state of Georgia to take the Creek land by treaty,  conflicts continued as the Georgia Land Lotteries brought more settlers to the area.

Levi J. Knight’s family had been among the first to settle in Wayne county, his parents having arrived there in 1803 prior to his birth.  The Knights were well positioned in the community, and already had a long tradition of military service.  Both of Levi’s grandfathers were veterans of the Revolutionary War. His paternal grandfather, John Knight, had been a  sergeant in the 1st Georgia Battalion of Continental Troops in the American Revolution and had received several land grants in South Carolina, Georgia, and in Spanish Florida.  On his mother’s side, his grandfather was William Cone,  a Baptist pastor and Revolutionary soldier who served as a captain  in McLean’s Regiment of Georgia Troops, under General Francis Marion.  William Cone served as a major in the 1st Battalion of the Richmond County Militia  (see Levi J. Knight’s Military Heritage).

While Levi J. Knight was a young boy, his uncle Jonathan Knight was sheriff of Wayne County from 1810-1812 and became Captain of the Wayne County militia in 1813.  No doubt Captain Knight regaled his young nephew with pioneer tales- true stories all – of cattle ranching, tracking run-away slaves, and fighting privateers in Spanish Florida. At just 15 years old,  Levi J. Knight served as a private in the Wayne County militia. The militia was engaged in defending the frontier settlers from Indian attacks that continued even after the Creek War of 1814.

On May 3rd, 1824 extant legal records note that Levi J. Knight, along with Robert Stafford posted sureties in the amount of $500 for Sibbiah O’Neil [or O’Neal] for the guardianship of Martha and Mary T. O’Neil. The O’Neals were friends of the Knights.  Later, Sarah Amanda “Sallie” O’Neal,  daughter of Henry O’Neal and Jane Dowden, would marry Levi J. Knight’s nephew, Levi J. Knight, Jr. (son of John and Sarah Knight).

Before he was 21, on June 16, 1824 Levi was appointed as Sheriff of Wayne County to serve out an unexpired term. Shortly after that, his parents relocated to the soon-to-be-created Lowndes County area.  His father, William A. Knight, was elected as the first state senator from the new county, and his brother Jonathan was elected as the first representative.  Levi J. Knight served on the jury in the first Superior Court of the new county.

According to state records, in 1826 Levi J. Knight was working  as a state surveyor mapping land in north Georgia newly ceded by the Creek natives.  The Official Register of Land Lottery of Georgia, 1827 shows he was a “fortunate drawer” in the land lottery of 1827, having received Lot 223, District 23, Section 1 (Lee County, GA),  in the drawing of April 24,  1827.

It was in this situation that Levi courted and smartly married the former Mrs. Ann Donald Herrin. She was the 25 year-old daughter of  William and Elizabeth Clements, a well-to-do family of Wayne County. Levi J. Knight and Ann Herrin were wed on November 14, 1827 in Wayne County, Georgia.  Jonathan Knight, Justice of the Peace completed the marriage license.   Just days later, the newlywed pioneers headed south to settle on Beaverdam Creek in Lowndes County (now Berrien), Georgia.

From 1832 to 1840 Levi J. Knight was elected six times to the Georgia Assembly as the Senator from Lowndes County. His father had served in the same office before him.  L. J. Knight was a contemporary of John M. Berrien, for whom Berrien county was named.

Children of Levi J. Knight and Ann D. Clements Herrin:

  1. William Washington Knight – born about 1829 Lowndes (now Berrien) County, GA; married Mary Elizabeth Carroll; died December 27 , 1863 Berrien County, Georgia
  2. Elizabeth Knight – born  April 14, 1830, Lowndes County, Georgia; married Hardeman Sirmans; died September 6, 1912, Berrien County, GA
  3. John Graham Knight – born June 23, 1832 Lowndes (now Berrien) County, GA; married 1) Eliza B. Carter, 2) Mary Ann Davis; died May 8, 1908 Ray’s Mill, Berrien County, Georgia
  4. Sarah “Sally” Knight – born April 6, 1831 Lowndes (now Berrien) County, GA; married Gideon Gaskins; died April 13, 1903
  5.  Mary Adelaide Knight – born about 1836 Lowndes (now Berrien) County, GA; married Thomas M. Ray; died November 11, 1923
  6. Levi A. Knight – born about 1838 Lowndes County, GA; died about 1856
  7. Jonathan David Knight – born April 2, 1840 Lowndes (now Berrien) County, GA; married Emily E. Brandon; died March 9, 1884
  8. Keziah A. Knight –  born about 1843 Lowndes (now Berrien) County, GA; married James Aaron Knight

Sources:

  1. Huxford, F. (1922). Marriage Licenses Wayne County, Ga. in The South Georgia historical and genealogical quarterly A quarterly magazine devoted to the history and genealogy of southern Georgia and its settlers. Homerville, Ga: [s.n.]. Copied from Book “C” of transcribed records, pages 176 to 204, Covering Years 1809 to 1850. Available online at http://www.archive.org/details/southgeorgiahist00huxf
  2. Huxford, F. 1951. Pioneers of Wiregrass Georgia, Vol 1. pg 159
  3. Hill, L. 2005. The CONE FAMILY HISTORY and its Variants such as MacCone, Kohn, Coan: Scotland/Ireland immigrants to USA. pgs 1822-1823
  4. http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~soup/Campbell/ps36/ps36_337.htm
  5. Huxford, F. (1916). History of Clinch County, Georgia, , comp. and ed. by Folks Huxford. Macon, Ga: J.W. Burke. pg. 265
  6. OLD RECORDS BOOK “H” OF BONDS, WAYNE COUNTY, GEORGIA, COURT OF ORDINARY, FIRST 77 PAGES in THE SOUTH GEORGIA HISTORICAL AND GENEALOGICAL QUARTERLY. , VOL. 1, JULY 1922, NO. 3, pp. 03-05.
  7. Houston, M. L. (1929). Reprint of Official register of land lottery of Georgia, 1827. Columbus, Ga: Printed by the Walton-Forbes.
  8. Huxford, F. (1922). Marriage Licenses Wayne County, Ga. in The South Georgia historical and genealogical quarterly A quarterly magazine devoted to the history and genealogy of southern Georgia and its settlers. Homerville, Ga: [s.n.]. Copied from Book “C” of transcribed records, pages 176 to 204, Covering Years 1809 to 1850. Available online at http://www.archive.org/details/southgeorgiahist00huxf
  9. Georgia. (1927). Georgia’s official register. Atlanta: The Dept.
  10. New Georgia Encyclopedia. John Macpherson Berrien (1781-1856). http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-3239

Levi J. Knight and the Confederate Payroll Fraud

As previous posts have noted, family historians of Berrien County, GA have struggled with the confusion of the two Confederate officers named Levi J. Knight. Apparently, even during the war, the Confederate States Army suffered the same confusion.

In July 1861, Captain Levi J. Knight, early pioneer of Ray City and Berrien County, called for 100 volunteers to go with him to the fight for the Confederacy. These men were mustered into Confederate service during the summer of 1861 at Big Shanty, Georgia and joined the 29th Georgia Volunteer Infantry as the Berrien Minute Men.  This company traveled to Savannah where they trained and served near the Georgia coast. Levi J. Knight became Captain. Later,  while stationed with “companies at Advanced Batteries, Savannah River, GA, commanded by Lieut. Col. Edward C. Anderson, C. S. Artillery,” he was promoted to Major of the 29th Regiment.

Knight, at 58 years of age and suffering from asthma, did not serve through the war. On May 14th, 1862 he retired from service and returned to his home.

Three months after L. J. Knight’s separation from the Confederate States Army, questions arose about pay he had received while serving as Captain of  Company A, 29th Georgia Regiment.    The  Quartermaster General, A.C. Myers, reported the matter on August 12, 1862.

               Quarterms Genl’s Office
                               August 12th 1862

Gen’l
As required by pas.
1086 Army Regulations I have
to report to you that Capt.
Levi J. Knight, Co. “A”, 29th
Reg. Geo. Vols., has twice drawn
pay from Maj. L. J. Smith,
Qtr Msr., for the month of
October 1861. He was first
paid Oct. 31. & again Nov.
25th 1861

                 Very Respectfully
                          Yr Obd Servt
                            A. C. Myers
                           Qr Msr Genl

Gen’l L. Cooper
       Adj’s & Inspt Genl
               C. S. Army

1862 letter from the Adjutant General's Office alledging that Levi J. Knight defrauded the government of the Confederate States of America by drawing pay twice for the same month.

1862 letter from the Adjutant General’s Office alleging that Levi J. Knight defrauded the government of the Confederate States of America by drawing pay twice for the same month.

On August 14, 1862, Jasper S. Whiting, Major & assistant Adjutant General,  ” Respectfully referred [the matter] to Maj Genl E.K.Smith Mercer,  Savannah Geo., Commanding , who will call the attention of Capt Knight, Co “A” 29th Regt Geo Vols & ask for explanation. By command of the Secy of War.”

At the Savannah Headquarters of  Brigadier General Mercer, responsibility for the investigation was overseen by Captain George A. Mercer, Assistant Adjutant General.  Captain Mercer  further delegated responsibility for the investigation to Colonel Edward C. Anderson, 29th Georgia Regiment.

Hd Qrs Dist. Geo
Savannah, Aug 27th, 1862

Respectfully referred to Col Anderson
who will investigate and report upon the
charge against Capt Knight
       By order Brig. Genl Mercer
          Geo. A. Mercer
                         AAG

Apparently, Colonel Anderson was familiar with the case and was able to make a quick response to Captain Mercer.

Savannah 27th Augst 1862

Captain Geo A Mercer
Adj Genls Office

Captain I have made
inquiry concerning the matter referred to me in
the communication of Augst 12th from Quarter Master
Genls Office. Captain Levi J. Knight Commandg
Company G. 29th Regt Ga Vols at present serving
with me, was elected to his present position
on the reorganization  in May & at the time
specified viz October 1861,  was not a Captain. 
Company C 29th Regt was first commanded by an 
officer of the same name – Capt Levi J Knight
(afterwards Major) then by Capt Wylly & now
L.J. Knight Jr – the nephew of the former Capt
Knight.
    I learn that Majr L. J. Knight made
two companies, called the Berrien Minute Men,
lettered respectively A & B. These companies
were commanded by Capt Knight Senr.  Last fall,
on the reorganization of the Regt in May, Majr
Knight retired from the service & is now
in Civil Life.  I have no doubt the error
must have occurred unwittingly as he
bears the character of an honest old man.
Connetion with him was brief & entirely official
in its character.  He commanded the outpost
companies at MacKays Point.

                                     Very Respectfully
                                               Yoobst
                                    Edwd C. Anderson
                                          Col Comdg

Colonel Edward C. Anderson letter of August 27, 1862 explaining confusion over the two officers of the Berrien Minute Men named Levi J. Knight.

Colonel Edward C. Anderson letter of August 27, 1862 explaining confusion over the two officers of the Berrien Minute Men named Levi J. Knight.

Colonel Edward C. Anderson letter of August 27, 1862 concerning Levi J. Knight and the Berrien Minute Men, Page 2

Colonel Edward C. Anderson letter of August 27, 1862 concerning Levi J. Knight and the Berrien Minute Men, Page 2

 Subsequently, Capt George A. Mercer wrote a letter “informing Levi J. Knight  that he will forward any papers to Richmond in reference to his case.”

Confederate States of America
Head Quarters Military District of Georgia
Savannah, Aug 28th, 1862

L.J. Knight Esq
      Dear Sir
             I am directed by Genl. Mercer
to call your attention to the enclosed papers and
to request that you will return them to this office.
Genl. Mercer will of course report to the War
Department that you are no longer in the service
and therefore not subject to his control : he will
however gladly forward any explanation you may de-
sire to make to the Authorities at Richmond.

I am Sir Very Respy
Your Obdt Servt
Geo. A. Mercer
AAG

Captain George A. Mercer letter of August 28, 1862 to Levi J. Knight offering him the opportunity to respond to allegations that he drew double pay while serving as Captain of the Berrien Minute Men.

Captain George A. Mercer letter of August 28, 1862 to Levi J. Knight offering him the opportunity to respond to allegations that he drew double pay while serving as Captain of the Berrien Minute Men.

    On September 6, 1862 Levi J. Knight wrote a response to Captain Mercer indicating that he never drew double pay and that the error must be in the bookkeeping of the Quartermaster Generals Office.

                          Lowndes County Sept 6th 1862

Capt Geo A Mercer
Agt Genl Officer

                                                    Captain yours dated 27th
concerning charges from Richmond that I had drawn
pay twice as captain for the month of October 1861
has been read and is now before me.  I cannot see how
any error can have taken place except it should be in
the dates.  I was mustered in as Captain the 1st of August
1861 and drew my pay as such from Maj Smith for
the months of August September and October 1861 at
three different times. I afterward drew as captain for
six days for the month of November  – and for the ballance
of that month as Major and drew my pay as Major
up to the 30th of April at the reorganization.  I retired the
14th of May last and am now at my residence in Lowndes
county.  I know I drew only for three months and six
days.  Two of the requisitions may have been dated October
and none for September. This I know that I drew only
what was due me as Captain for the time I served as
such.

                                                        Very Respectfully Yours
                                                         Levi J. Knight

Levi J. Knight letter of September 9, 1862 to Captain George A. Mercer.

Levi J. Knight letter of September 9, 1862 to Captain George A. Mercer.

Organization and Command of the Berrien Minute Men

The following passages from L.E. Lastinger give his brief accounting of the roles of two Captains named Knight in the organization and leadership of the Berrien County Minute Men. L. E. Lastinger was the last surviving member of Company K,  Berrien Minute Men, 29th Georgia Regiment.

Levi J. Knight who was one of our leading citizens prominent in politics and a leader of the old Whig party, called for one hundred Volunteers to go with him to the front. Politics were adjourned and Mr. Knight was placed as Captain of one hundred of the best citizens of the County without a dissenting voice.

These men were lined up on the public square in Nashville, Georgia and the Captain made a statement, that if there was any member there who had changed his mind, or did not care to go with him, to step out. One member stepped out , but John Isom stepped into his place. These men were camped at different parts of the county, bought their uniforms or had them made and made every preparation necessary to go to the war.

“Captain Knight became very impatient that he could get no orders to go with his command to the front. However, in the latter part of July, 1861, he carried his Company to Savannah…”  “…under the name of the ‘Berrien County Minute Men.'”

“They were there mustered into the service and went from Savannah to Brunswick, from Brunswick to Blackbeard Island, from Blackbeard Island to Sapelo Island.”

“During this time recruiting officers had been sent back home from Captain Knight’s Company, and they gathered about eighty additional recurits who left for the front in the latter part of September and arrived at Savannah and went from there to Sapelo Island where the met the first Company above mentioned.  These eighty recruits proceeded to organize another company …”

“The first company was Company ‘G’ and the second company was company ‘K’, the first company being commanded by Captain Levi J. Knight, Sr. and the second company by John C. Lamb.” 

“Of course, it is known that this company [Captain Levi J. Knight’s Company] was not known as Company ‘G’ when it first went off, but got this letter when the Company was placed in the 29th Regiment.”

In his description of Company “G” of the 29th Georgia Regiment, L.E. Lastinger wrote, “The following will show the muster roll as it was when it first left the County, Aug 1 1861 – Both officers and privates,” including the two men he referred to as “Levi J. Knight, Sr.” and “Levi J. Knight, Jr.”

Levi J. Knight, Capt. — “He  was promoted to Maj. in the organization of the 29th G. Regt.  He resigned soon thereafter on account of his age and died about the close of the war.”

Levi J. Knight, Jr.,  4th Sergt. –Was made Capt. of Co. “G” and served through the war, was badly wounded but recovered and returned to his post of duty and was a prisoner of war at the surrender on Johnson’s Island. Captured at Nashville Tenn., 16th of Dec. 1864.

While clearly familiar with with both of these men,  no where does Lastinger refer to the two as father and son. It seems incredible that he would have failed to mention this family relationship, if it were true.

Instead, the relationship between the two men was that of uncle and nephew.  Levi J. Knight, the nephew, born 1833 in Lowndes County, GA was a son of Sarah and John Knight, who was a brother of Captain L. J. Knight.

But how to tell the tale of two men with the same name?  Could one be “Big Knight” and the other “Little Knight”?  Elder and Younger?  Or would Jr. and Sr. suffice?

On August 1, 1861 Levi J. Knight (b. 1833) joined the Berrien Minutemen, the company of men being raised by his uncle Levi J. Knight (b. 180?).  At first he served as 4th Sergeant of Company C, 29th Regiment. He was elected 1st Lieutenant October 22, 1861, and Captain on May 7, 1862 when the unit was reorganized as Co. G.  He was shot through the right lung at Atlanta, Ga. July 22, 1864.  He survived the injury and was captured with his unit near Nashville, Tenn.  on December 16, 1864.  He was released at Johnson’s Island, Ohio on June 16, 1865.

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