Causton’s Bluff Part 2:  Challenge from Tybee

Causton’s Bluff Part 2:  Challenge from Tybee

In the spring and summer of 1862, the Berrien Minute Men, Company D (Company K after reorganization), 29th Georgia Infantry were garrisoned at stations defending Savannah, GA.  Since mustering into service a year earlier, the Campfires of the Berrien Minute Men  had been made along the Georgia coast, with the 13th Regiment at Brunswick,  then at Sapelo Island, and Darien, GA.  By early 1862 The Berrien Minute Men,  having gotten “regulated” into the 29th Georgia Infantry Regiment  were sent to the Savannah, GA area to garrison Camp Wilson and Camp Tattnall.

On February 21, 1862 Berrien Minute Men, Company C, were detached to serve on the Savannah River Batteries. In early April 1862 Federal incursions on Whitemarsh Island below Causton’s Bluff would precipitate the transfer of Berrien Minute Men, Company D and other companies of the  29th Georgia Regiment from Camp Tattnall to the bluff to reinforce the Confederate position there.  (Company A, Captain Billopp’s Georgia Foresters, were sent to Hutchinson’s Island. The Alapaha Guards (Company E) and 17th Patriots (Company K) were on picket duty at Screven’s Ferry, SC on the Savannah River just opposite Fort Jackson. On May 14th they captured seven federal soldiers who were released to federal authorities a few days later according to communications in the Savannah Daily Morning News, May 19, 1862.)

  1. Causton’s Bluff Part 1: The Key to Savannah
  2. Causton’s Bluff Part 2: Challenge from Tybee
  3. Causton’s Bluff Part 3: War on Whitemarsh Island
  4. Causton’s Bluff Part 4: Arrival of the 29th Georgia Regiment

Prior to the arrival of the Berrien Minute Men at Causton’s Bluff, the position was garrisoned by the 13th Georgia Regiment which experienced frequent night-time alerts.  Some of these were false alarms, but many were in response to Federal incursions on the creeks and islands below the bluff.

Commanding officers of the 46th NY Regiment garrisoned on Tybee Island east of Savannah were well aware that Confederate gun batteries were being placed around the city.

Officers of the 46th New York Infantry Regiment

Officers of the 46th New York Infantry Regiment.  The 46th NY garrisoned Tybee Island, GA in 1862. Image Source: New York State Military Museum

The 46th New York volunteers made the Tybee Light Station their Headquarters and it was “the base of operations for the seige of Fort Pulaski… Temporary barracks were built on the lighthouse grounds and defensive positions were taken up around the Martello Tower, which was refortified with earthwork batteries.” – Tybee Island: The Long Branch of the South.

The Federals on Tybee Island also welcomed escaped enslaved people who managed to find their way to the Island.

Following the capture of Port Royal, SC [and Tybee Island, GA] by Union Naval forces in November of 1861… escaping enslaved people began seeking asylum from naval vessels that were conducting reconnaissance along the coastal islands in March and April of 1862. Not having quarters for those who flocked to the boats, the US Navy established “contraband” camps at Otter Island, South Carolina and at the Naval post for Tybee Island in Georgia. – International African American Museum

1862 enumeration of escaped enslaved peoples living in "contraband" camp on Tybee Island, GA

1862 enumeration of escaped enslaved peoples living in “contraband” camp on Tybee Island, GA

The inventory records of the Union Provost Marshal give the names, age, height, former “occupation,” names, residence and “character” of former masters, date of arrival and present employment of those settled at the contraband camp.  The former slaves were employed as “officers servant,” laborers, boatmen, and oarsmen. These records have been transcribed at the International African American Museum

Tybee Island Light Station circa 1862

Tybee Island Light Station circa 1862

By February, 1862 the 46th NY Regiment was joined on Tybee by seven companies of the 7th Connecticut Regiment, a detachment of New York engineers and two companies of Rhode Island artillery.

Soldiers of the 1st New York Engineers

Soldiers of the 1st New York Engineers

Company F, 1st New York Engineers participated in the bombardment of Fort Pulaski

Company F, 1st New York Engineers participated in the bombardment of Fort Pulaski

Federal soldiers at the Martello Tower, Tybee Island, GA

Federal soldiers at the Martello Tower, Tybee Island, GA. Image source: Boston Athenaeum

The landing of [Federal] troops on Tybee Island greatly excited the Georgians. In a printed address sent out to the people of the State, signed by Howell Cobb, Robert Toombs, Thomass R. R. Cobb and M. J. Crawford, we find the following language:

“The foot of the oppressor is on the soil of Georgia. He comes with lust in his eye, poverty in his purse, and hell in his heart. He comes a robber and a murderer. How shall you meet him? With the sword at the threshold! With death for him and yourself! But more than this – let every woman have a torch, every child a fire-brand – let the loved homes of youth be made ashes, and the fields of our heritage be made desolate. Let blackness and ruin mark your departing steps if depart you must, and let a desert more terrible the Sahara welcome the vandals. Let every city be leveled by the flames and every village be lost in ashes. Let your faithful slaves share your fortune and your crust. Trust wife and children to the sure refuge and protection of God – preferring even for these loved ones the charrnel-house as a home that loathsome vassalage to a nation already sunk below the contempt of the civilized world. This may be your terrible choice, and determine at once and without dissent, as honor and patriotism and duty to God require.

For the Berrien Minute Men, the strengthening Federal positions on Tybee Island would mean re-deployment from their present positions. Captain Thomas S. Wylly’s company of Berrien Minute Men (Company C) on the night of February 21, 1862  were ordered from Camp Wilson to Fort Jackson to relieve the Savannah Republican Blues, and were soon ordered to Lawton Battery on Smith’s Island in the Savannah River.  Berrien Minute Men Company D, under command of Captain Lamb, remained at Camp Tattnall with Major Levi J. Knight, Sr. and the rest of the 29th Georgia Regiment until April of 1862.

On Tybee Island, the Federals prepared gun emplacements to bombard Fort Pulaski on Cockspur Island, and simultaneously they worked to cut off all supplies to the fort. The last remaining supply route to the fort was by way of Lazaretto Creek, which the Federals blockaded with the USS Montezuma.   The US Navy purchased Montezuma, a former whaling ship, at New London, CT on  November 29, 1861 originally intending to sink her as part of the second “stone fleet” of harbor obstructions on the Confederate coast.  Instead the Navy placed her in Lazaretto Creek, Georgia, in February 1862.

The fleet anchored the old wreck, Montezuma, at a point of three miles south of the fort [Pulaski] in the Lazaretto Creek. The Montezuma had been intended as a barrier to keep out steam ships. But when the traffic continued with small boats, Captain Anton Hinckel received orders to occupy the wreck with three guns and two companies of the 46th New York Infantry. The Montezuma was loaded with stones and had originally been intended to be sunk in the river along with 25 other worn-out ships to block the way to Savannah. Captain Hinckel and his troops spent the next eight weeks on the Montezuma. Regular patrols with row boats guarded the entrances and many of the nightly smugglers were caught. One of them was a slave who showed the Federal soldiers many secret connections to the fort, and thus it was possible to catch three more Rebels on the island of Wilmington. Ernst Mettendorf,  Zwischen Triumph und Desaster : Ein deutshes Regiment im amerikanischen Burgerkrieg.

A Federal map created December 31, 1861 showing the relative positions of the USS Montezuma (labeled "Hulk Scow" on Lazaretto Creek, Wilmington Island, Federal batteries on Tybee Island, and Fort Pulaski. To the west of Wilmington Islands are Whitemarsh Island, Oatland Island and Causton's Bluff [not shown].

An 1862 Federal map showing the relative positions of the USS Montezuma (labeled “Hulk Scow” on Lazaretto Creek, Wilmington Island, Federal batteries on Tybee Island, and Fort Pulaski. To the west of Wilmington Islands are Whitemarsh Island, Oatland Island and Causton’s Bluff [not shown].

The obstruction of Lazaretto Creek by the hulk USS Montezuma on February 22, 1862 cut off the last possible resupply route to the Confederate garrison at  Fort Pulaski.  Perhaps as a signal, the Federals also demonstrated against the fort. At Fort Pulaski, Lt. Theodorick W. Montfort, Oglethorpe Light Infantry, wrote the following day,

“On yesterday Morning, [February 22, 1862] the Yankees opened fire on our Garrison & fired several shots, none of which done any harm. On yesterday evening on Dress Parade while our men were formed in the yard they fired a rifle shell, which passed near us. There was considerable merriment at the expense of those who ran or dodged. I did not do either, yet I assure you to hear a large shell or ball whistling through the air which you can hear for three miles is not a very pleasant sound. Yet I find that men will soon become accustomed to danger as they will to any & evry thing else. Yet to us it is all excitement & amusement. It is good we have something to excite & amuse us.”

Coincidentally,  February 22, 1862 was the date that the Constitution of the Confederate States of America went into effect, assuring to white southern citizens the “right of property in negro slaves.”

For a while, couriers on foot were still able to sneak mail in and out of Fort Pulaski, although many were captured by Federal patrols.  “Several of our men & mails have been captured either in getting to or returning from Savannah. They have to select some dark night & walk some five miles through a marsh from one to three feet deep in mud before they pass the Yankees that are spread over the Marsh day & night to watch & capture our men.” On the night of February 25, Federal boats patrolled around Cockspur Island and fired on Confederate pickets causing a general alarm. The garrison was again aroused and under arms on the night of the 26th, when anxious Pulaski pickets mistakenly shot a horse.

Fort Pulaski was expected to hold out for quite some time against a Federal siege, but the Confederates were immediately prompted  to further strengthen the remaining Savannah defenses. The battery at Causton’s Bluff was manned as critical link in the inner chain of Savannah defensive works immediately around the city.

Supervision of the construction of Confederate batteries at Causton’s Bluff and placement of obstructions on St. Augustine Creek  was assigned by General Robert E. Lee to Captain Josiah Tattnall, senior flag officer of the Navy of Georgia.  At the bluff, the gun battery was in a position to protect the back of Fort Lee which was across the marsh on the south bank of the Savannah River. Captain Miller Bond Grant, of the Engineer Corps, had immediate charge of the construction at Causton’s Bluff and also of a considerable portion of the defensive works around Savannah.

Work on construction of fortifications at Causton’s Bluff Battery began in earnest that same month, along with construction of breastworks and batteries near Fort Jackson. At the behest of General Robert E. Lee, the Savannah City Council furnished “from two to three hundred negro laborers ‘for the purpose of throwing up breastworks.'”  The Confederates were already using slave labor to construct and support defenses. At Fort Pulaski, slaves were used to clear out the moat and put the fort in fighting order. There, wrote Charles Olmstead, “[In the summer of 1861] our cooks were all Negroes and it goes without saying that strong measures had to be used to keep them up to the mark. If a kitchen did not meet the requirements of Authority of the Cook was promptly laid over a brass drum and a good paddling administered with a shingle while his associates stood grinning around. The efficaciousness of this plan is shown by the fact that it had to be resorted to only twice that I can remember; it broke no bones but ensured clean kitchens. I recommend the method to housekeepers with inefficient or careless servants.” On December 2, 1861, Edward Clifford Anderson, supervisor of armaments for the river batteries, wrote in his diary, “Four of my negroes from the plantation were drafted by the Engineering Dept and sent to work on Skidaway Island” and on January 3, 1862 Confederate engineer Dr. Cheves was on a small mud island in the Savannah River above Fort Jackson, “with a gang of negroes was at work establishing a foundation, preliminary to throwing up breastworks – This point was known as the “Naval Battery.

Captain Miller Bond Grant received a letter from his cousin Hugh Fraser Grant, rice planter of Elizafield Plantation on the Altamaha River, that Elizafield could provide slaves to work on the Savannah fortifications (Elizafield Plantation Record).

Dear Miller,
Fraser [Grant, Jr] informs me the Govmt is desirous of twenty hands to work on the fortifications about Savh &ct. That they offer $45 per month for each man & to furnish them with food tools & medical attend to & the only expense I am to bear is the clothing. That you are to have them especially under your superintendence & for your care and attention you are to receive $5 per month for each man. All of which I am satisfied with & can furnish 15 or 16 men upon their terms – At present 2 or 3 of the men are hired out by the month & soon as the time is out can be sent on to you.
When Dr. [Daniel H. B.] Troup & my hands were then some time since under the charge of Mr [Landsell?], they were very badly fed . This Mr. [Landsell?] assured me was the case. If my Negroes go on now I wish them to be fed agreeable to the contract. Do you wish a driver for the gang and do you they allow extra for him. Hope I may hear from you this evening whether they require women as I can send a few of them & what price for the women. I should suppose they will require one woman to at least to cook & wash your mess. Does the Govmt furnish transportation both ways?

Carpenter

Grant enslaved some 124 African American people on his Elizafield Plantation. His son-in-law, Daniel H. B. Troup, was a signer of the Georgia Ordinance of Secession, along with John Carroll Lamb, Captain of the Berrien Minute Men.

Over the summer of 1862, military leaders would call for thousands more slaves to build defensive works around Savannah.

The Confederate States Army ran want ads for slaves to build defensive works around Savannah. Slave owners were assured they would be compensated for the work of their slaves and that the slaves would be well cared for.

The Confederate States Army ran want ads for slaves to build defensive works around Savannah. Slave owners were assured they would be compensated for the work of their slaves and that the slaves would be well cared for.

Savannah Republican
July 3, 1862

Negroes Wanted

C. S. Engineer’s Office
Savannah, June 24, 1862

      One Thousand Negroes are wanted for the completion of important works in the neighborhood of Savannah.
      By order of Brigadier General Mercer, commanding, the undersigned appeals to the Planters of Georgia to furnish this force without delay.
      The value of each negro entrusted to this Department will be appraised immediately and recorded. A receipt will be given for the negro, containing his value, certified by the appraisers. Should he in any way fall into the hands of the enemy, his value so appraised will be refunded to the owner or owners.
      The following terms are offered:
      Field Hand – $11.00 per month, with food, quarters, and medical attendance.
      Carpenters – $17.00 per month, with food, quarters, and medical attendance.
      Plantation Drivers – $20.00 per month, with food, quarters and medical attendance.
      Transportation, by railroad, also furnished.
      N. B – Dr. Thomas A. Parsons, of Burke county, Ga., is appointed Agent of this office, to procure laborers, according to the above advertisement.
By order Brig, Gen. Mercer.
                                      JNO. McCRADY
                                     Capt. C.S.P. Engineers, in charge.
***Macon, Augusta, Milledgeville, Thomasville, and Sandersville papers will publish weekly for one month and send bills to this office.

By order of Brigadier General Hugh Weedon Mercer each county was to contribute 20 percent of its slave labor force to build the defenses of Savannah. Only 10 percent of the slaves could be women. For every lot of 100 slaves, the counties could provide their own overseer, to be paid by the Army. The Army would resort to forcible seizure in any county where planters failed to contribute their quota of slaves.

The War in America: Negroes at Work on the Fortifications at Savannah.--From a Sketch by Our Special Artist.; Illustrated London News. vol.42, no.1199, p. 433. April 18, 1863

The War in America: Negroes at Work on the Fortifications at Savannah.–From a Sketch by Our Special Artist.; Illustrated London News. vol.42, no.1199, p. 433. April 18, 1863

“But some close, narrow-minded planters,” wrote Captain Mercer,  “evinced great opposition to this necessary order, denouncing it as tyrannical &c, they would rather subject our white Georgians to hard work in this terrible weather than spare a few of their slaves.”  Mercer, a native of Savannah, was a son of General Hugh Weedon Mercer and great grandson of Cyrus Griffin, who in 1788 was President of the Continental Congress.  Lt. Mercer was educated at Russell Military Academy, New Haven, CT;  took preparatory study under Dr. William T. Feay, a professor of Chemistry and Pharmacy at Oglethorpe Medical College; received a Master of Arts from Princeton College; and studied law at the University of Virginia.  Mercer’s  diary of Civil War experiences also relates his  disgust with profiteering by Confederate civilians: “A greedy desire to get rich seems to pervade all. One of the most agravated cases I have heard of consist in the charge of $3.50 per day for the use of an old Flat not worth $300; this Flat is used by the picket at Causton’s Bluff as a means of crossing the river, and belongs to Dickerson.”

The headquarters at the bluff was in a house that had served as the home of the overseer  of Habersham family’s rice plantation at Causton’s Bluff.  At the time the overseer’s home was built, about 1852, Robert Habersham owned at least 89 slaves who worked the plantation. “The overseer had objected to living all year at the plantation, because the miasma made the summer months unhealthful on rice plantations; so a new house was built for the overseer on the southern extremity of the plantation, some distance from the rice fields under cultivation.”

On February 28, 1862 units of 13th Georgia Regiment from Causton’s Bluff  encountered sentries from the Montezuma  who were patrolling the creeks around Wilmington Island in a small boat.

 A wild shootout followed in which one of the Rebels was killed along with two Union soldiers Johann Müller and Louis Herweg. Corporal Anton Mayer and his entire crew of 18 men were taken prisoner by the Rebels. Some of them had been wounded and Franz Etzold, a soldier, died a week later from his injuries. 

A second Federal patrol boat went undetected by the Confederates.

First Lieutenant Alphons Servière was with the second boat. He and his entire crew had to conceal themselves in the thick underbrush of the island. After two days they managed to return to the Montezuma – Ernst Mettendorf,  Zwischen Triumph und Desaster : Ein deutshes Regiment im amerikanischen Burgerkrieg.

 

Another night alert occurred on Tuesday, March 11, 1862 when the Confederate pickets on Whitemarch Island made contact with Federal Scouts. At Battery Beaulieu (pronounced “Bewly”) twelve miles below Savannah on the sea-island cotton plantation of John Schley,  “...at 1 Oclock in the knight we was ordered out on the perade ground and we loded our guns to go to Whitmarsh Island [where] the Yanks made an attack on our men,” wrote Isaiah Smith, a private of Company K, 31st Georgia Regiment, “but we did not get to go before the fight was over so we went to bed again.

Two weeks later, on Tuesday, March 25, 1862 a Federal detail from the Montezuma made another raid on Wilmington Island, taking one civilian prisoner and returning to their base without making any contact with Confederate forces. The captured Georgian was Jacob Dannenfelser who, like the soldiers of the 46th NY Regiment, was a German immigrant.

Dannenfelser told Captain Hinckel of a force of Germans stationed at Fort Pulaski. He noted later that it was a full company of the 1st Georgia Regiment under the command of Captain John H. Stegin. “At that time we were very interested to learn something about the situation over there at the fort,” recalled Captain Horace Porter. “One of our men suggested that the regimental band should play German music. When the Germans at Fort Pulaski hear this, they may want to come over to us. The proposal was quickly accepted. And indeed, on a particularly dark night, the first one came rowing across on a tree trunk. We received a lot of very important information from him.” Colonel Rosa reported this incident to General Sherman. In his letter to the general he wrote, “The defector from Fort Pulaski was named John Hirth. He immediately became a member of the 46th New York Regiment.” – Ernst Mettendorf,  Zwischen Triumph und Desaster : Ein deutshes Regiment im amerikanischen Burgerkrieg.

Regimental Band of the 48th NY Infantry

Regimental Band of the 48th NY Infantry

At Fort Pulaski Lt. Theodorick W. Montfort, of the Oglthorpe Light Infantry, wrote, “I think & fear that our heretofore limited means of communication is now effectually cut off. Two men (Germans) from this for Fort deserted …and have doubtless posted the enemy with our ways, means & time of getting a mail.”

The Confederate troops at Causton’s Bluff had their regimental bands as well, although their music was by no means an enticement to deserters from the enemy. Colonel Marcellus Douglass was advertising for “musicians for the Brass Band of Thirteenth Regiment Georgia Volunteers C. S. A., now stationed at Causton’s Bluff, near Savannah, Georgia. The Instruments vacant are one Bb Bass Tuba, one Bb Trombone, one Bb Tenor, two Bb Altos, and two Eb Altos.”  Later, Lacey E. Lastinger, of the Berrien Minute Men, would serve as a drummer and musician for the 29th Georgia Regiment at Causton’s Bluff.

About March 27, Confederate pickets from Causton’s Bluff while patrolling Whitemarsh Island encountered the Montezuma anchored in Lazaretto Creek  and fired on Captain Hinckel’s men, forcing them to briefly abandon the guns. But the Federals quickly rallied their forces and in the face of superior numbers, the Confederate pickets backed away and withdrew across Whitemarsh Island. The Federals pursued in an armed barge, but were unable to catch up with the Confederate soldiers.

The Confederate German Jacob Dannenfelser, after a week at the USS Montezuma, appealed to the commanding officer to allow him to check on his family back on Wilmington Island. Perhaps seeking Dannenfelser’s collaboration, the Union officer consented; on Sunday morning, March 30, 1862, two union soldiers were detailed to escort Dannenfelser by boat to visit his home.  But a patrol of Confederate scouts from Causton’s Bluff discovered the Federal party upon the return trip and effected a capture.

The affair was recorded in the official report of Colonel Rudolph Rosa:

MARCH 30-31, 1862.—Affairs on Wilmington and Whitemarsh Islands, Ga.

Report of Col. Rudolph Rosa, Forty-sixth New York Infantry.

Tybee Island, Ga., April 3, 1862.
General: In accordance with your orders I arrived at the swimming battery, Montezuma, near Decent Island, on the evening of March 29, 1862, with a detachment of two commissioned officers and thirty men of the Forty-sixth New York. Shortly after my arrival Lieutenant Serviere, having effected the relief of the men in the guard boat near Hunter’s farm, reported that he had been shot at repeatedly by about thirty rebels near Gibson’s farm, without the shot taking effect. On the following day, with four commissioned officers and seventy-five men, I made a reconnaissance on Whitemarsh Island, landing at Gibson’s and marching thence on land to Turner’s farm. From there we were recalled by shots, and found that the small stern wheel steamer [probably CSS Ida] had shown herself near to our boats in Oatland Creek, and had returned after being fired at by the boat’s guard. I then went again across the island to MacDonald’s farm, and returned without meeting the enemy. The topographical results will be embodied in a little sketch.

In returning I heard that by the lieutenant left in command of the Montezuma, leave had been given to Dannenfelser and two men to go with a boat to Wilmington Island, that they had been last seen going into Turner’s Creek, and were now missing. The guard boat was left at the usual place opposite Hunter’s farm over night.

At dawn on the 31st the guard were revised and partly relieved by Captain Hinckel, who then made a patrol to Dannenfelser’s house, and was told that Dannenfelser and the two men had been there for half an hour the previous day, and then had departed. Captain Hinckel also captured a negro in the act of entertaining communication between the fort and Savannah. The guard was instructed to keep a sharp lookout along the shore for our missing men. At noon Lieutenant Serviere was sent to relieve the guard, and with the instruction to search at the same time Gibson’s and Screven’s farms for the missing and for interlopers, but not to proceed farther. At 4 o’clock Captain Hinckel went with the captured negro for verifying his description at the cuts used for smuggling. He came back at 8 o’clock and reported that no trace of the guard and relief boats was to be found….

 

On the Confederate side, Lieutenant George Anderson Mercer, Assistant Adjutant General, 1st Georgia Infantry, was impressed with the action.

George Anderson Mercer, son of Hugh W. Mercer, journaled about the 1861-62 time period when the Berrien Minute Men were stationed at coastal defenses near Savannah.  Image source: <a href="https://archive.org/details/universitiesthei04cham/page/105" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universities and Their Sons, Vol. 4</a>.

George Anderson Mercer, son of Hugh W. Mercer, journaled about the 1861-62 time period when the Berrien Minute Men were stationed at coastal defenses near Savannah.  Image source: Universities and Their Sons, Vol. 4.

 

Pickets from the 13th Regt captured two German soldiers who were carrying off a German Gardener from his place on Wilmington Island. The Yankees were in a boat 700 yards distant; our men fired seven shots with enfield rifles; three passed through the boat and two struck the unfortunate man the enemy were taking off. This was good shooting. – George A Mercer

Excerpt from the Civil War diary of George Anderson Mercer describing actions of 13th GA Infantry Regiment stationed at Causton's Bluff near Savannah, GA

Excerpt from the Civil War diary of George Anderson Mercer describing actions of 13th GA Infantry Regiment stationed at Causton’s Bluff near Savannah, GA

The return of the victorious scouts to Causton’s Bluff with their prisoners and the liberated Dannenfelser in tow was also noted by Private Jenkins  in his diary,

…17 scouts under Adutant [Adjutant] Hill Sent to Whitemarsh Island, who have returned 3, oclock  with two captured prisners yankees and a dutchman citizan of Wilmington Island, who had previously been taken by the yanks, Companies B. C. & G. ordered to prepare immediately under command of Capt Crawford of Co G. -Pvt Cyrus Jenkins

Word of the capture quickly reached Savannah, and the following day a report of events to this point was published in The Savannah Republican of March 31, 1862:

Capture of Yankees.
         Two Yankees, belonging to the Forty-sixth New York Regiment were captured by our pickets yesterday [Sunday, March 30, 1862] under the following circumstances:
        Tuesday last [March 25, 1862] Jacob Dannenfelser, a German, residing on Wilmington Island was at work in his garden, when some thirty Yankees suddenly leaped the fence. He hailed them and asked who they were and what they were about. They replied that they were friends. They had with them a negro man named Sam, the property of Mr. Pinder, whom they released and then laid violent hands on Dannenfelser. They took him to an old hulk lying near Decent Island and there kept him until yesterday. The hulk is armed with a long rifle gun, which the Yankees call their “Field Snake.”
        Yesterday morning Dannenfelser prevailed on his captors to allow him to visit his family with a guard, for the purpose of seeing them and procuring some clothing. He was despatched to Wilmington in a boat with two men. Having procured his clothing, the boat was returning to to the hulk when our pickets on Whitmarsh opened a heavy fire upon the party. The Yankees were unhurt, though their prisoner did not come off so well. He was shot in three places, through the hand, one through the arm above the elbow, and a third across the bridge of the nose, the last mentioned being a very slight one.
         The Yankees, finding the fire rather warm, gave up and rowed to the island in the direction of our pickets, who took them in charge and forwarded them, together with Dannenfelser, to our camp at Causton Bluff. The latter was immediately brought to town to receive medical attention. The prisoners will be brought to town this morning.
        Dannenfelser said that whilst he was on the hulk, a party of Federals were fired upon by our pickets, when they retired and in a short time brought a force of some one hundred men in a barge with a heavy gun in the bow, to attack the pickets. The party were under command of Colonel Rose [Rudolph Rosa], of the 46th New York Regiment. No engagement occurred. The Pickets had retired from Whitmarsh. Being disappointed and not a little aggravated by the annoyance of our pickets, they threatened to burn the houses on Colonel Gibson’s plantation, but retired without executing the threat.

Being alarmed of the presence of Federal patrols on Whitemarsh Island, on that same Sunday afternoon, March 30, 1862, three companies of men were dispatched from Causton’s Bluff; Private Jenkins was among them.

We left the camp about dark, crossed Augustine creek upon oakland Island [Oatland Island], at Caustin Bluff battery. While passing a cross this Island along a narrow path enclosed by thick underwood, all at once all were silent & still as death.! a moment more & the gunlocks began to rattle like fire in a cainbrake! Two seconds & all was again still! A human form was seen! The Capt demanded his countersign. There were two who proved to be pickets for a squad of the 13th left by Adutant Hill [John Dawson Hill] in the evening.

We passed along to the old bridge 2 1/2 miles from Caustins Bluff & crossed the creek on Whitemarsh Island. While here waiting for the other two companies that we had left crossing Augustine creek, A noise was heard in the marsh, mistaken for the tread of human footsteps. All was again hushed. The Capt ordered us to divide on either side of the path that led through the marsh to the high land, & He with two others advanced to the wood. All were now in suspense. I did not like our position. I went to the wood, but before I got there I was releaved by the hissing, & familiar noise of an Alligator.

We now became tired waiting for the rear party & determined to wait no longer. After leaving a picket at our little boat, we proceeded a mile to an old house, but found nothing here. Then from thence to the Gibson place 1 1/2 miles farther with like success, & from thence to the Turner place 2 miles farther. On nearing this place. (It being now 2, oc [o’clock] at night) we perceived that a brillant light in one of the cabins.

The advance guard (of which I was one) had surrounded the house before the party came up. The men on seeing the light smelt a mice, or a yank and began backing scattering out, & cocking their guns. I could not imagine for a time the cause. I first thought they had seen some one in the diriction they were going then I saw their faces & guns all turn to the cabins. I then knew they expected danger from there, I now felt rather in a critical position, for I was near the house & in their full view. I knew I was no yankee but did they know it. I was afraid to speak or move for fear of being fired upon, for a yankee. I stood for a moment & stept cautiously behind the house.

The occupants of the house were negroes left upon the Island. We found no boats here to pass across to Wilmington, & returned to the Gibson Place.

As we neared the place, low depressed coughing was heard. We expected our rear scout, but crept up noiselessly within full view, when Capt demanded who comes there.  A reply came, Friend with the counter sign (all else was perfect silence).  Capt: Advance and give the countersign. All again still for a moment, then rapid cocking of firelocks was heard in every direction, in two seconds more all again silent. Capt again in his usual firm calm voice demanded the countersign. Then a trembling voice: Capt McCallay [James McCauley]. I know your voice, Lieut [William R] Redding Co E [13] th.

We here lay in ambush around the landing untill day (It being now 3, oc [o’clock] ). An hour by sun we, with exception of a small scout party under Adutant  [John Dawson] Hill. went to the Turner place to take our boats for Wilmington, (they were to meet us there).  Just as the boats came Hill sent a messenger for us to go to his assistance, They are coming. We now quicked it back but found when we got there they had turned back.

17 were left under command of Lieut [Bolling H.] Robinson to guard this & the remainder of us went over up on Wilmington. We then started out into two parties, Capt McCallay with, co B, were to go to the Hunter place & from there to the Scriven place & attack the yanks first, while the other party were to go to the Scriven place & there lay in at ambush untill the commencement & then come up in thier rear. But before we had got to the Scriven place we heard sharp firing in the direction. We went double quick (a mile) untill we came in sight, when we saw co G. quickening towards us. Capt [Joel T.] Crawford with his co G. were ordered by Hill back to our fleet of skiffs to prevent being cut off.

He now told Capt McCallay that Hill had ordered him McCalley back. The firing we heard was upon Whitemarsh, between our pickets there & the yanks. After a warm contest wounding one of our m[en] of Co G. they put to water & oarred toward Wilmington near the Scriven place. Company B now doubled quickening back to the boats. We soon after this heard sharp shooting at Scriven place. A few moments more & another volley & all was over. The enemy surrendered 16 in number. One killed three wounded with but two scattering shots from them.

An eight oared barge boat with a six pound field Piece upon its bow, together with their small arms, the prisners were sent on immediately. But some of us were here delayed untill about ten OC  at night when we started for Thunderbolt and after very heavy oaring against the tide we arrived at 3 oc in the morning of Tuesday. (some of the boats however reached Thunderbolt several hours in advance of us).  Here we remained untill morning where I lay upon the ground & Slept untill sun rise, when we again put out for camps and reached them at 9 oc in the morning

The Union account of the engagement was continued in Col. Rosa’s report of the actions of the 46th NY Regiment:

On the evening of the 1st of April we received promptly a re-enforcement of two officers and thirty men of the Forty-sixth New York, and one 6 pounder at the Montezuma. At 10 o’clock in the same night Lieutenants Serviere and Rettig and fifteen men in the relief boat returned and reported as follows: When the relief boat met the guard boat at Hunter’s farm they both proceeded to Gibson’s house, the relief boat in advance, the guard boat (with the small old iron 6-pounder, private property of the subscriber) bringing up the rear. At Gibson’s they saw two men; then Lieutenant Serviere with fifteen men landed and found himself soon engaged in a skirmishing fight with about thirty rebels, whom he successfully drove out of the houses and the farm, killing at least one of them. When the guard boat neared the landing Lieutenant Rettig also jumped ashore, but the helmsman, a canal boatman promoted to a sergeant’s position since two days, suddenly lost his self-possession entirely, backed the boat off, and dropped back with the tide. Lieutenant Serviere then took to the relief boat, which during the time had filled with water, and had to be bailed out, and set afloat again under cover of a chain of skirmishers. They left without any loss, though fired at repeatedly, and then saw in the distance that the guard boat had drifted on the flats between Screven’s and Hunter’s Place; that a fire was opened against it at about fifty paces distance, by, at the least estimation, about sixty men; that the men laid themselves flat on the bottom of the boat and waved their caps as sign of surrender. The relief boat then took to the small creek and swamps between Oatland Creek and Wilmington Narrows, was fast aground over night, and succeeded in coming back late the next evening by way of the narrows and the stockade. The total loss, therefore, consists of eighteen enlisted men, the man Dannenfelser, and about twelve rounds of ammunition. Two boats and one small iron 6-pounder were also lost, being prizes of the Forty-sixth Regiment New York State Volunteers, and not belonging to the United States. There seems to be a determination to keep up at all events the communication to the fort by way of Whitemarsh and Wilmington Islands and the very numerous creeks running through McQueen’s marshes. I most respectfully propose to keep a small armed steam-boat there.
Your most obedient servant,
RUDOLPH ROSA,
Colonel, Comdg. Forty-sixth Regiment New York State Vols.
General Q. A. Gillmore, Commanding.

 

Again, Lt. Mercer was impressed with the work of the Georgian’s at Causton’s Bluff.

These Georgians of the 13th are rough fellows, but full of fight and reckless of life; after the taking of the fifteen Yankees volunteers were called for for Picket duty; the whole regiment volunteered. There is no disposition to avoid a fight among our troops; they covet one only too anxiously — sick and all turn out for it. – George A Mercer

By March 31, 1862 the battery at Causton’s Bluff had been re-fortified.  “There was ferry dock on the river below the fort [Fort Bartow, Causton’s Bluff], since troops crossed the river at this point. This may have been the point where the Confederate ironclads Atlanta and Savannah, and the steamer Ida tied up when they came to Causton’s Bluff.”

The CSS Ida served Fort Pulaski, Fort Jackson, Causton's Bluff and the Savannah River batteries. The Ida made her last trip to Fort Pulaski on February 13, 1862. - <a href="https://www.gutenberg.org/files/47493/47493-h/47493-h.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Fort Pulaski National Monument</a>

The CSS Ida served Fort Pulaski, Fort Jackson, Causton’s Bluff and the Savannah River batteries. The Ida made her last trip to Fort Pulaski on February 13, 1862. – Fort Pulaski National Monument

Also at the bluff was the steamer Leesburg, kept at the disposition of the commanding officer.

On April 5, 1862, Lieutenant William Dixon, of the Republican Blues stationed at Fort Jackson about a mile and a half north of Caustons Bluff, noted in his journal, “Misquitoes and sandflies in abundance…” On the 8th he recorded, “A large rifled gun bursted at Caustins Bluff this afternoon and severely injured 2 men. It is one of three guns made at Richmond all of which have bursted.”

On April 9, 1862 the federal troops on Tybee were further reinforced by the 8th Michigan Infantry, arriving from Port Royal, SC aboard the U.S.S. Benjamin Deford.

USS Benjamin Deford brought the 8th Michigan Infantry to Tybee Island, GA on April 9, 1862

USS Benjamin Deford brought the 8th Michigan Infantry to Tybee Island, GA on April 9, 1862

Finally, on April 10, 1862 the anticipated Federal bombardment of Fort Pulaski commenced.  At Lawton Battery and Camp Tattnall, the Berrien Minute Men were about seven or eight miles from Pulaski, more than close enough for a front row view of the artillery barrage.  Witnessing the thunderous, up close barrage, did the Berrien Minute Men hark back to their time the previous fall on Sapelo Island, when atmospheric conditions caused them to hear the cannons bombarding Port Royal from a distance of 60 miles?  From one tenth the distance, how hellish the shelling of Pulaski must have seemed in comparison.

Bombardment of Fort Pulaski. Currier & Ives.

Bombardment of Fort Pulaski. Currier & Ives.

Assistant Adjutant General  George A. Mercer observing the bombardment from Skidaway Island about six miles distant, reported the scene.

“The earth shakes with a tremendous cannonade. The bombardment of Fort Pulaski commenced early yesterday morning, and still continues with unabated fury. At half past nine oclock yesterday morning I roade over to Skidaway to witness the grand but terrible scene; I remained until after twelve; again in the afternoon I rode over and returned some time after dark. We were six miles off, but we could distinctly see the heavy columns of white smoke shooting up from the mortars on Tybee, and then see the immense shells bursting over the Fort. The enemy fired four and five times every minute, while the Fort replied slowly and coolly. The flag staff was shot away about noon. At the night the sight was grand. The tongue of flame was seen to leap from the mortars and then the flash of the bursting shell appeared just above the Fort.

During the bombardment all lines of direct communication were cut off with the Confederate garrison stationed  at Pulaski.  But Fort Pulaski was within line of sight of Causton’s Bluff. On the morning of Friday, April 11, the fort tried to get a message out; Commanding officer Colonel Charles H. Olmstead:

attempted to signalize to Causton’s Bluff…but such was the fire that no human being could stand on the ramparts for even a moment. Nearly a thousand shell, of the largest size, were thrown into the fort from the Federal batteries.” -Savannah Republican, April 12, 1862

After 30 hours of bombardment the walls of the fort were breached and Olmstead surrendered Fort Pulaski at 2:30 p.m. on April 11, 1862.

The loss of Fort Pulaski in the spring of that year was so disheartening that Governor Brown issued a proclamation setting apart a certain day for “fasting, humiliation and prayer.”…In Atlanta and in other cities, and towns throughout the state, the citizens assembled in the churches to hear sermons suited to the occasion. All business was suspended and the day was solemnly observed. – The Jackson Argus, December 2, 1898

On April 13, 1862, a portion of the Confederates surrendered at Fort Pulaski were loaded on the USS Ben Deford as prisoners of war for transportation to Fort Columbus, in New York Harbor.  Others of the Confederate garrison, including Colonel Olmstead, the commander of the fort,  were taken away as POWs by the steamship Oriental.

Steamship Oriental transported Colonel Olmstead and other POWs to a federal prison after the capture of Fort Pulaski

Steamship Oriental transported Colonel Olmstead and other POWs to a federal prison after the capture of Fort Pulaski

After the fall of Fort Pulaski, Savannah became more vulnerable to an approach to across Whitemarsh Island and St. Augustine Creek, and an assault on Causton’s Bluff.  In a letter to his father , Lt. Charles C. Jones Jr. [Chatham Artillery at Isle of Hope,] expressed the thoughts on everyone’s mind that April when the news of Fort Pulaski’s fall reached Savannah: “If the heavy masonry walls of Pulaski were of no avail against the concentrated fire of those Parrott guns posted at a distance of more than a mile, what shall we expect from our sand batteries along the river?” – Robert S. Durham

Historian Craig Swain observed“St. Augustine Creek, which connects the Wilmington and Savannah Rivers… also lead back east to the waters behind Tybee Island, in close proximity to Fort Pulaski.” 

Soon the 29th Georgia Regiment would be sent to reinforce the 13th Regiment at Causton’s Bluff.

Related Posts:

Campfires of the Berrien Minute Men

Berrien Minute Men

Berrien County, Georgia sent forth in the Civil War two companies of men known as the Berrien Minute Men.

The first company, organized  in the summer of 1861 by Captain Levi J. Knight , was designated at various times as Captain Knight’s Company, Captain Wylly’s Company, Company A Berrien Minute Men,  (old) Company C 29th GA Regiment, (new) Company G 29th GA Regiment.

The second company, organized in the fall of 1861 was successively known as Company B Berrien Minute Men, Captain Lamb’s Company, Company D, and Company K 29th GA Regiment.

For the most part, both companies of Berrien Minute Men traveled with the 29th Georgia Regiment and kept the same campfires, although occasionally they had different stations.

1862 August 29 Capt Levi J. Knight, Jr stationed at Camp Anderson, but absent sick in Savannah

1862 Sept Regimental station at Camp Troup, but Major Lamb absent on temporary “detached service on Savannah River” 1862 October 20Major Lamb transfered from Savannah River Batteries apparently returning to station near Savannah

Company D, Berrien Minute Men at Camp Tattnall, near Savannah, GA; Receipt of supplies, Capt. J. C. Lamb

At Camp Spaulding, Sapelo Island, GA; Levi J. Knight, Jr. elected 2nd Lieutenant, Company C

Date…………………….. Event
1860 November 28 Muster Roll of Levi J. Knight’s Company, the Berrien Minute Men
1860 December 10 Organization of the Berrien Minute Men, Nashville, GA
1861 January 19 Georgia Ordinance of Secession passed ~ John C. Lamb, a signer
1861 May Grand Rally at Milltown for the Berrien Minute Men
1861 May 23 Berrien Minute Men in camp and drilling at Nashville, GA
1861 July Berrien Minute Men encamped with other companies at Brunswick, GA
1861 Summer Berrien Minute Men muster in at Savannah, GA
1861 July 30 Berrien Minute Men and other companies of the 13th Regiment arrive at Savannah, GA via the Albany & Gulf Railroad; Company C issued equipment received by Capt L.J. Knight
1861 August Berrien Minute Men, Company C, 29th GA Regt at Savannah, GA
1861 August 1 Levi J. Knight elected Captain of Company C
1861 August 19 Berrien Minute Men and other companies formally mustered in to the 13th Georgia Regiment, Colonel Cary W. Styles, Commanding
1861 August 20 Berrien Minute Men transported via Brunswick & Florida Railroad (South Georgia & Florida R.R.)  from station No. 9 at Tebeauville (now Waycross), GA some 60 miles to Brunswick, GA
1861 August 28, or abt Berrien Minute Men & 13th Regiment encamped “in the neighborhood of Brunswick”
1861 Fall A second company of Berrien Minute Men was organized – successively known as Company B Berrien Minute Men, Captain Lamb’s Company, Company D, and Company K 29th GA Regiment.
1861 October 2
1861 October 2 Levi J. Knight elected Major of the 29th GA Regiment
1861 October 5 Berrien Minute Men Company D arrived Savannah, GA, mustered in as Company D, 29th GA Regiment. This company was later known as Company K.
1861 October 6 Berrien Minute Men Companies C & D (G & K) embarked late evening aboard steamer at Savannah
1861 October 7 Both companies landed at Sapelo Island, GA
1861 October 11 Berrien Minute Men, Company C, 29th GA Regt at Sapelo Battery, GA
1861 October 12
1861 October 14 John C. Lamb elected captain of Berrien Minute Men “Company B” (Company D, later Company K)
1861 October 16 At post of Sapelo Island Battery, GA; 2nd Lt. Levi J. Knight arrived at this post
1861 October 22 At Camp Spaulding, Sapelo Island, GA
1861 Winter Captain Knight’s Berrien Minute Men company at battery on southern end of Blackbeard Island, GA
1861 Nov 6 Levi J. Knight,Sr takes commission as Major of the Regiment
1861 Nov 28 Col. Randolph Spalding with companies of the 29th GA regt at Camp Lawton near Savannah. It appears the Berrien Minute Men and two other companies remain near Darien, GA
1861 December 1 Near Darien, GA
1861 December 18 At Camp Security, GA
1862 January Darien, GA; Company C (later G) officer’s purchase of “subsistence stores…for their own use and the use of their families”
1862 January 22 At Masonboro Sound, six miles east of Wilmington, NC
1862 February 4 At Darien, GA; John Knight discharged with hepatitis
1862 February 17 At Darien, GA Company B (later D, then K); commutation of beef ration, Capt. J. C. Lamb
1862 February 20 Camp Wilson, GA; Company C & Company D, receipt of firewood by Major Levi J. Knight, Sr; Company D, receipt of fuel, Capt J. C. Lamb

Camp Tattnall, Company C, receipt of shoes, Capt T.S. Wylly

1862 February 21 Captain Wylly’s Company of Berrien Minute Men ordered from Camp Wilson on the night of the 21st to Fort Jackson to relieve the Savannah Republican Blues
1862 March 7 Company C – “the old Berrien Company” “Captain Wylly’s Company” on Smith’s Island (Battery Lawton) supporting Fort Jackson
1862 March Berrien Minute Men at Camp Tatnall, GA
1862 March 13 Camp Tatnall, GA; Company D,receipt of firewood, Capt. Lamb
1862 March 15 Company D,Camp Tatnall, GA; receipt of coffin, Capt. Lamb
1862 March 18 Camp Tatnall, GA
1862 March 20 Camp Tatnall, GA
1862 March 24 Camp Tatnall, GA, Company D; receipt of lumber and shoes, Capt J.C. Lamb
1862 March 26 Camp Tatnall, GA; Company D, receipt of coffin, Capt J. C. Lamb
1862 April 1 At Camp Tatnall, GA; receipt of coffin, firewood, Maj. Lamb; forage
1862 April 17 At Camp Tatnall, GA
1862 April 18 At Causton’s Bluff, GA
1862 April 23 At Causton’s Bluff, GA; Company D,receipt of supplies,Capt J. C. Lamb.  “Captain Lamb’s Company has moved from Camp Tatnall to a place on the river below fort Jackson and about one mile and a half from our camps [Camps of the 50th Georgia Regiment] -Ezekiel Parrish, letter of April 23, 1862
1862 May Company C at Battery Lawton, Smiths Island
Company D at Causton’s Bluff near Savannah, GA, receipt of supplies, Capt Lamb
1862 May 1 At Causton’s Bluff, GA; receipt of coffin, firewood, Maj. Lamb; forage
1862 May 7 Company C – Levi J. Knight,Jr. elected Captain
– Barzilla Knight elected 2nd Lieutenant
 Company D -Jonathan D. Knight, elected Lieutenant
1862 May 7 At Camp Debtford election of officers were held May 7 Thomas S. Wylly elected captain of the Berrien Minute Men
Col. W. J. Young at Causton’s Bluff
1862 May Company C & Capt Levi J. Knight, Jr. at Smith’s Island
1862 May 8 29th regiment at Causton’s Bluff, GA; regiment on picket duty on Oatland and Whitemarsh islands
1862 May 10 Company D (later K) at Camp Debtford Major Levi J. Knight resigns; John C. Lamb elected major of the Regiment;Major Lamb reported for duty at Advanced Batteries, Savannah River, Ga, in place of Major Knight resigned, not willing to be re-elected.
1862 May 13 Major J.C. Lamb at Causton’s Bluff signs certificate of disability for G. W. Fletcher.
1862 May 17 at Causton’s Bluff; Receipt of supplies by Capt J. D. Knight
1862 May 19 Major Lamb absent at “Detached service on duty on Savannah River near Fort Jackson since 19th May, 1862 by verbal order Gen. W. D. Smith”
1862 May 22 at Causton’s Bluff; Wiley E. Baxter elected 2nd Lieut. Co. K; Receipt of supplies by Capt J. D. Knight; receipt of supplies, Maj.
1862 May 26 at Causton’s Bluff; receipt of supplies, Maj. J. C. Lamb
1862 June Major Lamb in command Camp Mackey, Advanced Savannah River Batteries; Captain Levi J. Knight, Jr in command of  Company C at Lawton Battery, Smith’s Island; Col.W.J. Young at Causton’s Bluff
1862 June 1 Company D (later K) At Causton’s Bluff, near Savannah, GA; Receipt of fuel by Capt J. D. Knight
1862 June 2 Company D (later K) at Causton’s Bluff, near Savannah, GA (at this time Causton’s Bluff is an open battery)
1862 June Company D (later K)  Berrien Minute Men at Camp Mackey, near Savannah, GA
1862 June 12 Company D (later K) At Causton’s Bluff, near Savannah, GA
1862 June 19 Company D (later K) At Causton’s Bluff, near Savannah, GA
1862 June 26 Company D (later K) At Causton’s Bluff, near Savannah, GA
1862 June 27 Company D (later K) At Causton’s Bluff, near Savannah, GA
1862 July Company D (later K) At Causton’s Bluff, near Savannah, GA; Receipt of fuel by Capt J. D. Knight; Col. W. J. Young present
1862 July 5 At Causton’s Bluff, near Savannah, GA
1862 July Major Lamb stationed at Camp Troup, but absent on temporary “detached service on Savannah River” ; Captain Levi J. Knight, Jr. at Camp Debtford
1862 July Examination of Officers acting since election of May 7, 1862
1862 July 17 at Causton’s Bluff; receipt of picket tents by Capt J. D. Knight
1862 July 19 at Causton’s Bluff; receipt of supplies by Maj. L. J. Knight
1862 July 27 Picket duty on Whitemarsh Island below Causton’s Bluff and at Capers? Battery
1862 July 30 At Causton’s Bluff, near Savannah, GA; receipt of coffin by Capt J. D. Knight
1862 August Regimental station at Camp Troup, but Major Lamb absent on temporary “detached service on Savannah River” GA
1862 August 27 At Causton’s Bluff, near Savannah, GA
1862 September 2 At a camp two miles from Savannah, GA on Thunderbolt shell road.
1862 September 5 At Causton’s Bluff; receipt of wall tent by Capt. J. D. Knight
1862 September 11 At a camp near Savannah, GA
1862 September 13 At Camp Troupe
1862 September At Causton’s Bluff; receipt of coffin by Capt J. D. Knight
1862 September 25 General Mercer reports seven companies 29th Georgia Regiment at Causton’s Bluff, along with Eight companies 25th Georgia Regiment and three unattached companies (apparently including Company F, 1st Georgia Reserves)
1862 October Company C (later G)  & Captain Levi J. Knight, Jr at Lawton Battery, Smith’s Island
1862 October 1 Pickets of Berrien Minute Men Company D, 29th Georgia Regiment fire on a Federal boat approaching Proctor’s Point.
1862 October 3 Causton’s Bluff, receipt of supplies, Maj. J. C. Lamb
1862 October 4 Company D (later K) In route by train from Savannah to Grooverville, Brooks County; marched to Monticello, FL
1862 October 5 Company D (later K) In route by train from Monticello to Lake City, FL
1862 October 6 Company D (later K) In route by train from Lake City to Camp near Baldwin, FL
1862 October 7 Company D (later K) Picket duty near Baldwin, FL
1862 October 10 Company D (later K) At Camp Finnegan FL; receipt of supplies by Capt J. D. Knight
1862 October 21 Company D (later K) Return from Jacksonville, FL
1862 October 22 At midnight the 29th and 30th Regiment to start by train for Pocotaglio to support Col. Walkers position
1862 October 25 Berrien Minute Men at “a camp near Savannah, GA”
1862 November Company C (later G) & Captain Levi J. Knight, Jr present at Smith’s Island, but “in arrest”
Col W J Young at Camp Young
1862 November 1 Company D (later K) at Causton’s Bluff; receipt of fuel by Capt J. D. Knight; receipt of forage, Maj J. C. Lamb
1862 November Major Lamb Stationed at Camp Young three miles from Savannah
1862 November 9 At a camp near Savannah, GA
1862 November 14 Camp Young, Near Savannah, GA; Receipt of supplies by Capt J. D. Knight
1862 November 14 Causton’s Bluff, receipt of hospital tent by Maj. J. C. Lamb
1862 November 21 Camp Young, Near Savannah, GA; receipt of tents by Capt J. D Knight
1862 November 25 Near Savannah, GA
1862 November 28 Savannah River Batteries
1862 December 1 Camp Young,receipt of forage, Major Young
1862 December 14 Embarked by train to Wilmington, NC
1862 December 16 Company D in Battle of Nashville
1862 December 18 Capt Levi J. Knight, Jr. present at Lawton Battery, but suspended from rank & commission by order Genl Beauregard
1862 December 20 At Kingsville, NC
1862 December ? Col W J Young & Major Lamb present at station Camp Clingman
1862 December 31 Returned by train to Savannah, GA
1862 December 31 Elbert J. Chapman, “Old Yaller” AWOL
1863 January Camp Young, GA; receipt of fuel, Major Lamb
1863 January 1 Camp Young, GA; receipt of forage, Company D; receipt of forage, Major Lamb
1863 January 3 Berrien Minute Men returned to Camp Young, near Savannah, GA
1863 January 7 at Camp Young; receipt of supplies by Capt J. D. Knight
1863 January 7 In route to Wilmington, NC
1863 January 12 At Wilmington, NC; receipt of salt by Capt J. D. Knight
1863 January 15 at Camp Holmes; Receipt of supplies by Capt J. D. Knight
1863 January 21 On station at Wilmington, NC
1863 January 22 Receipt of supplies by Capt J. D. Knight at Camp Holmes
1863 January 31 Receipt of supplies by Capt J. D. Knight at Camp Holmes
1863 February On station at Wilmington, NC
1863 Feb 11 Camp Young, near Savannah, GA; receipt of forage, Major Lamb
1863 Feb 12 Camp Young, near Savannah, GA; receipt of stationary by Capt J. D. Knight
1863 Feb 13 Capt J. D. Knight and Sgt Jonas Tomlinson detailed for 15 days “gathering conscripts” in Berrien County, GA
1863 February 20 At General Review of Infantry and Cavalry at Savannah, GA
1863 Feb 24 At Camp Young, near Savannah, GA; receipt of stationary supplies, Major Lamb
1863 Feb 25 At Camp Young, near Savannah, GA
1863 March 3 At Genesis Point [later named Fort McAllister], Near Savannah, GA
1863 March 6 At Camp Young, near Savannah, GA
1863 March At Camp Young, receipt of forage, Major Lamb
1863 March 12 Reward offered for deserters from Camp Young, near Savannah, GA
1863 March 13 At Camp Young, near Savannah, GA
1863 March 14 Inspection of 29th GA Regiment at Camp Young, near Savannah, GA
1863 March 17 At Camp Young, near Savannah, GA
1863 March 19 At Camp Young, near Savannah, GA
1863 March 27 At Camp Young, near Savannah, GA
1863 April 1 At Camp Young, near Savannah, GA; Receipt of fuel by Capt J. D. Knight; Receipt for supplies, Major Lamb
1863 April 2 At Camp Young, near Savannah, GA
1863 April 9 Berrien Minute Men & brigade dispatched to Charleston
1863 April 19 Returned to Savannah, GA
1863 April 27 Dispatched to Pocotaligo, SC
1863 April 29 at Coosawhatchie, SC; receipt of supplies by Captain J. D. Knight
1863 May 4 Returned to Savannah, GA
1863 May Berrien Minute Men and the 29th GA Regt departed Savannah for Jackson, MS
1863 May 1 At Vaughan Station, MS about 32 miles east of Yazoo City and 1 mile west of Big Black River ; receipt of forage, Company D; Receipt of forage for private horses, Major Lamb
1863 May 12 At McDowell’s Landing, MS
1863 May 13 Arrived at Meridian, MS
1863 May 14 In route by train toward Jackson, MS
1863 May 15 At Forest City, MS
1863 May 17 “fought all day…the battle was awful
1863 May 28 At Deaconsville, MS about 20 miles east of Yazoo City, “six miles west of Vanus Station”; Deserter Elbert J. Chapman captured
1863 May 29 Departed Camp near Deaconsville, MS;
1863 May 30 On the march
1863 June 3 Camp near Yazoo City, MS
1863 June 4 moved to Camp three miles south of Yazoo City, MS
1863 June 5 Camp near Yazoo City, MS (three miles south)
1863 June 18 At Vernon City, MS
1863 June 24 Camp near Vernon, MS; Captain J.D. Knight receives supplies
1863 July 2 At a camp in the field, 25 miles from Vicksburg, MS
1863 July 5 At Big Black River, MS
1863 July 6 Withdrawn from Big Black River, MS
1863 July 7 Marching in retreat toward Jackson, MS
1863 July 8 Arrived at Jackson, MS
1863 July 9 A day of rest
1863 July 10 Ordered to the line of battle near Jackson, MS
1863 July 11 Supporting artillery batteries
1863 July 12 Supporting artillery batteries on the left of Walker’s Division
1863 July 13 Supporting artillery batteries on the left of Walker’s Division;
1863 July 13 Major Lamb killed in retreat from Vicksburg, MS;
1863 July 13 Retreated to a position “across railroad bank”; supporting artillery
1863 July 14 Supporting artillery at railroad bank near Jackson, MS
1863 July 15 Supporting artillery at railroad bank near Jackson, MS
1863 July 16 Supporting artillery at railroad bank near Jackson, MS
1863 July 17 Retreating from Jackson, MS
1863 July 19 At a camp in the field; receipt of clothes; receipt by Capt J. D. Knight of equipment replacements for articles lost in retreat from Jackson
1863 July 20 At a camp in the field near Forest City, MS
1863 July 21 Deserter Elbert J. Chapman executed
1863 July 22 At Scott County, MS
1863 July 23 Camp near Forrest City, Scott County MS;
1863 August 10 Camp near Morton, MS; “Camp in Field” Expense Voucher of Capt J, D. Knight
1863 August 21 Receipt of supplies at Morton MS
1863 August 23 Embarked train in MS bound for Atlanta
1863 September 5 Company K (formerly D) at camp in the field; receipt of shoes, William W. Knight, 2nd Sgt commanding
1863 September 7 Duty at Battery Cheves
1863 September 15 James Island, SC; Magazine explosion kills Seaborn J. Lastinger
1863 September 19 In battle at Chickamauga; Col.Young lost right arm & resigned.
1863 October 18 Camp Near Chattanooga, TN
1863 October 22 Camp Near Chattanooga, TN
1863 October 31 Company K (formerly D)In the field; receipt of clothing “the men being in a destitute condition” Sgt William W. Knight commanding
1863 November 24 Near Missionary Ridge
1863 November 25 Near Missionary Ridge
1863 December 6 Company K (formerly D) Dalton, GA; receipt of clothing, on account of “the destitution of the men,” 2nd Sgt William Washington Knight, commanding
1863 December 31 Dalton, GA; Capt J. D. Knight purchased new uniform
1864 January In winter quarters at camp near Dalton, GA
1864 January 12 Dalton, GA; Capt J. D. Knight purchased new shoes
1864 February 29 near Dalton, GA
1864 March 12 Dalton, GA
1864 March 30 near Dalton, GA
1864 April 30 provost duty inDalton, GA
1864 May Retreating from Dalton, GA
1864, May 11 In battle at Resaca, GA
1864 May 16 Camp near Calhoon, GA
1864, May 17 In battle at Adairsville, GA
1864 May 18 Camp in the field near Cassville, GA
1864 May 21 Camp in the field near Etowah Iron Works.
1864 May 29 Forsyth, GA
1864 June 1 Camp near Dallas, GA
1864 June 5 Camp in the field near Acworth, GA
1864 June 15 In line of battle; near Pine Mountain, GA
1864 June 16 In line of battle near Marietta, GA
1864 June 17 Camp near Marietta, GA
1864 June 19 In line of battle near Marietta, GA
1864 June 20 In line of battle near Marietta, GA
1864 June 21 In line of battle near Marietta, GA
1864 June 21 In line of battle near Marietta, GA
1864, June 23 Battlefield near Marietta, GA
1864 June 24 Battlefield near Marietta, GA
1864 June 26 Supporting General Hindman’s Division
1864 June 27 At Kennesaw Mountain, GA
1864 June 28 Camp near Marietta, GA
1864 July 2 In line of battle near Marietta, GA
1864 July 3 In line of battle near Marietta, GA
1864 July 4 In line of battle, four miles below Marietta
1864 July 5 Withdrawn to works near Chattahoochee River, GA
1864 July 7 Battlefield near Chattahoochee River, GA
1864 July 9 Fell back to pickets south of Chattahoochee River
1864 July 11 Camp in the field, near Atlanta, GA
1864 July 19 In Line of battle near Chattahoochee River
1864 July 20 In line of battle at Battle of Peachtree Creek
1864 July 21 In line of battle near Atlanta
1864 July 22 At the Battle of Atlanta; near Decatur, GA
1864 July 29 Camp near Atlanta, GA
1864 August 7 Near Atlanta, GA; “fought the Yankees”
1864 August 8 Camp in the field near Atlanta, GA
1864 August 12 Camp in the field near Atlanta, GA
1864 August 26 Camp in the field near Atlanta, GA
1864 August 31 Battle of Jonesboro, GA
1864 September 2 Lovejoy Station, GA
1864 October 19 Skirmish at Little River, AL
1864 November 29 Springhill, TN
1864 November 30 Franklin, TN
1864 December 4 Overall’s Creek, TN
1864 December 7 In battle at Murphreesboro
1864 December 16 In battle at Nashville, TN; 29th regiment surrounded and captured

Related Posts:

John Carroll Lamb

Maj. JOHN C. LAMB, C. S. A., AND HIS FAMILY.

john-c-lamb

John Carroll Lamb came with his parents and siblings from North Carolina to settle north of Milltown, GA (now Lakeland) in the late 1840s. He was a son of Margaret Carroll (1799 – 1860) and William Lamb (1782 – 1862).

In 1922, historian Folks Huxford provided the following information on the parents:

Among the early settlers of Milltown and what is now Lanier county, were William Lamb and his family. He was a native of North Carolina, where his family lived near Raleigh. Coming here they settled and lived until the death of the elder Lamb, on the present farm of Nathan Lovejoy, near Milltown.

Mr. Lamb was twice married. By his first wife, whose name is unknown to the writer at present, were born the following children:

Aaron, who remained in North Carolina; Julia, who married a Dr. Hale and who likewise remained in her native state; and Catherine, who married John Carroll of this section.

It seems that the first Mrs. Lamb died in North Carolina, and before leaving there, Mr. Lamb married his second wife, Margaret Carroll, who was a sister to Jesse and James Carroll, early citizens of this county. To this union were born:

  1. John C. Lamb, who married Satira Lovejoy.
  2. Lizzie Lamb, who married Daniel McDonald.
  3. William Lamb, Jr., who married Mrs. Mary Knight, a widow, and daughter of Jesse Carroll.
  4. Edward Lamb, who married Henrietta Griffin, a sister of the late William H. Griffin of Valdosta.
  5. Ann Lamb, who married Dougal McDonald. These two McDonalds were twin brothers.

The Carrolls were likewise from North Carolina, near Wilmington.

The 1850 census records show John C. Lamb in the household of his father in that portion of Lowndes County, GA which was cut into Berrien County in 1856.

1850 Census enumeration of John C. Lamb and family in Berrien County, GA

1850 Census enumeration of John C. Lamb and family in Berrien County, GA

William Lamb, the father, engaged in farming and acquired approximately 1620 acres consisting of  all of Land Lot Nos. 446, 447, 476 and 150 acres of Lot No. 445  in the 10th Land District. He had an estate valued in 1850 at $600 –  a level of wealth equivalent to about $3.8 Million measured in 2012 dollars.

1869 Berrien County Map detail showing location of land lot # 450.

1869 Berrien County Map detail showing location of Land Lots 445, 446, 447, and 448.

In 1850, at age  18 John C. Lamb  was occupied as a teacher.  About 1858, he married Satira Ann Elizabeth Lovejoy. She was a daughter of James L. Lovejoy  and Eugenia  Talley,  of Clinch county, GA and a granddaughter of Methodist minister Reverend Nathan Talley.  John and Satira established their household at Milltown near the plantation of John’s uncle, Jesse Carroll.  To the Lambs a daughter was born, Lillian Eugenia “Jennie” Lamb, in December of 1859.

The Lambs, John C., Satira, and Lillian were enumerated in the Census of 1860 in Berrien County (formerly Lowndes). Also in the Lamb household was John’s brother, Edwin Lamb, age 16.  Before the Civil War, John C. Lamb opened and ran a store in Milltown and his brother, Edwin, clerked. J.C. Lamb was a successful merchant and by 1860 his property was valued at $6500 dollars, making him a multi-millionaire by today’s standards.

1860 Census enumeration of John C. Lamb and family in Berrien County, GA

1860 Census enumeration of John C. Lamb and family in Berrien County, GA

https://archive.org/stream/populationschedu111unit#page/n361/mode/1up

John C. Lamb was appointed as postmaster of Milltown on December 19, 1859, probably posting and distributing mail from his store. On September 29, 1860 he relinquished this position to  his cousin John T. Carroll.

On November 11, 1860, election of Abraham Lincoln was announced.  Before the month was out, on November 28 1860, John C. Lamb joined the “Muster Roll of Capt. Levi J. Knight’s Company of Volunteers, Styled the Berrien Minute Men

The election of Lincoln ignited the call for secession in the southern states. South Carolina was the first to secede, officially withdrawing from the Union on December 20, 1860, and was quickly followed by Alabama, Mississippi and Florida.  Georgia Governor Joseph E. Brown called  a special election on January 2, 1861 to select delegates for a state convention on the issue of secession.  John C. Lamb was elected to represent Berrien County, along with Woodford J. Mabry, at the Georgia Secession Convention of 1861.  When the Georgia Ordinance of Secession passed on January 19, 1861, John C. Lamb was one of the signers of the document.  His participation was documented in the  Journal of the Public and Secret Proceedings of the Convention of the People of Georgia,
Held in Milledgeville and Savannah in 1861, Together with the Ordinances Adopted,  and Lamb’s name appeared on the published Ordinance.

John C. Lamb, of Berrien County, was a signer of the Georgia Ordinance of Secession in 1861.

John C. Lamb, of Berrien County, was a signer of the Georgia Ordinance of Secession in 1861.

When war finally came John C. Lamb and his brothers, William J. Lamb and Edwin Lamb, were among those who volunteered to serve in Captain Levi J. Knight’s Company of Berrien Minute Men.  In August of 1861, he was mustered into the 29th Georgia Regiment Volunteer Infantry at Savannah, originally in Company C, as a private. Lamb took his horse with him to war. Perhaps because of his political leadership, business experience and education John C. Lamb was marked for command.

At Savannah, the campfires of the Berrien Minute Men were initially made at Causton’s Bluff, overlooking St. Augustine Creek and Whitemarsh Island. By August 20, 1861 the Berrien Minute Men were sent to Brunswick, GA with the 13th Georgia Regiment.

On October 11, 1861 three companies of the 29th Regiment including the Berrien Minute Men were stationed on Sapelo Island. They were manning  Sapelo Battery, an earthworks and gun emplacement on the south end of Sapelo Island defending Doboy Sound. The Civil War letters of  Private John Hagan described Battery Sapelo as armed with five cannons the largest of which was a 160 pounder.   He wrote, “We…havent Elected any of our offiscers for the company yet we feel assured that John C. Lamb of mill town will be our Capt…”  By October 14, 1861 Lamb was indeed elected Captain of Company B, Berrien Minute Men.  He received official notification of his commission from the Georgia Adjutant General, and accepted his commission by letter on October 24, 1861.

John C. Lamb to Adjutant General Henry Constantine Wayne, Oct 24, 1861 letter accepting commission as Captain of the Berrien Minute Men, Company B.

John C. Lamb to Adjutant General Henry Constantine Wayne, Oct 24, 1861 letter accepting commission as Captain of the Berrien Minute Men, Company B.

To H. C. Wayne
Adjutant General
Milledgeville, GA

Sapelo Battery, GA
Oct 24, 1861

Sir

Yours of the 17th Inst has been duly rcvd covering commission for myself as Captain of Berrien Minute Men Company B.

I accept the commission and have taken and subscribed to the oath herewith attached.

Very Respectfully Your Obedient Servant

John C. Lamb

March of 1862 found the 29th Georgia Regiment at Camp Tattnall, GA. The Berry Infantry had cleared a campground for Camp Tattnall on January 22, 1862. From Camp Wilson, this new camp ground was “one mile nearer the city, to the right of the White Bluff Shell Road, and named…after old Commodore Tattnall, ‘the hero of the age,”  and the senior officer of the Navy of Georgia. At Camp Tattnall,  the duty of ordering supplies for the unit fell to Captain Lamb.  In addition to the routine requisitions for  shoes, horse fodder, tents, axes, fuel for the camp fires, etc.  Captain Lamb had the unhappy task here of ordering coffins for men lost from his command.

On May 16, 1862 the Berrien Minute Men were sent with the 29th Georgia Regiment to Camp Causton’s Bluff (renamed in 1863 as Fort Bartow).  The station at Causton’s Bluff had suddenly become more significant as Federal forces had captured Fort Pulaski on April 11, 1862 after a 30-hour  bombardment.  Causten’s Bluff overlooked St. Augustine Creek and Whitemarsh Island, and the fall of Fort Pulaski made Savannah vulnerable to attack from that direction.

Captain Lamb was promoted to major of the 29th GA Regiment May 10, 1862, when Major Levi J. Knight declined to be re-elected to the position due to illness.   Jonathan D. Knight succeeded Lamb as company captain . This  re-organization occurred while the 29th GA Regiment was stationed at Camp Debtford, GA.  Camp Debtford was on the Debtford Plantation, situated east of Savannah on the grounds of present day Savannah Golf Course. Debtford Plantation was adjacent to and allied with the Causton’s Bluff plantation. This was just east of Fort Boggs and near Battery Lee.

Major Lamb was detached for a few weeks for service “on the Savannah River near Fort Jackson.”  This site was about a mile and a half from the camps of the Berrien Light Infantry, Company I, 50th Georgia Regiment.  Fort Jackson, officially known as Fort James Jackson, a brick fortification constructed 1808-1812, was considered by General P. G. T. Beauregard  to be “a very weak work.” Beauregard’s October, 1862 inspection of Savannah defenses found armaments at Fort Jackson consisted of two 8″ Columbiads, seven 32 pounder guns, and one 18 pounder gun (from Craig Swain’s discussion of Batteries in the Marshes.)

The following month the 29th Georgia Regiment moved to Camp Mackey, GA, where Major Lamb was placed in command. Camp Mackey was a picket post located on a rice plantation on Mackey’s Point, on the Savannah River. “Many soldiers … lost their lives by disease contracted from the malarious rice fields about Mackey’s Point, below Savannah, where the Twenty-ninth Georgia Regiment was stationed for a long time” (Savannah Morning News, April 29, 1874) .

In July, 1862  it Major Lamb was stationed at the Regimental headquarters of the 29th Regiment at  Camp Troup, but the Major was on detached service at Advanced River Batteries on the Savannah River. In November it appears the Major’s Regimental headquarters were moved to Camp Young near Savannah, and in December to Camp Clingman at Ashville, NC.

While stationed at Camp Young, 20 men of the 29th Georgia regiment deserted.  Four of the deserters were from Company K, the Berrien Minute Men, including Elbert J. Chapman, Albert Douglas, Benjamin S. Garrett, and J. P. Ponder.

John C. Lamb’s father, William Lamb, died near Milltown in 1862 and was buried in Milltown in the old cemetery. John C. Lamb and his brother-in-law, Dougal  McDonald, were appointed executor of his father’s estate. In accordance with the will probated in Berrien County court, John C. Lamb stood to inherit “Land lot No. 446 in the 10th district of Berrien Co…also,  Negro man, Cato, ca 28 yrs old, Negro girl, Senah, about 6 yrs old & horse mule named Ball.” However, Lamb was with the command of the Berrien Minute Men and the rest of the 29th GA regiment, taking part in the battles of the western wing of the Confederate army.

When the 29th Regiment was deployed to Meridian, MS  about late April of 1863, Major Lamb took his horses with him. On May 1, the 29th Regiment halted at Vaughan Station, MS, about 32 miles east of Yazoo City and 1 mile west of Big Black River. There Major Lamb requisitioned and received  forage for his horses.

When the 29th Regiment caught up with deserter Elbert J. Chapman in Mississippi, Major Lamb served as the Judge Advocate for the court-martial.  Chapman was convicted of desertion, but his sentence was withheld while the Confederate Army fled before Federal forces.

This was just after the fall of Vicksburg. The Berrien Minute Men, the 29th Regiment and the rest of the Confederate Army were making a disorganized retreat.

In a battle near Jackson, MS Major Lamb was killed on July 13, 1863.  T 29th had retreated across the Big Black River where they formed a battle line against the pursuing federal forces. From July 9th through the 12th, shelling, skirmishing, and sometimes hard fighting went on.  John Hagan wrote, “on the morning of the 13th shelling began at 8 a.m. & continued till 11 a.m. our Regt suffered again Maj John C. Lamb was killed instantly by a round Ball.  He was on the right of our company & within  2 feet of Capt Knight, J. M. Griffin & myself when he was shot…our men was turablely Shocked but all acted the part of a Soldier.”

William Washington Knight also gave an account of  the death of John C. Lamb.  In a letter to his wife, Mary, written July 22, 1863 from Scott County, MS, between Jackson and Meridian, MS,  Knight wrote, “About ten minutes after fire open Maj Lamb was hit with a twelve pound round shot on the head. It knocked off half his head, kill[ing] him so dead he did not move but very little. He was standing on his feet among or at the feet of our men, in two feet of Jonathan [Knight] and Lt [Wiley E] Baxter.”     It was not until after Major Lamb’s death that the deserter Chapman was executed by firing squad.  Knight himself would be dead within six months; his widow Mary Carroll Knight later married John C. Lamb’s brother, William J. Lamb.

Lamb’s cousin, John T. Carroll, and his father-in-law, James Lovejoy, were the executors of his estate. The following January, they ran the legal announcement in the Milledgeville Confederate Union.

Disposition of the Milltown, GA property of John C. Lamb, 1864.

Disposition of the Milltown, GA property of John C. Lamb, 1864.

Milledgeville Confederate Union
January 26, 1864

Georgia, Berrien County
By order of the Court of Ordinary of said county, will be sold on the first Tuesday in March next, at the Court house door in said county, one improved lot in the village of Milltown, lately occupied by J. C. Lamb, belonging to the estate of the said John C. Lamb, deceased.  Sold for benefits of the heirs and creditors of said deceased.  Terms on the day of sale.

JOHN T CARROLL,  Adm’rs
JAMES LOVEJOY,

Paid $5
January 9th, 1864

The settlement of the estate continued after the War ended.

The estate of John C. Lamb was administered by his cousin, John T. Carroll, in 1867.

The estate of John C. Lamb was administered by his cousin, John T. Carroll, in 1867.

Milledgeville Federal Union
June 4, 1867

GEORGIA, Berrien County.
TWO months after date application will be made to the Court of Ordinary of Berrien County for leave to sell the land belonging to the estate of John C. Lamb, decd.

W E C                                          JOHN T. CARROLL, Adm, r.
May 6th, 1867.                                                                    41 9t.

The land Lot 446,  10th District, which John C. Lamb had inherited from his father, was auctioned October 1867 to settle estate debts.

Administrator's Sale for the estate of John C. Lamb, 1867.

Administrator’s Sale for the estate of John C. Lamb, 1867.

Milledgeville Federal Union
October 8, 1867

Administrator’s Sale.
Will be sold before the Court House door in Nashville, Berrien county, Ga., on the first Tuesday in OCTOBER next, one Lot of Land No. 446 containing four hundred and ninety acres, in the 10th District of said county.  Sold for the purpose of paying debts.  And sold as the property of John C. Lamb deceased.  Terms Cash.

          (W E C)          JOHN L. CARROLL,  Adm’r.

      Aug.    5th, 1867.                                        2 tds.

Folks Huxford provided the following:

During the war, Mrs. Lamb stayed with her parents, at their home in the Stockton district of Clinch county. To Major and Mrs. Lamb only one child was born, Lillian Eugenia Lamb,  who married Hampton Anderson Howell of Milltown.  The children of Mr. and Mrs. Howell were Will H. Howell,  who served as clerk of the superior court of Lanier county, Hamp Howell, Jr., who was postmaster at Milltown, [and Elizabeth Howell].

After the War, widow Satira Lovejoy Lamb continued to live with her parents, James L. Lovejoy  and Eugenia  Talley. In the 1870s, her grandfather Reverend Nathan Talley and his second wife, Martha Travis Talley, were also residing in the Lovejoy household.  Satira’s widower uncle, Dr. James W. Talley had taken Miss Araminta Mississippi Holzendorf as his second wife, and it was undoubtedly through this connection that Satira came to know her uncle’s brother-in-law, Robert Stafford Holzendorf.

A few years after the close of the Civil War Mrs. Lamb married Robert Stafford Holzendorf, who had emigrated to Clinch county with his father, Alexander Holzendorf, and located at Stockton during the war. The Holzendorfs were members of an old Camden county family, who had lived there since the days of the Revolution. Alexander Holzendorf and his family “refugeed” as it was known, from Camden to Clinch on account of the exposed danger of Camden county to the enemy during the war.

To Mr. and Mrs. Holzendorf were born four children, viz.:

  1. James A. Holzendorf, who married Hattie Phillips, daughter of Wm. S. Phillips of Stockton. Mr. Holzendorf was a railroad agent at Stockton a number of years.
  2. Robert Holzendorf, Jr., who married Elizabeth Williams of Greenwood, S. C, and who lived at Norfolk, VA.
  3. A. M. Holzendorf of Waycross, who first married Mamie Penland, and she died, leaving a son, Algeron; and the second wife was Lula, a daughter of Jasper Roberts of Echols county.
  4. John L. Holzendorf, who married Stella Carter, daughter of Irving Carter, and who died in Milltown.

-30-

Related Posts:

Obituary of William J. Lamb ~ died June 13, 1908

William J. Lamb ~ Confederate Veteran

Resolutions of the Berrien Minute Men

How Old Yellow Was Killed

Memorial of Judge Hansell

Judge Augustin H. Hansell spent 50 years on the bench of the of Southern Circuit of Georgia during which he tried many, many cases in Berrien County (see The Misadventures of Mr. Stewart, The State vs Burrell Hamilton Bailey, and Trial and Incarceration of James Thomas Beagles.)  In 1855, The Southern Enterprise reported Augustin H. Hansell was on the state ticket of the American or Know-Nothing Party as candidate for State senator; in this election, the judge advocated for the Brunswick & Florida Railroad and resented the charge that he was a prohibitionist.  He was a representative of Thomas County, GA at the Georgia Secession Convention of 1861, and signed the Georgia Ordinance of Secession along with: John Carroll Lamb, of Berrien County, who would later serve as a captain of the Berrien Minute Men and a major of the 29th Georgia Regiment; and Colonel Carey W. Styles of Ware County, who commanded Captain Levi J. Knight’s company of Berrien Minutemen while they served with the 13th Georgia Regiment at Brunswick, GA.  He was a member of the Constitutional Convention of the of 1877, along with Ray’s Mill (now Ray City) resident Jonathan David Knight.

1907 Memorial to Judge Hansell

1907 Memorial to Judge Hansell

Tifton Gazette
Feb. 8, 1907

Memorial to Judge Hansell

Memorial services in honor of the late Judge Augustine H. Hansell were held at Thomasville Monday afternoon.  Judge Hansell presided over the Southern circuit for fifty years, and there was a large attendance of lawyers from all over the section.  The memorial committee appointed by Judge Robert G. Mitchell to have charge of the exercises consisted of W. M. Hammond, of Thomas, chairman; W. B. Bennett, of Brooks; O. M. Smith, of Lowndes; H. B. Peeples, of Berrien; John A. Wilkes, of Colquitt; J. R. Singletary, of Grady; C. W. Fulwood, of Tift, and R. G. Tison, of Echols.
    Captain Hammond, as chairman of the committee, delivered an eloquent eulogy – reciting the long public service of the honored judge.  A handsome portrait of Judge Hansell adons the court room, where the service was held.

Augustin H. Hansell

Augustin H. Hansell

The following sketch of the life of Judge Hansell is a composite of the memorial given in the Report of the Twenty-fourth Annual Session of the Georgia Bar Association, 1907  and biographical material contained in A History of Savannah and South Georgia, Volume 2, 1913.

JUDGE AUGUSTIN H. HANSELL.

Augustin H. Hansell was born in Milledgeville, Georgia,, on the 26th day of August, 1817. He died in Thomasville, Georgia, on Sunday morning, February 11, 1907. If he had lived until August 26, 1907, he would have reached the age of ninety years. While it is rarely the case that the allotted life of man is extended to the extreme age which Judge Hansell reached, it is still more rare, even to being remarkable, that one who lived for a period approaching a century should have spent nearly the entire time of so long a life in constant activity and service. Judge Hansell was practically “in harness” from his early manhood until the date of his death. From the time he was eighteen years of age until within a few years of his death he was actively and constantly engaged in service to his State and to his people.

******

The father of Augustine Harris Hansell was William Young Hansell, a native of the Greenville district of South Carolina. When William Young Hansell was a child he lost his father, and at the age of twelve came to Georgia to make his home with his uncle, William Young. Making the best of his opportunities he acquired a common school education and then studied law in Milledgeville, and after admission to the bar engaged in practice there. He was one of the eminent attorneys of his time, and his name appears in the Georgia supreme court reports. His active practice continued until 1860, and he then lived retired until his death in 1867. The maiden name of his wife was Susan Byne Harris, representing another prominent family of this state. She was born on a plantation about two miles from Milledgeville, and her father, Augustin Harris, a native of Burke county, was directly descended from one of four brothers who came to America during early colonial times and settled in Virginia. Augustin Harris was a Baldwin county planter, having numerous slaves and being one of the prosperous men of his section. Susan (Harris) Hansell survived her husband until 1874, and she reared two sons, Andrew J. and Augustin H., and five daughters.”

*****

Augustin Harris Hansell… being reared in one of the prosperous homes of Georgia, was given excellent advantages. Prof. Carlisle Beaman was one of his tutors in general subjects, and he studied law under R. K. Hines and Iverson L. Harris. After admission to the bar he began practice at Milledgeville, and for a time served as private secretary for Governor Gilmer.

*****

At the age of eighteen Judge Hansell served with distinction in the War of the Creek Indians of 1836. He was on the staff of General J. W. A. Sanford, of Baldwin county, and by reason of meritorious service was offered the promotion to a Major by General Sanford, but declined such appointment.

*****

Judge Hansell’s family relations were ideal. He was married to Miss Mary Anne Baillie Paine, of Milledgeville, on May 20, 1840. For sixty-six years they lived a perfectly happy married life.  Her father was Charles J . Paine, a native of Petersburg, Virginia, and a physician. As a young man he came to Georgia and was engaged in practice at Milledgeville until his death in 1857. Her mother was Ann Baillie Davies, the daughter of William Davies, a native of Savannah, and granddaughter of Edward Davies, a native of Wales, who was one of the early settlers of Georgia. William Davies also conferred honor upon the legal profession of Georgia, and served as judge of the superior court and was mayor of the city of Savannah during the War of 1812. William Davies married Mary Ann Baillie, the maiden name of whose mother was Ann McIntosh, a daughter of John Mohr McIntosh, the immigrant ancestor of the noted McIntosh family.

The  five children of Mary Anne Baillie Paine (1826-1906) and Augustin Harris Hansell (1917-1907) were as follows:

  1. Susan V. Hansell
  2. Charles Paine Hansell
  3. Mary H. Hansell
  4. Frances B. Hansell
  5. Sally H. Hansell

*****

Judge Hansell was elected to the Georgia Legislature in 1845 and represented the County of Pulaski.

*****

In 1847 he was elected Solicitor-General of the Southern Circuit and served for two years, at the end of which time he resigned to accept the position of Judge of the Superior Court of the Southern Circuit of Georgia, then embracing the greater part of south Georgia. Railroads had not yet penetrated to this region, and he journeyed from court to court in his private carriage.

For some years, until 1850, he was a resident of Hawkinsville, then in Scottsboro two years, and in November 1852 came to Thomasville, being one of the most prominent among the early settlers of this locality.

He resigned the position of Judge of the Southern Circuit in 1853, But went back on that bench in 1859.

*****

Judge Hansell was a member of the Georgia Secession Convention in 1861 and took a prominent part in that historic body. He did not enter the Confederate service in the War between the States on account of the fact that he was Judge of the Superior Court of the Southern Circuit during such war. He, however, gave to the Confederate cause his earnest sympathy and support and actively rendered efficient service and help as Chairman of the Relief Committee from Thomas County. During the siege of Atlanta he went to that city and aided in the relief of the sick and wounded. He was a tower of strength to his people during the stormy days of Reconstruction.

*****

He remained as Judge of this Circuit continuously until 1868, when he was removed from the bench by the Reconstruction Governor of Georgia, Rufus B. Bullock. He resumed private practice for four years, but in 1873 he was again elected Judge of the Southern Circuit and continued to serve in such capacity, being elected term after term without opposition, until January 1, 1903, a period of thirty continuous years in the service of his State.

*****

He was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1877 and did efficient work in that Convention in framing the State Constitution.

He took an active part in the various Conventions of Judges that compiled the rules of procedure and practice for the Superior Courts of the State. He was always present at these Conventions and was President of the last Convention held.

*****

At January 1, 1903 he voluntarily resigned from the bench and retired to the well-earned quiet and rest of his home. During his long career on the bench he made many important decisions and such implicit confidence did litigants repose in his learning and his integrity that appeals were very rarely taken from his decisions. An examination of the cases where appeals were taken, shows that a very small percentage were reversed by the higher Courts.

No better or more accurate statement can be given of his service as a lawyer and Judge than the following, which was written by one who knew him and loved him as a life-long friend:

“Judge Hansell was one of the ablest lawyers in the State, and stood easily among the foremost of Georgia’s great judicial lights. With an unfaltering and unerring hand he held the scales of justice evenly poised, meting out justice without fear or favor to all, to rich and poor alike. With a mind richly stored with legal lore, he made the law so plain that all grasped and comprehended it as it fell from his lips. He was an upright and a just Judge. No higher encomium could be pronounced. He wore the ermine for half a century and laid it aside without blur, blot, blemish or wrinkle. The bar and people of the Southern Circuit, over which he presided so long, venerated and loved him as but few men have been venerated and loved. The highest type of the old-time Southern gentleman, he impressed juries and litigants with the purity of his motives and the fairness of his rulings and charges. To the younger members of the bar he was ever ready to lend a helping hand, ever ready to advise and guide them.

To the officers of his Courts he was courteous and kind at all times.”

*****

During his life, Judge Hansell was chosen for office under every form of appointment and election that has existed in Georgia; gubernatorial, legislative and popular.

In the Report of the Twenty-sixth Annual Session of the Georgia Bar Association, 1909 , John D. Pope wrote, “I venture the assertion that any lawyer, who will undertake to look over the list of Judges appointed by Governors in time gone by, will agree with me that they were among the best that Georgia ever had, and these men were not changed on the Bench after their appointment except by their own will. Look at the lamented Judge A. H. Hansell on the Superior Court Bench for more than a half century! Where is the man in that circuit, or out of it, that knew him personally, or by reputation, who would have opposed him? Why? Because he was just and fearless, and every man knew, when he went before Judge Hansell he would get just what the law gave him, no more, no less: There was no politics there; it was a case of a great man administering the law!”

*****

At the time of his death Judge Hansell was the oldest Mason in the State of Georgia. He always took a marked and active interest in the work of this great order. He was made a Master Mason in the Milledgeville Lodge in 1838. A few years later he became a Royal Arch Mason and a Knight Templar at Macon, Ga. He served as Master of the Hawkinsville Lodge, was High Priest in the Thomasville Chapter and was an officer of the State Grand Chapter. Just a short while before his death he attended the Thomas County Convention of Masons and made a speech that greatly affected his Masonic brothers.

*****

The private life of Judge Hansell and that side of his character, which was known to his friends and his neighbors, is well expressed in the following tribute to his memory, written by the same friend referred to above:

“No citizen of Thomasville was ever held in higher regard or more universally esteemed. For half a century he lived here, going in and out among his neighbors, holding and retaining to the last hour of his earthly existence the respect, esteem and love of all, young and old. His kindness of heart, gentleness of spirit, and never-failing regard for others won for him, during his long and useful life, the sincere affection of all. His life was an inspiration to the young and his precepts and example all point to the loftiest type of good citizenship. He made the world better by having lived in it, and leaving it, left countless thousands to mourn his loss. Few men have left behind a more spotless record, or one more worthy of emulation. The golden rule was his guide through life. His memory will long be cherished by those who knew him, and cherished longest by those who knew him best. The good that he did will still live. It can not be entombed. The rising generation will be pointed to the life and character of this model citizen as an example to be followed, as an incentive for correct and upright living. Surely this is a rich legacy he has left behind him, a legacy far more valuable than sordid wealth.”

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Death Claims Judge Hansell, Feb 10, 1907

Augustin Harris Hansell, Judge on the Southern Circuit of Georgia from the 1850s to 1902, tried many cases in the Superior Court of Berrien County.

Judge Hansell.

Judge Augustin Harris Hansell, who for 50 years  heard the legal matters, criminal and civil, of Berrien county and the Wiregrass region, died on February 10, 1907.

He was a representative of Thomas County, GA at the Georgia Secession Convention of 1861, and signed the Georgia Ordinance of Secession along with: John Carroll Lamb, of Berrien County, who would later serve as a captain of the Berrien Minute Men and a major of the 29th Georgia Regiment; and Colonel Carey W. Styles of Ware County, who commanded Captain Levi J. Knight’s company of Berrien Minutemen while they served with the 13th Georgia Regiment at Brunswick, GA.

A \Ray City case was the trial of J. T. Biggles, who shot his brother-in-law in 1887 then fled the county for 12 years before his arrest.  Other notable cases in which Judge Hansell was involved include the trials of  Jim Hightower (aka James Stewart),   Jonathan Studstill,  and Burrell Hamilton Bailey.

The Atlanta Constitution
Feb 11, 1907  Page 1

DEATH CLAIMS JUDGE HANSELL

Distinguished Georgia Jurist Passes Away at Thomasville.

OLDEST MASON IN STATE

Funeral Will Take Place Today at Thomasville and Six Grandsons Will Act as the Pallbearers.  Judge Hansell Eighty-Nine Years Old.

Thomasville, Ga., February 10.  – (Special.) – Judge Augustus H. Hansell died today at half past 1 o’clock at his home here.  The immediate cause of his death was a fracture of the hip bone, caused by a fall ten days ago.
    He was born in Milledgeville in 1817, and was 89 years old at the time of his death.  He was the oldest Mason in the state having joined in 1838 at Milledgeville, and the Masonic lodges of Thomas county will all attend his funeral at the Presbyterian church tomorrow at 3 o’clock.  Six of his grandsons will act as pall bearers.
    Judge Hansell was admitted to the bar in 1838.  He was elected solicitor general of the southern circuit by the legislature of 1847, and judged of the same circuit in 1849.  He served as judge until January 1, 1903, with the exception of six years from 1853 to 1859,  when he refused to serve. He was removed by reconstruction in 1865, but was reelected in 1873,  and served continuously until 1903.  He was a member of the secession convention in 1861 and of the constitutional convention in 1877.  He served in the Indian War when but 18 years of age on the staff of General Safford, of Milledgeville.  He did not serve in the confederate war on account of his position as judge, but was on the relief committee, which was sent to Atlanta during the siege to relieve sick and wounded.
     He joined the Presbyterian  church in 1837.  He came to Thomasville  in 1852, and was a charter member and elder in the church here since 1854.  
    In 1840 he was married to Miss Annie B. Paine, of Milledgeville, who died six months ago.
    He leaves five children, C. P. Hansell, judge of the city court of Thomasville and assistant secretary of the senate; Mrs. James Watt, Miss Sallie Hansell of Thomasville; Mrs. B. L. Baker and Mrs. J. S. Denham, of  Monticello, Fla. 
    The stores of the town will close during the funeral hours tomorrow.

Augustin Harris Hansell is buried in the Soldiers Circle plot at Laurel Hill Cemetery, Thomasville, Thomas County, GA.

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